Archaeologists of the Christian Faith:

Ancient Evidence for the Bible … in Spades


Compiled by W. R. Miller



Archaeology or archeology: n. The scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other remains. – Webster’s College Dictionary.



            The value of archaeology is that it can help to verify – or deny – the trustworthiness of ancient historical documents.


            “Significantly, even liberal theologians, secular academics, and critics generally cannot deny that archaeology has confirmed the biblical record at many points,” write Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon (


            In his book, What Mean These Stones?, Millar Burrows wrote, “Archaeological work has unquestionably strengthened confidence in the reliability of the Scriptural record.  More than one archaeologist has found his respect for the Bible increased by the experience of excavation in Palestine.” Burrows was director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem at the time the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered.


            The following is a compilation of biographies of archaeologists and associated scholars, who through their research, have become convinced of the veracity of the ancient documents collectively called the Bible.  Among them are former critics -- William F. Albright, Nelson Glueck, George Ernest Wright, Sir William Ramsay, A. H. Sayce, and Dr. Clifford Wilson – whose views changed as they examined, first-hand, the archaeological evidence.


            See the Appendixes for further information.



William F.  Albright / William Foxwell Albright

(1891-1971).  Born in Chile. Biblical scholar, author, archaeologist, biblical archaeologist. Menno, SD, high school principal, 1912-13; American School of Oriental Research, director, 1921-29, chairman, beginning 1929; John Hopkins University, W.W. Spencer professor of Semantic  linguistics, 1929-58, professor emeritus, 1958.  Education: Upper Iowa University, B.A. (classics), 1912; John Hopkins University, Ph.D. (archaeology and linguistics), 1916.

Awards: Fellowship, John Hopkins University, 1913; Thayer fellowship, American School of Oriental Research, 1919; Worthy Nobleman of Jerusalem Award, 1969.

Author: The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible, Fleming H. Revell (New York, NY), 1932; Recent Discoveries in Bible Lands, Funk & Wagnalls (New York, NY), 1936, Biblical Colloquium (Pittsburgh, PA), 1956; From the Stone Age to Christianity, Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, MD), 1940; Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, MD), 1942; The Archaeology of Palestine, Penguin (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England), 1949, revised edition, Penguin (Baltimore, MD), 1954; The Bible After Twenty Yeaars of Archaeology, 1932-1952, Biblical Colloquium (Pittsburgh, PA), 1954; The Biblical Period, [Pittsburgh, PA], 1955; History, Archaeology, and Christian Humanism, McGraw-Hill (New York, NY), 1964; The Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions and Their Decipherment, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1966; Archaeology, Historical Analogy & Early Biblical Tradition, Louisiana State University Press (Baton Rouge, LA), 1966; (With T.O. Lambdin) The Evidence of Language, Cambridge University Press, 1966; New Horizons in Biblical Research, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1966; Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1968; (With others) The Scrolls and Christianity: Historical and Theological Significance, editor, introduction and concluding chapter by Matthew Black, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (London, England), 1969; (Introduction, translation, and notes with C.S. Mann) Matthew, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1971.   Served as editor of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1931-68. Served as senior editor of the Anchor Bible series. Contributor to The Amarna Letters from Palestine [and], Syria, the Philistines, and Phoenicia, Cambridge University Press, 1966. Albright's 350 articles in scholarly journals are indexed in the Bulletin of American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR). A biography is Leona Glidden Running and David Noel Freeman, William Foxwell Albright (1975). An obituary is in the New York Times, Sept. 20, 1971.]

Realms of Faith, (February 28, 2004), “Christian Authors Database.”

Wikipedia, (February 28, 2004), “William F. Albright.*”

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

William F. Albright.  “Retrospect and Prospect in New Testament Archaeology,” in The Teacher’s Yoke, ed. By E. Jerry Vardaman (Waco, Texas: Baylor University, 1964), p. 288ff. Quoted by Norman Geisler and Ron Brooks, When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences (Wheaton, IL: Victor, 1990), p. 202.  ‘All radical schools in New Testament criticism which have existed in the past or which exist today are pre-archaeological, and are therefore, since they were built in Der Luft [in the air], quite antiquated today.’”

William F. Albright.  Archaeology of Palestine, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Pelican Books, 1960.  p. 225.   “The contents of our Pentateuch are, in general, very much older than the date at which they were finally edited; new discoveries continue to confirm the historical accuracy of the literary antiquity of detail after detail in it.  Even when it is necessary to assume later additions to the original nucleus of Mosaic tradition, these additions reflect the normal growth of ancient institutions and practices, or the effort made by later scribes to save as much as possible of extant traditions about Moses.  It is, accordingly, sheer hypercriticism to deny the substantially Mosaic character of the Pentateuchal tradition.” 

William F. Albright.  Christian Century, November 19, 1958, p. 1329.  “The narratives of the patriarchs, of  Moses and the exodus, of the conquest of Canaan, of the judges, the monarchy, exile and restoration, have all been confirmed and illustrated to an extent that I should have thought impossible forty years ago.”

William F. Albright.  Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1956, p. 176. “There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of the Old Testament tradition.”

William F. Albright.  Recent Discoveries in Bible Lands, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1955, p. 128.  The Dead Sea Scrolls prove “conclusively that we must treat the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible with the utmost respect and that the free emending of difficult passages in which modern critical scholars have indulged cannot be tolerated any longer.”

William F. Albright.  From Stone Age to Christianity, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1946, p. 23. “Thanks to the Qumran discoveries, the new Testament proves to be in fact what it was formerly believed to be: the teaching of Christ and his immediate followers between cir. 25 and cir. 80 A.D.”

William F. Albright. The Archaeology of Palestine, rev. edition.  Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Pelican Books, 1960, pp.127, 128. “The excessive scepticism shown toward the Bible by important historical schools of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, certain phases of which still appear periodically, has been progressively discredited.  Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of innumerable details, and has brought increased recognition to the value of the Bible as a source of history.”

William F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine. Baltimore: Penquin Books, 1960, p. 229. “Biblical Historical data are accurate to an extent far surpassing the ideas of any modern critical students, who have consistently tended to err on the side of hyper criticism.”


E. M. Blaiklock / Edward Musgrave Blaiklock

(1903 – 1983). University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, lecturer, 1927-37, senior lecturer in classics, 1937-47, professor of classics, 1947-68, professor emeritus, 1968--. Public orator, University of Auckland, 1958-69. President, Baptist Union of New Zealand, 1971, New Zealand Bible Training Institute, and Scripture Union of New Zealand. Education: University of Auckland, M.A., 1925.

Blaiklock produced a long series of Bible-reading notes for the Scripture Union together with a number of books on his favourite biblical theme, the historical background of the New Testament; popularising but never shallow and always based on sound scholarship, these gave him an international reputation as a biblical scholar. In New Zealand at the same time he came to be regarded as a champion of traditional Christian belief against the inroads of liberal scholarship and doctrine.”

--Dictionary of New Zealand biography,

Memberships: P.E.N.  Baptist.

Awards: Litt.D., University of Auckland, 1945, for The Male Characters of Euripides: A Study in Realism; officer, Order of the British Empire, 1974.

Author: The Christian in Pagan Society, Tyndale, 1951. The Seven Churches, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1951. The Male Characters of Euripides: A Study in Realism, New Zealand University Press, 1952. Out of the Earth: The Witness of Archaeology to the New Testament, Eerdmans, 1957, 2nd edition, 1961. Faith Is the Victory: Studies in the First Epistle of John, Eerdmans, 1959. Rome in the New Testament, Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1959. The Acts of the Apostles: An Historical Commentary, Eerdmans, 1959. The Century of the New Testament, Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1962. (Contributor) James D. Douglas, editor, New Bible Dictionary, Tyndale, 1962. (Contributor) Pictorial Bible Dictionary, Zondervan, 1962. Our Lord's Teaching on Prayer, Zondervan, 1964. From Prison in Rome: Letters to the Philippians and Philemon, Zondervan, 1964. Ten Pounds an Acre, A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1965. The Young Man Mark: Studies in Some Aspects of Mark and His Gospel, Paternoster Press, 1965, published as In the Image of Peter, Moody, 1969. Cities of the New Testament, Revell, 1965. (Under pseudonym Grammaticus) Hills of Home, Tri-Ocean, 1966. St. Luke, Eerdmans, 1966. (Contributor) Dictionary of Practical Theology, Eerdmans, 1967. (Under pseudonym Grammaticus) Green Shade, A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1968. The Way of Excellence: A New Translation and Study of I Corinthians 13 and Romans 12, Pickering & Inglis, 1968. St. Luke, Scripture Union, 1968. (With son, David A. Blaiklock) Is It, or Isn't It?: Why We Believe in the Existence of God, Zondervan, 1968 (published in England as This Faith or That, Pickering & Inglis, 1969). Layman's Answer: An Examination of the New Theology, Judson, 1968. (Editor and contributor) Pictorial Bible Atlas, Zondervan, 1969. Word Pictures from the Bible, Pickering & Inglis, 1969, Zondervan, 1971.

The Archaeology of the New Testament, Zondervan, 1970, revised edition, 1975, revised and updated edition, Nelson, 1984. The Psalms of the Great Rebellion: An Imaginative Exposition of Psalms 3 to 6 and 23, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1970. Romans, Eerdmans, 1971. (Editor and contributor) Why I Am Still a Christian, Zondervan, 1971. The Pastoral Epistles: A Study Guide to the Epistles of I and II Timothy and Titus, Zondervan, 1972. (With D. A. Blaiklock) Why Didn't They Tell Me?, Zondervan, 1972. Who Was Jesus?, Moody, 1974. The Positive Power of Prayer, Regal Books, 1974. Blaiklock's One Volume Commentary on the Bible, Revell, 1977.  Letter to Children of Light: A Bible Commentary for Laymen in 1, 2, 3 John, Regal Books, 2nd edition, 1977. First Peter, Word Books, 1977. Commentary on the Psalms, Scripture Union, 1977, Volume I: Psalms for Living: Psalms 1-72, Volume II: Psalms for Worship: Psalms 73-150; The Answer's in the Bible, Hodder & Stoughton, 1978. Romans, Scripture Union, 1978.  Luke, Scripture Union, 1978. Meditations on the Psalms, four volumes, Scripture Union, 1979. Acts: The Birth of the Church, Revell, 1979. The World of the New Testament, Arc Publishing, 1979, reprinted as: The Compact Handbook of New Testament Life, Bethany House, 1989.  Blaiklock's Handbook to the Bible, Revell, 1980, reprinted as: Today's Handbook fo Bible Characters, Bethany House, 1987. (Translator) Thomas a Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, Thomas Nelson, 1980. Eight Days in Israel, Ark Press, 1980. Kathleen: A Record of Sorrow, Hodder & Stoughton, 1980. Blaiklock's Book of Bible Persons, Ark Press, 1981. (Translator) Thomas a Kempis, Brother Lawrence, Thomas Nelson, 1982. (Translator) The Practice of the Presence of God: Based on the Conversations, Letters, Ways, and Spiritual Principles of Brother Lawrence, as well as on the Writings of Joseph de Beaufort, Thomas Nelson, 1982. The Confessions of Saint Augustine: A New Translation with Introductions, Thomas Nelson, 1983. (Editor with R. K. Harrison) The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology, Zondervan, 1983. (Translator with C.C. Keys) The Little Flowers of Saint Frances: The Acts of Saint Francis and His Companions, Servant Books, 1985. Also author of monographs on classical and religious subjects; archaeological editor of Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Zondervan. Columnist, under pseudonym Grammaticus, in Auckland Weekly News, 1942--. Contributor of editorials, articles, and reviews to classical journals in United States and United Kingdom and to New Zealand newspapers.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

E. M. Blaiklock, “Editor’s Preface,” The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Regency Reference Library/Zondervan, 1983), pp. vii-viii, emphasis added.

