Index: Exodus
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Exodus is a historical narrative that likely originated with separate oral units of history that were combined into a written volume. For a general defense of the historicity of the Exodus, click here. On the question of whether the Egyptians would record these events, see a broader article off site here.


Exodus 1:5
How many went to Egypt with Jacob?
Exodus 1:15-16
The king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah, "When you help the Hebrew women in childbirth and observe them on the delivery stool, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, let her live. One Skeptic asks if the Pharaoh would entrust such a task to Hebrew slaves, for measures against the Hebrew people. Well, why not? Slaves were expected to obey the voice of the Pharaoh; rebellion was quite unthinkable to this man-proclaimed god. One may as well ask how it was expected that any OTHER Hebrew would obey in any matter.
Exodus 2:1-10
Does Exodus 2:9 prove that Moses was actually an Egyptian? A look at this claim from the race-based writings of Yosef ben-Yochanon. See also here for an item on the origin of Moses' name and a comparison of hi story to that of the ancient Assyrian king, Sargon.
Exodus 2:18-21, 3:1, 4:18, 18:5
Who was Moses' father-in-law?
Exodus 3:7-8
The Lord said, I have come down to being them up out of the land into a land good and large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. One Skeptic objects, "Far from being a land that might poetically be described as a land flowing with milk and honey, it is, and was within historic times, barren and desolate in the main. In size, it was a little larger than tiny Wales." As any junior high history book will point out, Palestine was part of the fertile crescent. There is plenty of farmland, especially compared with many parts of the Middle East. As far as size, it was definitely spacious compared to the land of Goshen, where they were living at the time. It can't have too bad if they had to drive out the Canaanites to get them to leave.

Exodus 3:18
Did God tell Moses to lie?
Exodus 3:22, 12:35-6
A Skeptic asks how these verses can this be from a God who tells the Israelites, "thou shalt not steal." I ask in reply: How exactly is this stealing? Ex. 12:35-36 says that the Israelities asked the Egyptians for stuff, and the Egyptians gave it to them. Can someone explain how this is stealing -- and how it is any different, in principle, from reparations given to, say, Japanese WWII prisoners in America?
Exodus 4:24-26
What's going on in these verses?
Exodus 6:3
When was the name "Yahweh" known? [Off Site]
Exodus 6:16-20
How can this ancestral line fit into 430 years?
Exodus 7
  • Where did the Egyptian magicians get the water, if Moses turned it all into blood before? -- see related article off site here on whether this was "red tide".
  • On the "hardening" of Pharaoh's heart [Off Site]
  • Exodus 7:7
    How did Aaron survive the killing of the Hebrew babies?
    Exodus 9:3-6, 14:9
    Where did the Egyptians get all their horses if they died in a plague?
    Exodus 11:3
    Would Moses call himself "great"?
    Exodus 12:3, 12:37
    Is this population number realistic? -- includes question of speading the word about the Exodus and other logistical issues. For archaeological issues see also here and here.
    Exodus 12:9
    Was God being unfair to destroy the firstborn? [Off Site]
    Exodus 12:40
    Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years. Is this in contradiction with Gen. 15:13, which says 400 years? No, because Exodus gives the number of years that the people lived in Egypt; Genesis gives the number of years they would be enslaved and mistreated -- the enslavement/mistreatment did not start right away! he promises were made to Abraham and his seed. The last statement of promise recorded was to Jacob (Gen. 28:15), and that is where the 430 years dates from.
    Exodus 13:17
    Is the mention of the Philistines an anachronism? This foundational article deals with the general problem of alleged Biblical anachronisms and links to an answer to the issue of this verse.
    Exodus 15:3
    Is God a God of war, or peace?
    Exodus 15-17
    "Why isn't there more documentation of the spectacular splitting of the Red Sea?" [Off Site] -- part of a larger essay
    Exodus 17:2-7
    Does this pericope support the JEDP hypothesis?
    Exodus 20
  • Which is the real Ten Commandments?
  • Did the Israelites "rip off" their laws from Hammurabi or elsewhere?
  • Exodus 20:4
    Does the Bible indicate violations of the command against graven images?
    Exodus 20:5
    "This says that God is a jealous God! Isn't jealousy a sin??" -- The word for "jealousy" in this form is used less than half a dozen times in the OT, and always is used to describe God. Nowhere is this word described as a sin. A related word is used to describe a husband who worries that his wife is walking out on him (Numbers 5). Sarna (Exodus commentary, 110) notes that the root of the word means "to become intensely red" and that it can refer to ardor, zeal, rage, or jealosuly. Paul knows of a godly jealousy (2 Cor. 11:2), so is this a sin as we understand it? Jealousy is part of God's nature because it is demanded by who He is -- He is the only being who can indeed say He has a right to be jealous, since He is the only one who truly deserves utter respect and devotion. Malina in The New Testament World [126-7] adds that in the context of an honor-based world, jealousy was "a form of protectiveness that would ward off the envious and their machinations." It is a behavior that an honorable person is expected to "exhibit towards that which he or she is perceived to possess exclusive access." Thus for God to be jealous here is not a vice in context, but a supreme virtue and demonstration of His concern for Israel. (For more, see here.) [Off Site]
    Exodus 20:13
    How can God say "Thou shalt not kill" yet order and perform so many killings? -- an exegesis of this famous command.
    Exodus 20:17
    Is the Bible contradictory about coveting?
    Exodus 20:26
  • "Why does God care so much about exposure?"
  • Does this contradict the demand for centralized worship?
  • Exodus 21:22-5
    On this verse -- and abortion
    Exodus 22:2-3
    Is this law absurd?
    Exodus 22:29
    Does God endorse human sacrifice?
    Exodus 22:31
    Is the law contradictory about eating carrion?
    Exodus 23:20-33
    Did God fail on his promise of land?
    Exodus 23:31
    Is the mention of the Philistines an anachronism? This foundational article deals with the general problem of alleged Biblical anachronisms and links to an answer to the issue of this verse.
    Exodus 24:9-11
    Can God be seen, or not?
    Exodus 25:18
    Does this verse violate the command against graven images?
    Exodus 28:42-3
    Silly complaint: "Why does God care so much about underwear???"
    Exodus 31:17
    Does God ever get tired?
    Exodus 32:14
    Does God change his mind?
    Exodus 33:20
    Can God be seen, or not?
    Exodus 34
    Which is the real Ten Commandments?