“Near Eastern archaeology has demonstrated the historical and geographical reliability of the Bible in many important areas. By clarifying the objectivity and factual accuracy of biblical authors, archaeology also helps correct the view that the Bible is avowedly partisan and subjective. It is now known, for instance, that, along with the Hittites, Hebrew scribes were the best historians in the entire ancient Near East, despite contrary propaganda that emerged from Assyria, Egypt, and elsewhere.”

E. M. Blaiklock, Christianity Today, September 28, 1973, p. 13.

“Recent archaeology has destroyed much nonsense and will destroy more. And I use the word nonsense deliberately, for theories and speculations find currency in biblical scholarship that would not be tolerated for a moment in any other branch of literary or historical criticism.”


Daniel C. Browning

(1956- ).  American scholar.  Archaeologist; Biblical Backgrounds; Research: Biblical backgrounds; culture of New Testament times; archaeological field work; Career history: Instructor, Texas Christian University, 87-89; Teaching Fellow, 85-87, Adjunct Instr, 87-89, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary; Instructor, 88-90, Tarrant County Jr. College; Asst Professor, 90-93, Assoc Professor, 93-, William Carey College.  Education: University Alabama Huntsville, BSE, 80; MDiv, 84, PhD, 88, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Awards: Endowment for Biblical Research/American Schools of Oriental Research Travel Grant, 84; Research Fellow, Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem, 88; Outstanding Faculty Member 95/96, William Carey College (Student Government Assoc Award), 96; Teaching Excellence Grants William Carey College, 93-97.

Member: American Schools of Oriental Research; Israel Exploration Society; Society of Biblical Lit.

Author: Land of Goshen, Biblical Illustrator 19, 93; The Other Side of the Sea of Galilee, Biblical Illustrator, 20, 94; Standards of Greatness in the First Century, Biblical Illustrator 21, 95; Coauthor, Of Seals and Scrolls, Biblical Illustrator 22, 96; Author, The Strange Search for the Ashes of the Red Hefer, Biblical Archaeologist, 96; The Hill Country is Not Enough for Us: Recent Archaeology and the Book of Joshua, Southwestern Journal of Theology, 98; Jesus as Carpenter, Biblical Illustrator, 98; Iron Age Loom Weights from Timnah, Tell Batash (Timnah) II: The Finds from the Iron Age II, forthcoming.


F. F. Bruce / Frederick Fyvie Bruce

(1910-1990).  Scottish scholar. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, lecturer in Greek, 1934-38; University of Leeds, Leeds, England, lecturer in Greek, 1938-47; University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, professor of Biblical history and literature, 1947-59; University of Manchester, Manchester, England, Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis, 1959-78, professor emeritus, 1978-90.  Education: University of Aberdeen, M.A., 1932; Cambridge University, B.A., 1934, M.A., 1945; University of Vienna, graduate study, 1934-35.

Member: Society for Old Testament Study (president, 1965), Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas (president, 1975), Victoria Institute (president, 1958- 65), British Academy (fellow).

Awards: D.D., University of Aberdeen, 1957; Burkitt Medal for Biblical Studies, British Academy, 1979; Litt.D., University of Sheffield, 1988.

Author: The Books and the Parchments, Pickering & Inglis, 1950.  Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Paternoster, 1956.   The Spreading Flame, Paternoster, 1958.  The English Bible, Lutterworth, 1961.  Israel and the Nations, Paternoster, 1963.   An Expanded Paraphrase of the Epistles of Paul, Paternoster, 1965.   New Testament History, Doubleday, 1971.  Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free, Eerdmans, 1978.  Men and Movements in the Primitive Church, Paternoster, 1979.  In Retrospect: Remembrance of Things Past, Pickering & Inglis, 1980. The Hard Sayings of Jesus, Hodder & Stoughton, 1983.  The Work of Jesus, Kingsway, 1984. The Real Jesus, Hodder & Stoughton, 1985.  Paul and His Converts, Highland Books, 1985.  A Mind for What Matters, Eerdmans, 1990.  Also author of The Pauline Circle, 1985; also author of commentaries on various books of the Bible. Contributor of articles to philology and theology journals. Editor of Evangelical Quarterly, 1949-80, and Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 1957-71.

Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2000.

F.F. Bruce.  “Archaeological Confirmation of the New Testament,” Revelation and the Bible.  Edited by Carl Henry.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1969.   “Where Luke has been suspected of inaccuracy, and accuracy has been vindicated by some inscriptional evidence, it may be legitimate to say archaeology has confirmed the New Testament record.”

F.F. Bruce. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Downers Grove, IL 60515, Inter-Varsity Press, 1964. pp. 33, 44-46. “The earliest preachers of the gospel knew the value of … first-hand testimony, and appealed to it time and again.  ‘We are witnesses of these things,’ was their constant and confident assertion.  And it could have been by no means so easy as some writers seem to think to invent words and deeds of Jesus in those early years, when so many of His disciples were about, who could remember what had and had not happened.

 “And it was not only friendly eyewitnesses that the early preachers had to reckon with; there were others less well disposed who were also conversant with the main facts of the ministry and death of Jesus.  The disciples could not afford to risk inaccuracies (not to speak of willful manipulation of the facts), which would at once be exposed by those who would be only too glad to do so.  On the contrary, one of the strong points in the original apostolic preaching is the confident appeal to the  knowledge of the hearers; they not only said, ‘We are witnesses of these things,’ but also, ‘As you yourselves also know’ (Acts 2:22).  Had there been any tendency to depart from the facts in any material respect, the possible present of hostile witnesses in the audience would have served as a further corrective.”  


Millar Burrows.

(1889-1990). Millar Burrows was a Presbyterian minister, biblical scholar, educator, and author. In 1947, while Burrows was serving as director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. Education: Cornell University, B.A., 1912; Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY, M.Div., 1915; Yale University, Ph.D., 1925. Memberships: American Academy of Religion, American Oriental Society, Society of Biblical Literature (president, 1954), American Academy of Arts and Sciences (fellow emeritus), Society for Old Testament Study (England; honorary member). Ordained Presbyterian minister, 1915; pastor of Presbyterian churches in rural Texas, 1915-19; Interchurch World Movement, New York, NY, rural survey supervisor for Texas, 1919-20; Tusculum College, Greenville, TN, professor of Bible and college pastor, 1920-23; Brown University, Providence, RI, assistant professor, 1925-29, associate professor, 1929-32, professor of Biblical literature and history of religions, 1932-34; Yale University, New Haven, CT, professor of Biblical theology, 1934-58; writer and researcher. Visiting professor at American University of Beirut, 1930-31; director of American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, 1931-32, 1947-48; president of American Schools of Oriental Research, 1934-48.

Member of American Middle East Relief, 1954.

Author:  Founders of Great Religions, Scribner, 1931. What Mean These Stones?, American Schools of Oriental Research, 1941. Outline of Biblical Theology, Westminster, 1946. Palestine Is Our Business, Westminster, 1949. The Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking, 1955. More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking, 1958. Diligently Compared, Thomas Nelson, 1964. (Contributor) Harry Thomas Frank and William L. Reed, editors, Translating and Understanding the Old Testament: Essays in Honor of Herbert Gordon May, Abingdon, 1970. (Contributor) James L. Crenshaw and John T. Wiles, editors, Essays in Old Testament Ethics, Ktav, 1974. Jesus in the First Three Gospels, Abingdon, 1977. Contributor to numerous journals in his field.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 291.  Cited in Josh McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict (Arrowhead Springs, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ, 1972) p. 66. “Archaeology has in many cases refuted the views of modern critics. It has been shown in a number of instances that these views rest on false assumptions and unreal, artificial schemes of historical development....”

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 176.  “The excessive skepticism of many liberal theologians stems not from a careful evaluation of the available data, but from an enormous predisposition against the supernatural.”

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 1. “On the whole, however, archaeological work has unquestionably strengthened confidence in the reliability of the Scriptural record.  More than one archaeologist has found his respect for the bible increased by the experience of excavation in Palestine.”

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 42. “On the whole such evidence as archaeology has afforded thus far, especially by providing additional and older manuscripts of the books of the Bible, strengthens our confidence in the accuracy with which the text has been transmitted through the centuries.”

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 52.  “Another result of comparing New Testament Greek with the language of the papyri is an increase of confidence in the accurate transmission of the text of the New Testament itself.” 

Millar Burrows.  What Mean These Stones?  New York: Meridian Books, 1956, p. 2.  The texts “have been transmitted with remarkable fidelity, so that there need be no doubt whatever regarding the teaching conveyed by them.”


Thomas John Drobena

(Born 1934).  Minister.  Educator.  Co-pastor, Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Torrington, Conn., 1986; pastor, St. John, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, 1981-86; pastor, St. John, St. Clair, Pennsylvania, 1981-86; pastor, Holy Emmanuel, Mahoney City, Pennsylvania, 1981-86; pastor, Ascension Lutheran Church, Binghamton, N.Y., 1969-78; prin., St. Mark's Lutheran Church, Brooklyn, 1968-69; English pastor, Redeemer Lutheran Church, Jerusalem, 1967-68. Adjunct Professor SUNY, Binghamton, 1975-77; chairperson Global Missions, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Chicago, 1985; V.P., treasurer Slavic Heritage Institute., Torrington, 1965.  Education: BA, Valparaiso University, 1964; ThB, Concordia Theological Seminary., 1961; MDiv, Concordia Theological Seminary., 1974; MA, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1968; PhD, California Graduate School of Theology, 1975; STM, Lutheran Theological Seminary., 1986; DSc, London University,. Certification: Ordained to ministry Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 1962. Civil/Military Service: Chaplain Civil Air Patrol USAFA, 1964; board dirs. ARC, 1986; pres. Crimestoppers, 1988, New England Historical Society, 1990; co-chair International relations committee ELCA-Slovak Zion Synod, 1995.

Member: Fellow Istituto Slovacco; American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, America Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, Czechoslovak Society for the Arts and Sciences, New England Lutheran Historical Society (pres. 1990, editor Journal of New England, Lutheran Historical Society 1995).

Co-author: Heritage of the Slavs, 1976; editor The Zion, 1995-, Slovo, 1998; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2005.

In McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict (1975 ed), p. 65, citing John Warwick Montgomery, “Evangelicals and Archeology,” Christianity Today, August 16, 1968, pp. 47-48.

“[American Institute of Holy Land Studies] researcher Thomas Drobena cautioned that where archaeology and the Bible seemed to be in tension, the issue is almost always dating, the most shaky area in current archaeology and the one at which scientific a priori and circular reasoning often replace solid empirical analysis.”


Nelson Glueck

(1900-1971).  American archaeologist, College President. Discovered King Solomon's copper mines, over 1000 artifacts in Trans-Jordan, the Negev, using Bible as guide, 1930s; president, Hebrew Union College, 1947-71.  American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, Palestine, Morgenthau fellow, 1928-29; Hebrew Union College (now Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion), Cincinnati, OH, instructor, 1929-31, assistant professor, 1932-33, associate professor, 1934-35, professor of Bible and biblical archaeology, 1936-71, president, 1947-50 (also president of Jewish Institute of Religion, New York, 1949-50); Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, New York, and Jerusalem, president, 1950-1971. University of Cincinnati, lecturer on biblical literature, 1932-36; American Schools of Oriental Research, director in Jerusalem, 1932-33, 1936-40, 1942-47, annual professor in Baghdad, 1933-34, and field director in Baghdad, 1942-47. Director of archaeological excavations at Khirbet Tannur and Tell-el-Kheleifeh, and member of exploration and survey teams elsewhere in Palestine and Transjordan. Trustee of American Schools of Oriental Research, John F. Kennedy Memorial Library, and Cincinnati Art Museum.  Education: Hebrew Union College (now Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion), Cincinnati, OH, B.H.L., 1918, Rabbi, 1923; University of Cincinnati, A.B., 1920; University of Jena, Ph.D., 1926.

Member: American Philosophical Society, American Schools of Oriental Research, American Oriental Society, Archaeological Institute of America, Israel Exploration Society, Central Conference of American Rabbis, Phi Beta Kappa; Explorers Club and P.E.N. (both New York), Literary Club and University Club (both Cincinnati), Cosmos Club (Washington, DC), Harvard Club (Boston).

Awards: Cincinnati Fine Arts Award, 1940; Ohioana Career Medal, 1956; Ohana Book Award in nonfiction for Rivers in the Desert, 1960; selected to give benediction at inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, 1961, Ohio Governor's Award, 1965. Honorary degrees from University of Cincinnati, University of Pennsylvania, Miami University (Oxford, OH), Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Jewish Institute of Religion (now Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion), Dropsie College, Lincoln College (Lincoln, IL), Delaware Valley College of Science and Agriculture, College of the Holy Cross, Kenyon College, Drake University, Brandeis University, Wayne State University, and New York University, 1936-65.

Author: Das Wort Hesed im alttestamentlichen Sprachgebrauche, A. Topelmann, 1927, translation by Alfred Gottschalk, published as Hesed in the Bible, Hebrew Union College Press, 1967.

The Other Side of the Jordan, American Schools of Oriental Research, 1940. The River Jordan, Westminster, 1946. Rivers in the Desert: A History of the Negev, Farrar, Straus, 1959. Deities and Dolphins: The Story of the Nabataeans, Farrar, Straus, 1965. Dateline: Jerusalem; A Diary, Hebrew Union College Press, 1968. Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth Century, Doubleday, 1970. (Contributor) Hans Goedicke, editor, Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971.

Author of Explorations in Eastern Palestine (annuals of American School of Oriental Research), Volume XIV, 1934, Volume XV, 1935, Volume XVIII-XIX, 1939, Volume XXV-XXVIII, 1951.

Contributor of articles on archaeology and Bible to books, encyclopedias, and magazines.

-- Melissa A. Dobson.  Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

Nelson Glueck. “As a matter of fact, however, it may be clearly stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever controverted a single biblical reference. Scores of archaeological findings have been made which confirm in clear outline or exact details historical statements in the Bible.” Rivers in the Desert (New York: Farrar, Strausee and Cudahy, 1959), p. 136.   Quoted by Norman L. Geisler and Ron Brooks, When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences (Wheaton, IL: Victor, 1990), p. 179.


Victor Roland Gold

(Born 1924-). Gold is fluent in German and reads French, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Greek, and Hebrew. Ordained Lutheran minister, 1946; Wittenberg University, Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, OH, assistant professor, 1952-56; Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminaryinary, Berkeley, CA, associate professor, 1956-61, professor of Old Testament, 1961--; Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA, professor of Old Testament, 1962--. Visiting professor of Semitic Languages at University of CA, Berkeley, 1968--.

Education: Wartburg College, B.A., 1944; Wartburg Theological Seminary, B.D., 1946; Johns Hopkins University, Ph.D., 1951; American School of Oriental Research, postdoctoral study, 1951-52. Avocational Interests: Travel (Europe, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia).

Member: Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palaestinas, Institute for Mediterranean Studies (executive director, 1969--), Society of Biblical Literature (secretary of Pacific Coast region, 1961--; member of national council, 1961--), American Oriental Society, Archaeological Institute of America, Palestine Exploration Fund, Pacific Coast Theological Society.

Awards: Honorary associate of American Schools of Oriental Research, 1956, 1959, 1960, 1963-65; fellow of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Biblical and Archaeological School, 1963.

(Contributor) David N. Freedman and G. Ernest Wright, editors, Biblical Archaeologist Reader, Volume I, Doubleday, 1961. (Editor) Kirchenpraesident oder Bischof? (title means “Church President or Bishop?”), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1968. (Contributor) Daniel F. Martensen, editor, Christian Hope and the Secular, Augsburg, 1969. (Editor) Episcopacy in the Lutheran Church?, Fortress, 1970. (Editor with others) The New Testament and Psalms: An Inclusive Version, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Contributor to Oxford Annotated Bible and Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.


Gerhard F. Hasel / Gerhard Franz Hasel

(1935- ).  Austrian-born, naturalized U. S. citizen in 1964. Clergyman of Seventh-day Adventist Church; Southern Missionary College, Collegedale, TN, assistant professor of religion, 1963-66; Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI, 1967--, began as associate professor, currently professor of Old Testament and biblical theology, director of Ph.D. and Th.B. program, 1978--, dean of theological seminary, 1981--.  Education: Marienhoehe Seminary, Germany, L.T., 1958; Atlantic Union College, B.A., 1959; Andrews University, M.A., 1961, B.D., 1962; Vanderbilt University, Ph.D., 1970. Memberships: International Society for the Study of the Old Testament, Society of Biblical Literature, American Academy of Religion, American Schools of Oriental Research, Chicago Society of Biblical Research, Alpha Gamma Mu. Danforth teacher award, 1967-69.

Author: A Theology of the Old Testament; Studies in the Book of Daniel; Studies in Contemporary Hermeneutics; Commentary on Amos and Hosea; research on ancient Near Eastern and Israelite prophecy; studies in apocalypticism.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.


Frederic Kenyon / Sir Frederic George Kenyon

(1863-1952).  British scholar and administrator, assistant keeper of manuscripts in The British museum (1898-1909), Director of the museum (1909-1930). Yusuf Ali, in his widely used English translation of the Qur’an, twice cites Sir Frederic Kenyon as a renowned authority.   Abdullah Yusuf Ali, THE HOLY QUR’AN: Text, Translation and Commentary (Qatar: Qatar National Printing Press, 1946), pp. 285, 287.

Author: The Paleography of Greek Papyri; Our Bible and Ancient Manuscripts; Handbook to the Textual Criticism of The New Testament; The Bible and Archaeology.

Sir Frederic George Kenyon, The Story of the Bible, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967, p. 113.  “It is reassuring at the end to find that the general result of all these discoveries (of manuscripts) and all this study is to strengthen the proof of the authenticity of the Scriptures, and our conviction that we have in our hands, in substantial integrity, the veritable Word of God.”

Sir Frederic George Kenyon.  Our Bible and Ancient Manuscripts, New York: Harper & Bros., 1941, p. 23.  “One word of warning already referred to, must be emphasized in conclusion.  No fundamental doctrine of the Christian faith rests on a disputed reading. ...

“It cannot be too strongly asserted that in substance the text of the Bible is certain: Especially is this the case with the New Testament, of early translations from it, and of quotations from it in the oldest writers of the Church, is so large that it is practically certain that the true reading of every doubtful passage is preserved in some one or other of these ancient authorities.  This can be said of no other ancient book in the world.

“Scholars are satisfied that they possess substantially the true text of the principal Greek and Roman writers whose works have come down to us, of Sophocles, of Thucydides, of Cicero, of Virgil; yet our knowledge of their writings depends on a mere handful of manuscripts, whereas the manuscripts of the new Testament are counted by hundreds, and even thousands.”

 “The Christian can take the whole Bible in his hand and say without fear or hesitation that he holds in it the true Word of God, handed down without essential loss from generation to generation throughout the centuries.”

Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, The Bible and Archaeology, New York: Harper & Row, 1940, p. 279.  “It is therefore legitimate to say that, in respect of that part of the Old Testament against which the disintegrating criticism of the last half of the nineteenth century was chiefly directed, the evidence of archaeology has been to re-establish its authority, and likewise to augment its value by rendering it  more intelligible through a fuller knowledge of its background and  setting.  Archaeology has not yet said its last word; but the results already achieved confirm what faith would suggest, that the Bible can do nothing but gain from an increase of knowledge.”

Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, The Bible and Archaeology, New York: Harper & Row, 1940, p. 288.  Kenyon on the Rylands Fragment (A Gospel of John Papyrus Fragment):

 “This is at any rate objective evidence, not resting on theological prepossessions, and since it is accepted by all those who have had most experience in dating the gospel itself must on all

grounds of probability be put back into the first century, in order to allow time for the work to get into circulation; and a date toward the end of that century is what Christian tradition has always assigned to it.

 “With regard to the other books of the New Testament there is not much to say. No one doubts that the synoptic gospels belong to a period perceptibly earlier than the fourth gospel, so that the traditional dates round about the fall of Jerusalem remain approximately the latest possible, and the dating of Luke carries with it that of Acts.

“ For the Pauline epistles the only new evidence is that they were circulating as a collection by the end of the second century, and that this collection included Hebrews, but apparently not the pastoral epistles...

 “The interval than between the dates of original composition and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed.  Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New Testament may be regarded as finally established.”

Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, The Bible and Modern Scholarship.  London: John Murray, 1948, p. 20:

Regarding the Chester Beatty Papyri (A.D. 200), located in C. Beatty Museum in Dublin and part-owned by the University of Michigan, containing papyrus codices, three of them containing major portions of the New Testament, “The net result of this discovery – by far the most important since the discovery of the Sinaiticus – is, in fact, to reduce the gap between the earlier manuscripts and the traditional dates of the New Testament books so far that it becomes negligible in any discussion of their authenticity.  No other ancient book has anything like such early and plentiful testimony to its text, and no unbiased scholar would deny that the text that has come down to us is substantially sound.”

F. F. Bruce.  “The Victoria Institute and the Bible.”  “Sir Frederic did not think of himself as a Biblical scholar, but it is widely recognized that his contributions to Biblical scholarship were of the highest value.


            “Sir Frederic Kenyon, in successive annual addresses which he delivered as our president, emphasized the special opportunities presented to the Institute to meet the need of the hour, provided that our work was characterized by “liberty of investigation, an open mind, charity toward our opponents, and faith in the victory of truth.” One particular way in which he thought the Institute might well provide “the sound basis of scholarship” for carrying on the struggle against anti-Christian forces was in making known the historical foundation of the Christian faith. This is something which I should like to repeat and underline.

            For Christianity is nothing if it is not a historical faith-that is to say, a faith founded on things which have really happened. Some Christian leaders have propounded outlines of basic Christianity which (they urge) men and women might well accept and live by, even if (per impossibile) it could be proved that Jesus of Nazareth had no historic existence. But such a “basic Christianity” is a very different thing from the basic Christianity of the apostles, which consisted in the affirmation that God had acted for the redemption of mankind in the events of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. The beliefs and ethical principles of which modern “basic Christianity” consists were certainly inculcated by the apostles, but the apostles inculcated them as corollaries of the redeeming act of God in Christ. And if we continue to use the term ‘Christianity’ in its historic sense (as we should), then Christianity must rest upon the foundations of the apostolic witness.”


Kenneth A. Kitchen

Archaeologist.  Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology, School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Research programme: (1) Egyptology: producing the translations and commentaries for the texts published in his earlier Rammesside Inscriptions, I-VII; work in ancient Egyptian history (especially New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Periods), foreign relations (with Near East and East Africa) and literature. (2) Ancient Near East: major project on history, inscriptions and cultures of ancient [pre-Islamic] Arabia, and in the Levant. (3) Ancient Egypt, Near East and Hebrew Bible: historical, literary and cultural background to the Hebrew Bible on an empirical, factual basis from its Near Eastern environment.

Author: On the Reliability of the Old Testament, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2003; Ramesside Inscriptions, Translated and Annotated: Translations, in progress, Blackwell, Oxford, I (1993), II (1996), III (2000), IV (2000); Notes and Comments, in progress, Blackwell, Oxford, I (1994), II (1996); The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 BC), 2nd ed. with 2nd supplement, Aris & Phillips, Warminster, 1996; Poetry of Ancient Egypt, Gothenburg, Åström, 1999; The World of Ancient Arabia, Liverpool University Press I (1994), II (2000); III, IV in preparation

Faculty webpage:

K. A. Kitchen, The Bible and Its World: The Bible and Archeology Today (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1977), p. 134.

Kitchen remarks that after “a fair and full investigation of the total available resources, the verdict is frequently a high measure of agreement between the Bible and the world that is its ancient and original context.”

K. A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and Old Testament (Chicago: InterVarsity Press, 1972), pp. 20, 20n.

Nowhere else in the whole of Ancient Near Eastern history has the literary, religious and historical development of a nation been subjected to such drastic and wholesale reconstructions at such variance with the existing documentary evidence. The fact that Old Testament scholars are habituated to these widely known reconstructions, even mentally conditioned by them, does not alter the basic gravity of the situation which should not be taken for granted.... [citing Bright] “The new evidence [i.e., objective Near Eastern data], far from furnishing a corrective to inherited notions of the religions of earliest Israel tends to be subsumed under the familiar developmental pattern’.... And the same applies to other aspects besides history....”

K. A. Kitchen, The Bible in Its World: The Bible and Archeology Today (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1977), p. 7

Thus, “Biblical studies have long been hindered by the persistence of long-outdated philosophical and literary theories (especially of nineteenth-century stamp), and by wholly inadequate use of first-hand sources in appreciating the earlier periods of the Old Testament story in particular.”

  • "The Aramaic of Daniel". Notes on Some Problems in the Book Of Daniel. London: The Tyndale Press, 1965. Pbk. pp.31-79.
  • Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago / London: IVP / The Tyndale Press, 1966. Hbk. pp.191.
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 1". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin, 59 (Spring 1971)
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 2". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin, 60 (Spring 1971)
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 3". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin 61 (Summer 1971).
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 4". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin 62 (Autumn 1971).
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 5". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin 63 (Summer 1972).
  • "The Old Testament in Its Context: Part 6". Theological Students' Fellowship Bulletin 64 (Autumn 1972).
  • The Bible in its World: The Bible and Archaeology Today. Exeter: The Paternoster Press, 1977. Pbk. pp.168.


    Gary Lease

    (Born 1940-). American scholar, archaeologist.  St. Xavier College, Chicago, IL, assistant professor of theology, 1968-69; Loyola University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, assistant professor of religious studies, 1969-73, acting chairman of department, 1971; University of California, Santa Cruz, assistant professor, 1973-74, associate professor of religious studies, 1974--, chairman of department, 1974-76, chairman of history of consciousness, 1976-77, acting provost of Kresge College, 1977-78, professor of history of consciousness, 1984--, chair, environmental studies, 1986-89, chair, history of consciousness, 1988-89, associate chancellor, 1989-90, dean of humanities, 1990--. John XXIII Institute for Ecumenical Theology, research director, 1968-69; University of California Education Abroad Program Study Center, director, 1980-82. California Department of Fish and Game hunter safety instructor, 1971--; investigator for various archaeological excavations, 1974, 1976, 1980, 1981.

    Education: Loyola University of Los Angeles, B.A., 1962; University of Munich, Dr.Theological, 1968. Memberships: American Academy of Religion, American Historical Association, American Society for the Study of Religion, American Schools of Oriental Research, American Research Center in Egypt, International Association for Coptic Studies, Gesellschaft fuer Geistesgeschichte.

    Awards: National Defense Foundation fellow, 1962; Danforth Foundation fellow, 1967; Younger humanist fellow at University of Munich, National Endowment for the Humanities, 1971; Fulbright fellow, 1984; American Philosophical Society research grant, 1986; DAAD study grant, 1987; American Council of Learned Societies grant-in-aid, 1988; National Endowment for the Humanities summer grant, 1990.

    Author: Witness to the Faith, Irish University Press, 1971.

    “Odd Fellows” in the Politics of Religion: Modernism, National Socialism and German Judism, Mouton de Gruyter, 1995.

    (Co-editor) Reinventing Nature?: Reponses to Postmodern Deconstruction, Island Press, 1995.

    Contributor to books, including Vecchi e Nuovi Dei, edited by R. Caporale, Valentino (Turin), 1976; Jewish Tradition in the Diaspora: Studies in Memory of Professor Walter J. Fischel, edited by M. M. Caspi, Berkeley Publishing, 1981; Religion and Politics in the Modern World, edited by Peter Merkl and Ninian Smart, New York University Press, 1983; Newman and the Modernists, edited by Mary Jo Weaver, University Press of America, 1985; and The Roots of Egyptian Christianity, edited by Birger Pearson and James Goehring, Fortress, 1986. Contributor to various periodicals and journals, including Religious and Theological Abstracts, Newman-Studien, Biblical Archaeologist, Metanoia: An Interdisciplinary Review, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Religious Studies Review, Goettinger Miszellen, Downside Review, Loyola, and Journal of Ecumenical Studies. Research on the history of nineteenth-century religious thought in Germany; studying problems of Christian origins and Hellenistic mystery religions; a study of the relationship of religion and political ideologies; a biography of Merry del Val.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.


    Jack P. Lewis / Jack Pearl Lewis

    (1919-). American scholar.  Minister, serving in churches in Texas, Rhode Island, and Kentucky, 1941-54; Harding Graduate School of Religion, Memphis, TN, associate professor, 1954-57, professor of Bible, 1957-89. University Christian Center, Oxford, MS, member of board of directors, 1966. Church of Christ, White Station congregation, elder.

    Jack P. Lewis has a reading knowledge of German, French, Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin. He has led more than thirty tours to the Holy Land.  Since his retirement from Harding Graduate School of Religion in 1989, he has given lectures, written, and served as elder in his church. He has also served as the Honorary Dean of the Japanese School of Evangelism in Tokyo, Japan. Education: Abilene Christian College (now University), B.A., 1941; Sam Houston Teacher's College (now Sam Houston State University), M.A., 1944; Harvard University, S.T.B., 1947, Ph.D., 1953; Hebrew Union College, Ph.D., 1962.

    Member: Society of Biblical Literature, American Academy of Religion, National Association of Professors of Hebrew (membership secretary, 1986), Evangelical Theological Society (chair, southern section, 1969-70).

    Awards: American School of Oriental Research (Jerusalem), Thayer fellow, 1967-68; Christian Education Award, Twentieth Century Christian, 1968; Distinguished Service Award, Harding College, 1979; senior fellowship, W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research (Jerusalem), 1983-84; a festschrift published in Lewis's honor, Biblical Interpretation Principles and Practices, was published by Baker Books in 1986; Distinguished Christian Service Award, Harding University, 1988, and (with wife) Pepperdine University, 1991; Honorary Dean, Japanese School of Evangelism, Tokyo, Japan, 1989; Distinguished Work and Practical Christian Service (with wife), Freed-Hardeman University, 1998.

    Author: The Minor Prophets, Baker Book, 1966. The Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, E. J. Brill (Leiden), 1968. Historical Backgrounds of Bible History, Baker Book, 1971. Archaeology and the Bible, Abilene Christian University, 1975.

    (Editor) The Last Things, R. B. Sweet, 1976. The Gospel According to Matthew (commentary), R. B. Sweet, 1976, reprinted in two volumes, Abilene Christian University, 1984. Archeological Background to Bible People, Baker Book, 1981. The English Bible from KJV to NIV, Baker Book, 1981, 2nd edition, 1991. Leadership Questions Confronting the Church, Christian Communications, 1985. Exegesis of Difficult Passages, Resource Publications (AR), 1988.

    (Editor) Interpreting Second Corinthians 5:1421: An Exercise in Hermeneutics, Edwin Mellen, 1989. Questions You've Asked about Bible Translations, Resource Publications, 1990. Also author of Archaeology and the Bible, 1975. Contributor of articles to Journal of Bible and Religion, Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, and Biblical Archaeologist. Member of editorial board, Restoration Quarterly, 1957, and Journal of Hebraic Studies, 1969.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.


    Paul L. Maier / Paul Luther Maier

    (Born 1930).  History professor, minister, writer.  Professor of Ancient History, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, 1960.  Campus chaplain, 1958-1999. Education: MA, Harvard University, 1954; MDiv, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, 1955; postgrad., University of Heidelberg, Fed. Republic Germany; PhD, University of Basel, Switzerland, 1957; LittD, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, 1995; LLD, Concordia University, 2000.
    Awards: Gold Medallion Book award ECPA, 1989, Distinguished Faculty Scholar Western Michigan University, 1981, Alumni Award Teaching Excellence, 1974; named Outstanding Educator in America, 1974-75, Professor of Year Council for Advancement and Support of Education, 1984, citation Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 1985.

    Member: American Historical Association, American Society for Reformation Research.  Lutheran.
    Author: A Man Spoke, A World Listened, 1963, Pontius Pilate, 1968, First Christmas, 1971, First Easter, 1973, First Christians, 1976, The Flames of Rome, 1981, In the Fullness of Time, 1991, A Skeleton in God's Closet, 1994, More Than a Skeleton, 2003, The Da Vinci Code -Fact or Fiction?, 2004; editor: The Best of Walter A. Maier, 1980; editor: Josephus-The Jewish War, 1982; editor, translator: Josephus-The Essential Writings, 1988, Josephus-The Essential Works, 1995, Eusebius-The Church History, 1999; contributor of over 250 articles and reviews to professional journals.

    Paul L. Maier.  “History, Archaeology and Jesus: Hard evidence from the ancient world dramatically supports the New Testament record on Jesus,” The Lutheran Witness, October 1999.

    “At the 2,000th anniversary of Christianity, then, we should be ready to tell everyone that the sum total of the literary, historical and archaeological evidence from the ancient world dramatically supports the New Testament record on Jesus. Those who claim it does not are sadly misinformed, tragically closed-minded, or dishonest.

    Marquis Who's Who, 2006.


    John Robert McRay

    (1931-).  American Religion educator.   Professor New Testament and archaeology, Wheaton (Illinois) Coll., 1980; Professor religious studies, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, 1973-79; Associate Professor Bible, Greek, church history, David Lipscomb University, 1966-71; Assistant Professor Bible, Greek, church history, Harding University, 1958-66.  Lecturer in archaeology Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 1978, Moscow State University, 1991; archaeology consultant Nat. Geographic Mag., Washington, 1988; Lecturer, State of Israel, 1984.

    Education: BA, David Lipscomb University, Nashville, 1954; MA, Harding University, Searcy, Arkansas, 1956; PhD, University of Chicago, 1967.

    Member: Society Biblical Literature (President 1978), Near East Archaelogical Society (board of directors, 1985), Institute. for Biblical Research, America Schools. Oriental Research (board of directors 1972), Chicago Society for Biblical Research, Civitan (President Murfreesboro chapter, 1975-76).

    Awards: Recipient J.W. McGarvey award Restoration Quarterly, 1960, award Christian Research Foundation, 1962.

    Author: New Testament Introduction and Survey, 1961, Archaeology and the New Testament, 1991; editor: The Eternal Kingdom, 1961, Index to the Biblical Archaeologist, 1970, Cumulative Index to the BASOR, 1972.

    Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

    Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), quoting McRay, p. 97.

    “The general consensus of both liberal and conservative scholars is that Luke is very accurate as a historian.  He’s erudite, he’s eloquent, his Greek approaches classical quality, he writes as an educated man, and archaeological discoveries are showing over and over again that Luke is accurate in what he has to say.”

    Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), quoting McRay, p. 100.

    “Archaeology has not produced anything that is unequivocally a contradiction to the Bible.  On the contrary, as we’ve seen, there have been many opinions of skeptical scholars that have become codified into ‘fact’ over the years but that archaeology has shown to be wrong.”


    Eugene H. Merrill / Leslie Holt Morrill / Leslie H. Morrill / Eugene Haines Merrill

    (1934- ) American scholar.  Professor Old Testament studies, Dallas Theological Seminary., 1975; Professor, Berkshire Christian College, Lenox, Mass., 1968-75; Professor, Bob Jones University, 1963-66. Board of directors, Chaplain Ministries, Inc., Dallas.

    Education: Bob Jones University, BA, 57, MA, 60, PhD, 63; New York University, MA 70; Columbia University, MPhil, 77, PhD, 85.

    Member: American Oriental Society, America Schools of Oriental Research, Evangelical Theological Society, Near East Archaeol. Society, American Council Asian Christian Academy (board of directors,  1979), Society of Biblical Literature.

    Awards: Visiting scholar, Union Theological Seminary, 63, 64; travel-study grant, Israel, US State Dept, 65; listed Who's Who in Religion, 76, 78, Outstanding Educators of America, 81-82, International Scholars Directory, 71, 73, 75.

    Author: Royal Priesthood: An Old Testament Messianic Motif, Bib Sac, 93; author, Deuteronomy, New Testament Faith, and the Christian Life, in Dyer, ed, Integrity of Heart, Skillfulness of Hands, Baker, 94; author, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi: An Exegetical Commentary, Moody, 94; author, Deuteronomy, Broadman & Holman, 94; contributor to The Complete Who's Who in the Bible, ed Gardner, Marshall Pickering, 95; author, History in Sandy, ed Cracking Old Testament Codes, Broadman & Holman, 95; author, The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition and the Emergence of Israel, Bib Sac, 95; contributor to Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, ed Elwell, Baker Book, 96; co-trans, Deuteronomy, in New Living Translation, Tyndale, 96; author, The Peoples of the Old Testament According to Genesis, Bib Sac, 97; ed and contributor New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, ed Van Gemeren, Zondervan, 97; author, Suicide and the Concept of Death in the Old Testament in Demy, ed, Suicide: A Christian Response, Kregel, 98.

    “Eugene H. Merrill.” Directory of American Scholars, 10th ed. Gale Group, 2001.

    Eugene H. Merrill, Professor of Old Testament Studies, Dallas Theological Seminary, “Ebla and Biblical Historical Inerrancy” in Roy B. Zuck (Genesis ed.), Vital Apologetic Issues: Examining Reasons and Revelation in Biblical Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1995), p. 180.

     “Much of the credit for this relatively new assessment of the patriarchal tradition must go to the ‘Albright school.’ Albright himself pointed out years ago that apart from ‘a few diehards among older scholars’ there is hardly a single biblical historian who is not at least impressed with the rapid accumulation of data supporting the ‘substantial historicity’ of patriarchal tradition.”


    John Randall Price

    (1951- ).  American theology educator, researcher.  Adjunct Professor, Tyndale Theological Seminary., Ft. Worth, 1996; Adjunct Professor, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Va., 1995; pres., World of the Bible Ministries, Inc., San Marcos, Texas, 1993; Professor, Ctrl. Texas Bible Institute., Austin, 1992-93; Instructor, University of Texas, Austin, 1990-92; Director, World of the Bible Tours, San Marcos, Texas, 1982-92. Career-Related: executive board Pre-Trib Research Center, Washington, 1994.  Education: BS, S.W. Texas State University, 1974; ThM, Dallas Theological Seminary., 1981; PhD, University of Texas, 1993.

    Memberships: Society Biblical Literature, Evangelical Theological Society

    Author: Teachers Study Bible, 1992, Ready to Rebuild, 1992, Desecration and Restoration of the Temple, 1993, In Search of Temple Treasures, 1994, Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1996; editor: Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, Illinois, 1992-96; member advisory board: Messianic Times, Toronto, 1993.

    Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

    J. Randall Price, Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1996), p. 146.

     “Those who expect the [Dead Sea] scrolls to produce a radical revision of the Bible have been disappointed, for these texts have only verified the reliability and stability of the Old Testament as it appears in our modern translations.”

    J. Randall Price, Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1996p. 164; cf. p. 157. “The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, then, has made a contribution toward confirming the integrity of the biblical text and its own claim to predictive prophecy. Rather than support the recent theories of documentary disunity, the Scrolls have returned scholars to a time when the Bible’s internal witness to its own consistency and veracity was fully accepted by its adherents.”


    William Mitchell Ramsay *** Not in Gale

    (1851–1939). Classical scholar and archaeologist and the foremost authority of his day on the topography, antiquities, and history of Asia Minor in ancient times. The value of his New Testament studies is enhanced by the fact that he approached the subject, not as a theologian, but as a Roman historian versed in the working of Roman institutions in the provinces and possessing an intimate knowledge of the country which figured so prominently in the early history of the Church.

    Sir William Mitchell Ramsay.  St. Paul the Traveler and the Roman Citizen. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1881. Chapter 1: THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES: TRUSTWORTHINESS.

     “I may fairly claim to have entered on this investigation without any prejudice in favour of the conclusion which I shall now attempt to justify to the reader. On the contrary, I began with a mind unfavourable to it, for the ingenuity and apparent completeness of the Tubingen theory had at one time quite convinced me. It did not lie then in my line of life to investigate the subject minutely; but more recently I found myself often brought in contact with the book of Acts as an authority for the topography, antiquities, and society of Asia Minor. It was gradually borne in upon me that in various details the narrative showed marvellous truth. In fact, beginning with the fixed idea that the work was essentially a second-century composition, and never relying on its evidence as trustworthy for first-century conditions. I gradually came to find it a useful ally in some obscure and difficult investigations.”

    Biographies of Sir William M. Ramsay ©

    J.G.C. Anderson.  “RAMSAY, Sir WILLIAM MITCHELL,”

    W. Ward Gasque. “An Introduction to the Man and His Work,”

    The Life and Works of Sir William M. Ramsey.

    Sir William M. Ramsay. Luke the Physician,

    Sir William M. Ramsay. The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Bookhouse, 1959),

    p. 91; cf. William M. Ramsay, Luke the Physician, pp. 177-79, 222.  Luke is a historian of the first rank; not merely are his statement of fact trustworthy; he is possessed of the true historic sense; he fixes his mind on the idea and plan that rules in the evolution of history, and proportions the scale of his treatment to the importance of each incident. He seizes the important and critical events and shows their true nature at greater length, while he touches lightly or omits entirely much that was valueless for his purpose. In short, this author should be placed along with the very greatest of historians.”

    Sir William M. Ramsay. The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Bookhouse, 1959), 1914.

    Introduction, p. v: “My aim. . . is to show through the examination, word by word and phrase by phrase, of a few passages which have been exposed to hostile criticism, that the New Testament is unique in the compactness, the lucidity, the pregnancy, and the vivid truthfulness of its expression. That it is not the character of one or two only of the books that compose the New Testament; it belongs in different ways to all alike.”

    Page 262: “Wherever the present writer followed Luke’s authority absolutely, . . . he was right down to the last detail.”

    “From Strauss to Schmiedel, what a series of distinguished and famous scholars have blindly assumed that their inability to estimate evidence correctly was the final and sure criterion of truth.”

    Page 259: “Such progress as the present writer has been enabled to make in discovery is largely due to the early appreciation of the fact that Luke is a safe guide.”

    F. F. Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1971), pp. 90-91.  “Sir William Ramsay, who devoted many fruitful years to the archaeology of Asia Minor, testifies to Luke's intimate and accurate acquaintance with Asia Minor and the Greek East at the time with which his writings deal. When Ramsay first set out on his archeological work, in the late 'seventies of last century, he was firmly convinced of the truth of the then fashionable Tubingen theory, that Acts was a late production of the middle of the second century AD, and he was only gradually compelled to a complete reversal of his views by the inescapable evidence of the facts uncovered in the course of his research.

    “Although in his later years Ramsay was persuaded to don the mantle of a popular apologist for the trustworthiness of the New Testament records, the judgments which he publicized in this way were judgments which he had previously formed as a scientific archaeologist and student of ancient classical history and literature. He was not talking unadvisedly or playing to the religious gallery when he expressed the view that 'Luke's history is unsurpassed in respect of its trustworthiness”; this was the sober conclusion to which his researches led him, in spite of the fact that he started with a very different opinion of Luke's historical credit.”

    Anderson, J.G.C. “RAMSAY, Sir WILLIAM MITCHELL”. The Dictionary of National Biography, 1931 - 1940. London: Oxford University Press, 1949.  His basic contention, supported by a wealth of argument, that St. Luke is a first-class historian of the first century A.D., has won wide acceptance, although the statements in the passage dating the birth of Christ (ii. 1-2) present problems which still elude a favourable solution. Another thesis which Ramsay firmly established is that the Galatians to whom St. Paul addressed his Epistle were those, not of Galatia proper, but of the southern part of the Roman province. The value of his New Testament studies is enhanced by the fact that he approached the subject, not as a theologian, but as a Roman historian versed in the working of Roman institutions in the provinces and possessing an intimate knowledge of the country which figured so prominently in the early history of the Church.”

    Gasque, W. Ward. “AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MAN AND HIS WORK” in Sir William M. Ramsay; Archaeologist and New Testament Scholar. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1966.


    Archibald Henry Sayce

    (1845-1933). English philologist. Authority on Near Eastern languages; tutor (1870-90), Professor (1891-1919) at Oxford. Author of Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872), Introduction to the Science of Language (1879), The Monuments of the Hittites (1881), The Early History of the Hebrews (1897), Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898), The Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions (1907), Reminiscences (1923), etc.


    A. H. Sayce, The "Higher Criticism" and the Verdict of the Monuments (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1894), p. 16.

    “The mention of "the kings of the Hittites" in the account of the siege of Samaria by the Syrians (2 Kings 7:6) was declared to be an error or an invention; but it was only the ignorance of the critic himself that was at fault.”

    A. H. Sayce, Monument Facts and Higher Critical Fancies (London: The Religious Tract Society, 1904), p. 23, Cited in Josh McDowell, More Evidence That Demands a Verdict (Arrowhead Springs, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ, 1975), p. 53.

    “Time after time the most positive assertions of a skeptical criticism have been disproved by archaeological discovery, events and personages that were confidently pronounced to be mythical have been shown to be historical, and the older [i.e., biblical] writers have turned out to have been better acquainted with what they were describing than the modern critics who has flouted them.”


    Keith Schoville *** Not in Gale

    Professor Emeritus of Hebrew and Semitic studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Author of Bible Review's Hebrew for Bible Readers column, Schoville wrote Biblical Archaeology in Focus (Baker, 1979).

    Keith N. Schoville, Biblical Archaeology in Focus (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1978), p. 156.

    “Thus far, no historical statement in the Bible has been proven false on the basis of evidence retrieved through archaeological research.”

    Keith N. Schoville, Biblical Archeology in Focus (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1978), p. 167.

    Archaeological research has established the identity of literally hundreds of places—in Mesopotamia, Persia, ancient Canaan, and Egypt—that are mentioned in the Bible. Furthermore, the discovery of thousands of historical texts in Egypt and Mesopotamia has enabled scholars to work out the historical chronology of the ancient world in considerable detail. Historical synchronisms have been established for dating the accession of Solomon (ca. 961 b.c.), the accession of Jehu, the Israelite king (842/1 B.C.), the fall of Samaria (722/1 B.C.), and the first capture of Jerusalem (March 15/16, 579 b.c.).

    Keith N. Schoville, Professor Emeritus of Hebrew and Seminaryitic Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.  “Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of the Twentieth Century Relating to the Biblical World,”  This article was published in Stone Campbell Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, and is published with the kind permission of Dr. William Baker, editor of the Stone Campbell Journal, and Dr. Schoville, the author.


    A. N. Sherwin-White / Adrian Nicholas Sherwin-White

    (1911-1993).  A. N. Sherwin-White, who was educated at Oxford University, served as an instructor at that institution for more than thirty years. A scholar of Roman history, the educator and author put forth the notion that the Roman Empire benefited by granting equal rights to its conquered peoples. Although the Romans believed other nations to be culturally inferior, they offered citizenship to those willing to adopt Roman culture. Sherwin-White developed his historical theories in the books The Roman Citizenship--which won the Conington Prize and is considered a definitive text on the subject--and Racial Prejudice in Imperial Rome.

    Oxford University, St. John's College, Oxford, England, fellow and tutor, 1936-79, Sarum Lecturer, 1960-61, reader in ancient history, 1966-79, Keeper of the Groves, 1970, fellow emeritus, 1979-93. Gray Lecturer at Cambridge University, 1965-66; special lecturer at Open University, 1973-81. Military service: Royal Navy and Admiralty, 1942-45, served in Intelligence with civilian status as editor of the Geographical Handbooks (Oxford Section). Education: St. John's College, Oxford, M.A., 1937.

    Awards: Conington Prize from Oxford University, 1947, for The Roman Citizenship.

    Writer: The Roman Citizenship, Oxford University Press, 1939, enlarged edition, 1973.

    Ancient Rome, Thames & Hudson, 1959; Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament, Oxford University Press, 1963;Historical Commentary on the Letters of Pliny the Younger, Oxford University Press, 1966; Racial Prejudice in Imperial Rome, Cambridge University Press, 1967; (Editor) C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Fifty Letters of Pliny, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 1969; Roman Foreign Policy in the East, 168 B.C. to A.D. 1, Duckworth, 1984.

    Contributor to history journals, including Journal of Roman Studies, Clerical Quarterly, and Journal of Theological Studies. Editor, Geographical Handbook Series, published by Admiralty, 1941-45.

    Memberships: British Academy (fellow), Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (president, 1974-77), Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften (corresponding fellow), Oxford Alpine Garden Society (president, 1955-63).

    A. N. Sherwin-White.  Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament,  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963, p. 189. “For Acts the confirmation of historicity is overwhelming.... Any attempt to reject its basic historicity must now appear absurd. Roman historians have long taken it for granted.” Cited in Norman Geisler and Ron Brooks, When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences (Wheaton, IL: Victor, 1990), p. 202.


    Calvin Bruce Smith

    (1940- ).  American museum director.  Positions: Chairman, Associate Professor Department of Museum studies, Baylor University, Waco, 1993; Director, Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, 1983; Director, Arkansas Museum Services, Little Rock, 1979-82; Director Museum services, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, 1975-79; Director of education., Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, 1974-75. Career-Related: Director Waco Mammoth Site, 1984; consultant Texas Forestry Museum, Lufkin, 1982, Dr. Pepper Museum, Waco, 1982, National Broadcast Museum, Dallas, 1983, Museum of Gulf Coast, 1989, Helen Marie Taylor Museum, 1989; Director Central Texas Regional Science. Fair, Waco, 1985; Director Heart of Texas History Fair, Waco, 1983. Education: BS, Eastern New Mexico University, 1970; BS, Eastern N.Mex. University, 1970; MS, Eastern N.Mex. University, 1973.

    Memberships: American Association Museum, American Association State and Local History, International Council Museum, Canadian Museum Association, Mountain-Plains Museums, Texas Association Museum (v.p. 1979, 85, Outstanding Profl. award Dallas, 1980), Ctrl. Texas Museum Association, Museum Association Waco, Beta Beta Beta. Christian Church.

    Awards: Recipient Organizer's award Boy Scouts America, Buckeye, New Mexico, 1962, Honor medal DAR, 1987, The State of Texas House of Representatives Cert. of Citation, Texas State Cultural and Historical Resources Com., 1990, Distinguished Service award Women's Caucus of the Texas Association of Museum, 1991, City of Waco Hospitality award, 1991; named Outstanding Archaeologist of Year, Archaeological Society of New Mexico, 1972.

    Author: (monograph) Mescalero Sands Natural Studies Plan, 1971, The Peopling of North America, The Paleo-Indians of the Great Plains; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

    Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


    Robert Houston Smith

    (1931- ). American Scholar. Field of interest: Religion; Research: Biblical studies; art and archaeology; business and professional ethics.; Career history: From instructor to Professor of religion, 1960-72, Chairman humanities div lib studies prog, 1968-69, Fox Professor Religion, College Wooster, 1972-, Chairman Department of Religion, 1981-, Yale Two Bros fellow, American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, 1958-59; member staff, University Pa Mus archaeological expedition, El Jib, Gibeon, 59, University archaeological expedition, Tell es-Saidiyeh, Jordan, 1964; Director, Wooster exped, Pella, Jordan, 1965-; Lecturer Digging up the Past ser on Educ Exchange, NBC-TV, 1968; National Endowment for Humanities grant, 1979- & National Geographic Society grant, 1979-  .  Education: University of Tulsa, BA, 1952; Yale University, BD, 1955, PhD (New Testament), 1960.

    Member: Society Biblical Literature; American Orient Society; American Schools of Oriental Research; Archaeological Institute of America.

    Awards: Christian Research Foundation Prize, 1960.

    Author: Excavations in the Cemetery at Khirbet Kufin, Palestine, Colt Archaeol Institute, 1962; Pella of the Decapolis, College Wooster, 1973; New directions for ethical codes, Association & Society Manager, 1974; coauthor, Atomic absorption for the archaeologist, Journal of Field Archaeol, 1976; Inclusions in ancient ceramics, Archaeometry, 1976; Patches of Godlight: The Pattern of Thought of C S Lewis, University of Georgia Press, 1981; Pella in Jordan, Report on the Seasons of 1979-81, Australian Nat Gallery, Canberra, 1982; Bloom-Of-Youth--A Labeled Syro-Palestinian Unguent Jar, J Of Hellenic Studies, Vol 112, 1992.

    “Robert Houston Smith.” Directory of American Scholars, 9th ed. Gale Group, 1999.

    James F. Strange / James F. Strange / James Francis Strange

    (1938- ).  American scholar. Field of interest: Biblical Studies, Archeology; Research: Archaeology of Israel in Roman to Arab times; Roman and Byzantine ceramics in the Eastern Mediterranean; computer models for Roman-Byzantine archaeology and historical geography.; Assistant Professor, 1972-75, Associate Professor, 1975-80, Professor religious studies, University South Florida, Tampa, 1980-, Dean College arts & letters, 1981-89, Montgomery fellow, William F Albright Institute Archaeological Research, Jerusalem, 1970-71; fellow Off Judeo-Christian Studies, Duke University, 1971-72; Associate Director, Joint Expedition to Khirbet Shema', Israel, 1971-73; Associate Director, Meiron Excavation Project, Israel, 1973-78; Visiting Lecturer, University of the Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa, 1979; National Endowment for Humanities fellow, Jerusalem, 1980; Director, Survey in Galilee, 1982; Director USF Excavations at Sepphoris, Israel, 1983; Director, Excavations Qumran, 1996; McMannis Lect, Wheaton College, 1996; Benjamin Meaker Visiting Professor Institute Advanced Studies, University of Bristol, 1997. Education: Rice University, BA, 1959; Yale University, MDiv, 1964; Drew University, PhD, 1970.

    Member: Society Biblical Literature; Israel Explor Society; American School of Oriental Research; NY Academy of Science; Society Science Explor.

    Awards: Samuel Robinson Lecturer, Wake Forest University, 1981. Herbert G. May Memorial Lecture, Oberlin College, 1988; The Parkhurst Lectures, Southwestern College, 1991; McMannis Lect, Wheaton College, 1996.

    Coauthor, Archaeology and rabbinic tradition at Khirbet Shema, the 1970 and 1971 campaigns, Biblical Archaeologist, 72; Excavations at Meiron in Upper Galilee--1971, 1972, 74 & author, Late Hellenistic and Herodian ossuary tombs at French Hill, Jerusalem, 75, Bulletin of American Schools of Orient Research; coauthor, Ancient Synagogue Excavations at Khirbet Shema, Upper Galilee, Israel 1970-1972, Duke University, 76; author, Capernaum, Crucifixion, Methods of, & Magdala, Interpreter's Dictionary of Bible, supplement vol, 76; Excavations at Meiron, in Upper Galilee--1974, 1975: A second preliminary report, 78 & coauthor, Excavations at Meiron, 81, American Schools of Orient Research; Archaeology and the religion of Judaism, Aufstieg und Niedergang der Roemischen Welt, 81; coauthor, The Excavations at the Ancient Synagogue of Gush Halav, Israel, 90.

     “James F. Strange.” Directory of American Scholars, 10th ed. Gale Group, 2001.


    Merrill C. Tenney / Merrill Chapin Tenney

    (1904-1985). An educator, theologian, editor, and author, Merrill C. Tenney taught at Gordon College of Theology and Missions (now Gordon College), Boston, MA, as a professor, 1930-1943; Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL, as a professor of Bible and theology, 1943-85, dean of graduate school, 1947-71, professor emeritus of theological studies until his death.  Education: Nyack Missionary College (now Nyack College), diploma, 1924; Gordon College of Theology and Missions (now Gordon College), Th.B., 1927; Boston University, M.A., 1930; Harvard University, Ph.D., 1944. Memberships: Society of Biblical Literature, Evangelical Theological Society (president, 1951), Near East Archaeological Society, National Association of Evangelicals, Chicago Society of Biblical Research.

    Awards: Best Book of the Year Award, Catholic Press Association/Associated Church Press, 1975, for The Pictorial Bible Encyclopedia.  Resurrection Realities, Bible House of Los Angeles, 1945, published as The Vital Heart of Christianity, Zondervan, 1964. John: The Gospel of Belief, Eerdmans, 1948. Galatians: The Charter of Christian Liberty, Eerdmans, 1950, revised edition, 1960. The Genius of the Gospels, Eerdmans, 1951. The New Testament: An Historical and Analytic Survey, Eerdmans, 1954, published as New Testament Survey, 1961, revised edition published by Eerdmans, 1985. Philippians: The Gospel at Work, Eerdmans, 1956. Interpreting Revelation, Eerdmans, 1957. (Editor) The Word for This Century, Oxford University Press, 1960. Proclaiming the New Testament: Revelation, Baker Book, 1963. (Editor) The Pictorial Bible Dictionary, Zondervan, 1963. The Reality of the Resurrection, Harper, 1963. New Testament Times, Eerdmans, 1965. (Editor) Handy Dictionary of the Bible, Zondervan, 1965, published in England as Lakeland Bible Dictionary, Oliphants, 1966. (Editor) The Bible: The Living Word of Revelation, Zondervan, 1968. (Editor with Richard N. Longnecker) New Dimensions in New Testament Study, Zondervan, 1974. (Editor) The Pictorial Bible Encyclopedia, Zondervan, 1975. Roads a Christian Must Travel, Tyndale, 1979. Who's Boss?, Victor Press, 1980. (Contributor) Expositors Bible Commentary, Zondervan, 1981. (Editor with James I. Packer and William White, Jr.) The World of the New Testament, T. Nelson (Nashville, TN), 1982. (Editor with Packer and White) The World of the Old Testament, T. Nelson, 1982. (Editor with Packer and White) All the People and Places of the Bible, T. Nelson, 1982. (Editor with Packer and White) Daily Life in Bible Times, T. Nelson, 1982. (Editor with Packer and White) The Land of the Bible, T. Nelson, 1985. (Editor with Packer and White) Public Life in Bible Times, T. Nelson, 1985. (General editor) The New International Dictionary of the Bible, Regency Reference Library, Zondervan Pub. House (Grand Rapids, MI), 1987. (With J. D. Douglas) NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible, Regency Reference Library, 1989. (Editor with Packer and White) Everyday Life in the Bible: The Old and New Testaments, Bonanza Books (New York City), 1989. (Editor with Packer and White) Nelson's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts, T. Nelson, 1995. (Editor with Packer) Illustrated Manners and Customs of the Bible, T. Nelson, 1997. Contributor of apostle biographies to World Book; contributor of articles to religious journals.

    Merrill C. Tenney, “Historical Verities in the Gospel of Luke,” in Roy B. Zuck (gen. ed.,), Vital Apologetic Issues: Examining Reasons and Revelation in Biblical Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1995), p. 204.  Tenney points out about Luke’s writings, “The two volumes he wrote comprise at least one-fourth of the total canon of the New Testament and provide the only piece of continuous historical writing that covers the period from the birth of Jesus of Nazareth to the establishment of a church in the capitol of the Roman Empire.”


    J. A. Thompson / John Arthur Thompson

    (1913-2002).  Scholar, minister, teacher.

    “The Rev Dr John Thompson, MSc, BA, BEd, BD, PhD (Cantab), has died peacefully in Melbourne at the age of 89.  He had significant achievements in several fields: teaching science in a Brisbane secondary school; pioneering Christian work in schools and universities; promoting biblical archaeology; contributing to Bible translation; lecturing in Old Testament studies at the Baptist Theological College of NSW and in Middle Eastern studies at the University of Melbourne. Through it all he was sustained by a strong and simple faith in Jesus Christ as Saviour and Lord.”

    -- From Peter Young.  “Simple Faith Guided Him to Greatness,” Sydney Morning Herald, December 20, 2002, posted online at

    John Arthur Thompson was director of the Australian Institute of Archaeology in Melbourne and has done archaeological fieldwork with the American Schools of Oriental Research.

    J. A. Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975), p. 5.

    “Finally, it is perfectly true to say that biblical archaeology has done a great deal to correct the impression that was abroad at the close of the last century and in the early part of this century, that biblical history was of doubtful trustworthiness in many places. If one impression stands out more clearly than any other today, it is that on all hands the over-all historicity of the Old Testament tradition is admitted. In this connection the words of W. E Albright may be quoted: “There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament traditions.”

    J. A. Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975), pp. 375, 405.

    “It is widely agreed today that in this book [Acts] we can see the hand of a historian of the first rank.... Luke is shown to be a most careful recorder of information, whether it be matters of geography and political boundaries, local customs, titles of local officers, local religious practices, details of local topography, or the disposition of buildings in Greek or Roman, Asian or European towns.”

    J. A. Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975), p. 442.

     “It is very evident that the biblical records have their roots firmly in general world history.”

    Dr. J. A. Thompson.  GENESIS 1-3: SCIENCE? HISTORY? THEOLOGY?,” 1966 Tyndale Lecture in Melbourne,


    J. E. S. Thompson / John Eric Sidney Thompson

    (1898-1975).  A leading authority on Mayan civilization, Thompson conducted excavations in British Honduras and at Chichen Itza. He was a member of the British Museum Expedition to British Honduras in 1927. He succeeded in deciphering Mayan hieroglyphic writing and calculating correlations between Mayan and Christian calendars, enabling scholars to place events from Mayan history in the larger perspective of world history. Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, IL, assistant curator in charge of Central and South American archaeology and ethnology, 1926-35, honorary curator of Middle American archaeology, 1945-75; Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC, member of archaeological staff, 1935-58; Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, member of faculty of archaeology and anthropology, 1958-75. Honorary professor at Museo Nacional de Mexico, beginning 1941; professor at Seminario Maya, University of Mexico, 1960. President of Thirty-Second International Congress of Americanists, 1952; consejero, Centro de Investigaciones antropologicas mexicanas, 1953-75.

    Education: Educated at Cambridge University. Military/Wartime Service: Served with Coldstream Guards, 1918; became second lieutenant.

    Member: British Academy (fellow).

    Awards: Rivers Memorial Medal from Royal Anthropological Institute, 1945; Viking Fund medal for anthropology, 1955; LL.D. from University of Yucatan, 1959; D.Lit. from University of Pennsylvania, 1962, and Tulane University, 1972; Encomienda de Isabel la Catolica, 1964; Order of the Aztec Eagle, 1965; Huxley Memorial Medal, 1966; Sahagun Medal, Mexico, 1972; Litt.D. from Cambridge University, 1973; honorary fellow of Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, 1973; knighted in 1975.

    A Correlation of the Mayan and European Calendars, Field Museum of Natural History, 1927.

    The Civilization of the Mayas, Field Museum of Natural History, 1927, 6th edition, Chicago Natural History Museum, 1958. Ethnology of the Mayas of Southern and Central British Honduras, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. Archaeological Investigations in the Southern Cayo District, British Honduras, Field Museum of Natural History, 1931. The Solar Year of the Mayas at Quirigua, Guatemala, Field Museum of Natural History, 1932, reprinted, Kraus Reprint, 1968.

    (With Harry E. D. Pollock and Jean Charlot) A Preliminary Study of the Ruins of Coba, Quintana Roo, Mexico, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1932. Mexico before Cortez: An Account of the Daily Life, Religion, and Ritual of the Aztecs and Kindred Peoples, Scribner, 1933. Archaeology of South America, Field Museum of Natural History, 1936. Excavations at San Jose, British Honduras, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1939. Dating of Certain Inscriptions of Non-Maya Origin, [Cambridge, Mass.], 1941. A Coordination of the History of Chichen Itza with Ceramic Sequences in Central Mexico, [Mexico], 1941. Pitfalls and Stimuli in the Interpretation of History through Loan Words, Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, 1943. Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: An Introduction, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1950, 3rd edition, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization, University of Oklahoma Press, 1954, 2nd edition, 1973. Memoranda on Some Dates at Palenque, Chiapas, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1954. (With others) Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1955. Dieties Portrayed on Censers at Mayapan, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1957.

    Symbols, Glyphs, and Divinatory Almanacs for Diseases in the Maya Dresden and Madrid Codices, privately printed, 1958. (Editor) Thomas Gage, Travels in the New World, new edition, University of Oklahoma Press, 1958, revised edition, 1970. Systems of Hieroglyphic Writing in Middle America and Methods of Deciphering Them, privately printed, 1959. A Catalog of Maya Hieroglyphs, University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. Maya Archaeologist, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. Preliminary Decipherments of Maya Glyphs, [Essex, England], 1965. (Author of introduction and notes) Merle Greene, Ancient Maya Relief Sculpture, Museum of Primitive Art, 1967. (With Thomas S. Barthel) Intentos de lectura de los afijos de los jeroglificos en Los Codices Mayas, Coordinacion de Humanidades, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1969. Maya History and Religion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1970. Maya Hieroglyphs without Tears, British Museum, 1972. A Commentary on the Dresden Codex: A Maya Hieroglyphic Book, American Philosophical Society, 1972. (Author of introduction to reprinted edition) Henry C. Mercer, Hill Caves of Yucatan, University of Oklahoma Press, 1975.

    Also author of (with Thomas A. Joyce) Report on the British Museum Expedition to British Honduras, 1927; (with Thomas W. F. Gann) The History of the Maya, 1931; Lunar Inscriptions in the Usumacintla Valley, 1937; (editor and author of introduction) Edward Herbert Thompson, The High Priest's Grave, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, 1938, reprinted, Kraus Reprint, 1968; Yokes or Ball Game Belts?, 1941; A Trial Survey of the Southern Maya Area, 1943. Author of Spanish books: Apuntes sobre las Supersticiones de los Mayas de Socotz, Honduras Britanica, 1940; Apuntes sobre la Estela Numero Cinco de Balakbal, Quintana Roo, 1940; Un Vistazo a lasCuidades” Mayas: Su aspecto y function, 1945. Contributor to professional journals. Editor of “Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology,” for Carnegie Institution of Washington.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

    Merrill F. Unger

    (1909-1980).  American. Pastor of West Ferry Church, Buffalo, NY, 1934-40, Winnetka Church,  Dallas, TX, 1943-44, and Bible Presbyterian Church, Baltimore, MD, 1945-47; Gordon College, Boston, MA, assistant professor of Greek, 1947-48; Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, TX, professor and chairman of department of Old Testament, 1948-67, professor emeritus, 1967--.   Lecturer, Gordon Divinity School, 1947-48.  Education: Johns Hopkins University, A.B., 1930, Ph.D., 1947; attended Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1932-33, and Nyack Missionary College, 1934; Dallas Theological Seminary, Th.M.,1943, Th.D., 1945.

    Member: American Schools of Oriental Research.

    Award:   “Theological author of quarter-century” by Zondervan Publishing House, 1956, for Introductory Guide to the Old Testament and Archaeology and the Old Testament.

    Author: Introductory Guide to the Old Testament, Zondervan, 1952, reprinted, 1964. Biblical Demonology: A Study of the Spiritual Forces behind the Present World Unrest, Van Kampen Press, 1952, 7th edition, 1967.  The Baptizing Work of the Holy Spirit, Scripture Press, 1953. Pathways to Power, Zondervan, 1953.  Archaeology and the Old Testament, Zondervan, 1954.  Great Neglected Bible Prophecies, Scripture Press, 1955.   Principles of Expository Preaching, Zondervan, 1955, reprinted, 1973.  The God-filled Life, Zondervan, 1956.  Bible Dictionary (based on The People's Bible Encyclopedia edited by  C. R. Barnes) Moody, 1957, 3rd revised edition published as Unger's Bible Dictionary, 1963.  The Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Amazing Discoveries, Zondervan, 1957.  Starlit Paths, Dunham, 1958.  Stop Existing and Start Living, Eerdmans, 1959.  Archaeology and the New Testament, Zondervan, 1962. Zechariah (Bible commentary), Zondervan, 1963.  Unger's Bible Handbook: An Essential Guide to Understanding the Bible (also see below), Moody, 1966.  Demons in the World Today: A Study of Occultism in the Light of God's Word, Tyndale, 1971.  The Haunting of Bishop Pike: A Christian View of the Other Side, Tyndale, 1971.  New Testament Teaching on Tongues, Kregel, 1971.  Beyond the Crystal Ball, Moody, 1973.  The Baptism and Gifts of the Holy Spirit, Moody, 1974.  Unger's Guide to the Bible, Tyndale, 1975.  (With Zola Levitt) God Is Waiting to Meet You, Moody, 1975, published as God, Where Are You?, 1977.  The Parallel New Testament and Unger's Bible Handbook, Iversen-Norman Associates, 1975. What Demons Can Do to Saints, Moody, 1977, reprinted 1991. Back to the Bible, Iverson-Norman Associates, 1979. (Editor with William White, Jr.) Nelson's Expository Dictionary of the Old Testament, Thomas Nelson, 1980.  Israel and the Aramaens of Damascus, Baker Book, 1980. Unger's Bible Commentary: Genesis-Song of Solomon, Moody, 1981. (With W. E. Vine and William White, Jr.) An Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Thomas Nelson, 1984.  The New Unger's Bible Handbook, Revised and Updated by Gary N. Larson, Moody Press, 1984. (With others) The New Unger's Bible Dictionary, Revised and Updated, Moody, 1988. Bible Demonology, Kregel Publications, 1994.

    Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001.

    Merrill F. Unger.  Archaeology and the Old Testament.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1984, p. 15. “Old Testament archaeology has rediscovered whole nations, resurrected important peoples, and in a most astonishing manner filled in historical gaps, adding immeasurably to the knowledge of biblical backgrounds.”

    Merrill F. Unger.  Archaeology and the Old Testament.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1984, pp. 25-26. “The role which archaeology is performing in New Testament research (as well as that of the Old Testament) in expediting scientific study, balancing critical theory, illustrating, elucidating, supplementing and authenticating historical and cultural backgrounds, constitutes the one bright spot in the future of criticism of the Sacred text.”


    Lloyd Michael White
    (1949- ).  American educator.  Professor, Oberlin (Ohio) College, 1981; instructor, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1980-81; instructor, Yale University, New Haven, 1979-80. Career-Related: bd. dirs. Tell el-Hesi (Israel) Archaeological Expedition, 1981.  Education: BA, Abilene Christian University, 1971; MA, Abilene Christian University, 1973; MDiv, Yale University, 1975; PhD, Yale University, 1982. Memberships: Society. Biblical Literature (Chairman, social history research group 1983), American School of Oriental Research, Association Sociology of Religion, Archaeological Institute of America.

    H.H. Powers grantee, 1983, 88; fellow Andrew W. Mellon Found., 1985, NEH, 1986.

    Author: The Tabula of Cebes, 1983, Building God's House in the Roman World, 1990, The Domus Ecclesiae in its Environment, 1992, co-author: The Times Concise Atlas of the Bible, 1991; editor: Social Networks of Early Christianity in the Roman World, 1991; series editor: Archaeological and Biblical Studies; book rev. editor: The Second Century journal; member editorial board Biblical Archaeologist; contributor of articles to professional publications.

    Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


    Clifford A.Wilson / Clifford Allan Wilson

    (1923- ). Australian Institute of Archaeology, Melbourne, lecturer, 1951-53; associated with Melbourne Bible Institute, Melbourne, 1961-67; Australian Institute of Archaeology, director, 1967-70; associated with Columbia Bible College, Columbia, SC, 1970-72, and Monash University, Clayton, Australia, 1974--. Director of Word of Truth Productions. Radio speaker in the United States.  Education: University of Sydney, B.A., 1950, M.A., 1958; Melbourne College of Divinity, B.Div., 1968; University of South Carolina, Ph.D., 1972. Religion: Baptist. Military/Wartime Service: Royal Australian Navy, 1942-46. Memberships: Commercial Education Society of Australia (fellow), Australian Psychological Society, American Psychological Association.

    Awards: D.D. from Toronto Baptist Seminary, 1970.

    Author: (With Warner Hutchinson) Let the People Rejoice, Crusader Bookroom, 1959. Exploring the Old Testament, Word of Truth Productions, 1970. Exploring Bible Backgrounds, Word of Truth Productions, 1970. Crash Go the Chariots: An Alternative to Chariots of the Gods, Lancer Books, 1972, revised edition, Master Books, 1977. The Search (historical novel), Collins, 1973. Jesus the Teacher, Baker Book, 1975. That Incredible Book, the Bible, Pyramid Publications, 1975. New Light on the Gospels, Baker Book, 1975. New Light on New Testament Letters, Baker Book, 1975.

    Language Abilities Guide, Word of Truth Productions, 1975. In the Beginning God, Baker Book, 1976. East Meets West in the Occult Explosion, Master Books, 1976. Ebla Tablets: Secrets of a Forgotten City, Master Books, 1977. Rocks, Relics, and Biblical Reality, Zondervan, 1977. War of the Chariots, Master Books, 1978. Monkeys Will Never Talk--Or Will They?, Master Books, 1978.

    (With John Weldon) Close Encounters: A Better Explanation, Involving Trauma, Terror, and Tragedy, Master Books, 1978. (With Weldon) Approaching the Decade of Shock, Master Books, 1978. The Joseph Scroll (historical novel), Master Books, 1979. (With John Weldon) Close Encounters: A Better Explanation, Involving Trauma, Terror, and Tragedy, Master Books (San Diego, CA), 1978. (With Donald W. McKeon) The Language Gap, Probe Ministries International (Dallas, TX), 1984. The False Trials of Jesus Christ, Hearthstone (Oklahoma City, OK), 1990.

    Also author of Crash Goes the Exorcist, 1974; Gods in Chariots and Other Fantasies, 1975, and The Passover Plot--Exposed, 1977. Author of more than twenty audiovisual tapes on biblical subjects, archaeology, and unidentified flying objects. Contributor to Bible and Spade.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002.

    Ankerberg and Weldon write, “As part of his secular academic duties, Dr. Clifford Wilson was for some years required to research and teach higher critical approaches to the Bible. This gave him a great deal of firsthand exposure and insight to the assumptions and methodologies that go into these approaches. Yet his own archaeological research was found to continually refute such skeptical theories …”

    Dr. Clifford Wilson, Rocks, Relics and Biblical Reliability (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Richardson, TX: Probe, 1977), p. 126. “It is the steady conviction of this writer that the Bible is ... the ancient world’s most reliable history textbook....”

    In a personal communication he added the following,

    I was not always the “literalist” I am today. I’ve always had a profound respect for the Bible, but accepted that the use of poetic forms meant that the record could often be interpreted symbolically where now I take it literally—though of course there are times when symbolism is clearly utilized. Thus in later Scriptures “Egypt” can be a geographic country or a symbolic term.

    That liberalism is especially true in relation to Genesis chapters 1 through 11, often considered allegorical or mythical, where my researches have led me to the conclusion that this is profound writing, meant to be taken literally. There was a real Adam, creation that was contemporaneous for the various life forms as shown in Genesis chapter 1, and a consistent style of history writing—such as the outlines given in Genesis one, then zeroing in on the specifics relating to mankind in Genesis chapter 2; the history of all the early peoples in Genesis chapter 10, then the concentration on Abraham and his descendants from Genesis chapter 11 onwards. Early man, “the birth of the lady of the rib,” long-living man, giants in the earth (animals, birds, and men), the flood, the Tower of Babel—and much more—point to factual, accurate recording of history in these early chapters of Genesis.

    Over 40 years have passed since I first became professionally involved in biblical archaeology and my commitment to the Bible as the world’s greatest history book is firmly settled. As Psalm 119:89 states, “Forever O Lord, your word is established in heaven.”

    Dr. Clifford Wilson.  Archaeology—the Bible and Christ, a 17-volume survey which brings together over 5,000 facts relating archaeology to the Bible. Published by Pacific Christian Ministries, P. Box 311, Lilydale 3140, Victoria, Australia.

    “Archaeology is highly relevant for Bible studies, consistently demonstrating that the Bible is the world’s most accurate history text-book.... This present volume (and each of the other volumes) takes its place in offering significant evidence to show how archaeology illustrates, explains and verifies the integrity and authenticity of God’s own Word of Truth.”

    Clifford A. Wilson, Rocks, Relics and Biblical Reliability (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Richardson, TX: Probe, 1977), pp. 98-110.

    “There are other evidences of eyewitness recording by Daniel. That he knew Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon (Daniel 4:30) is a problem by those who argue for a later date for Daniel. This fact of history was recovered by excavation only in modern times, yet Daniel had recorded it correctly. One critic wrote that this was a difficulty; the answer to which “we shall presumably never know”.... Linguistic pointers from the Dead Sea Scrolls (e.g., a recent targum of Job) also suggest an early, not a late, date for Daniel.... The overthrow of the nonhistorical view of the Exile and the return of the Jews came with the finding of the famous Cyrus Cylinder.... By this decree [of King Cyrus] the Hebrew people were given leave to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.... The same can be said about the style of writing in the Book of Ezra, for as Albright says; “If we turn to the Book of Ezra, recent discoveries have indicated the authenticity of its official documents in the most striking way.” Albright shows that the language of Ezra had been seriously challenged, but that some of the very words that have been challenged have turned up in Egyptian, Aramaic, and Babylonian cuneiform documents that date to the exact time of Ezra. Albright goes on: “If it were practicable to quote from still unpublished Aramaic documents from fifth century Egypt, the weight of factual evidence would crush all opposition”.... Still another convincing evidence of the genuineness of the Bible records is in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings by Edwin R. Thiele. Where once it seemed that the dates of the kings in the divided-kingdom period were inaccurate and vague, he has been able to show remarkable synchronisms.... Once again, an area that many believed was total confusion has been shown to be staggeringly accurate recording, with fine chronological interweaving that cannot be claimed for any other book of ancient history.

    Clifford Wilson, Rocks, Relics, and Biblical Reliability (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Richardson, TX: Probe, 1977), pp. 124-125.

    “The serious investigator has every reason for great confidence in the reliability of both Old and New Testament Scriptures.... However, the historical material—seen through archaeology to be of remarkable integrity—is penned by the same men who witnessed and recorded the miracles and elaborated on spiritual realities. It is reasonable to believe that they would be as reliable in those areas as they are in the areas now subject to investigation by archaeology.

    “It is remarkable that where confirmation is possible and has come to light, the Bible stands investigation in ways that are unique in all literature. Its superiority to attack, its capacity to withstand criticism, its amazing facility to be proved right after all, are all staggering by any standards of scholarship. Seemingly assured results “disproving” the Bible have a habit of backfiring. Over and over again the Bible has been vindicated. That is true from Genesis to Revelation, as we have seen in this book.”

    Clifford Wilson, Rocks, Relics, and Biblical Reliability (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Richardson, TX: Probe, 1977), p. 120.  “Those who know the facts now recognize that the New Testament must be accepted as a remarkably accurate source book.…”


    D. J. Wiseman / Donald John Wiseman

    (1918- ).  English. British Museum, London, England, assistant keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, 1948-55, assistant keeper of western Asiatic antiquities, 1955-61; University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, England, professor of Assyriology, beginning 1961. Joint director of British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1961-65, chair, beginning 1970. Epigraphist for archaeological excavations.  Education: King's College, London, B.A., 1939; Wadham College, Oxford, M.A., 1952; School of Oriental and African Studies, London, D.Litt., 1969. Military/Wartime Service: Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, chief intelligence officer for Mediterranean Allied Tactical Air Forces, 1939-45; became group captain; received Bronze Star.

    Member: British Academy (fellow), Society of Antiquaries (fellow), German Archaeological Institute (corresponding member). Christian.
    Award:  Officer of Order of the British Empire, 1943.

    Author: The Alalakh Tablets, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1953. Chronicles of Chaldean Kings, British Museum, 1956. Cuneiform Texts From Cappadocian Tablets in the British Museum, Volume V, British Museum, 1956. Vassal-Treaties of Esarhaddon, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1958. Illustrations From Biblical Archaeology, Inter-Varsity Press, 1959, revised edition, 1962. Cylinder Seals of Western Asia, Batchworth Press, 1959. Catalogue of Western Asiatic Seals I, British Museum, 1960. The Expansion of Assyrian Studies, University of London Press, 1962. Assyria and Babylonia Circa 1200-1000 B.C., Cambridge University Press, 1965. (With Edwin Yamauchi) Archaeology and the Bible: An Introductory Study, Zondervan, 1979.

    Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1985. First and Second Kings: An Introduction and Commentary, Inter-Varsity Press (Leicester, England), 1993.

    Editor and contributor: The New Bible Dictionary, Inter-Varsity Press, 1962, revised edition, 1980.

    The New Bible Commentary Revised, Inter-Varsity Press, 1970. Notes on Some Problems of the Book of Daniel, Tyndale House, 1965. Peoples of Old Testament Times, Oxford University Press, 1973. (Editor with A. R. Millard) Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, Inter-Varsity Press (Leicester, England), 1980. (Editor) P. J. Wiseman, Ancient Records and the Structure of Genesis: A Case for Literary Unity, T. Nelson (Nashville, TN), 1985.

    General editor of “Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries.” Inter-Varsity Press, beginning 1964. Contributor to Encyclopaedia Britannica. Contributor of more than a hundred articles to academic journals. Editor of Iraq, 1953-78; co-editor of Reallexion der Assyriologie, beginning 1959.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

    Edwin Yamauchi, The Stones and the Scriptures (New York: J. B. Lippencott, 1972), p. 186, quoting Dr. Wiseman:  “When due allowance has been paid to the increasing number of supposed errors which have been subsequently eliminated by the discovery of archaeological evidence, to the many aspects of history indirectly affirmed or in some instances directly confirmed by extra-biblical sources, I would still maintain that the historical facts of the Bible, rightly understood, find agreement in the facts culled from archaeology, equally rightly understood, that is, the majority of errors can be ascribed to errors of interpretation by modern scholars and not to substantiated “errors” of fact presented by the biblical historians. This view is further strengthened when it is remembered how many theories and interpretations of Scripture have been checked or corrected by archaeological discoveries.”


    George E. Wright / George Ernest Wright

    (1909-1974).  American author, archaeologist.  His books have been translated into German, Dutch, Chinese, Japanese, and Spanish.  Ordained minister in Presbyterian Church, 1934. American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven, CT, field secretary, 1938; McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, IL, 1939-58, began as instructor, professor of Old Testament, 1945-58; Harvard University, Divinity School, Cambridge, MA, Parkman Professor of Divinity, 1958-74. Member, Bethel expedition to Palestine, 1934. Archaeological director, Drew-McCormick-American Schools of Oriental Research expedition to Balata (Biblical Shechem) in Jordan, 1956-64, Hebrew Union College excavation at Gezer, Israel, 1964-65, and American expedition to Idalion, Cyprus, 1971-74. Curator, Semitic Museum, Harvard University. Haskell lecturer, 1949; Markland lecturer, 1951; Moore lecturer, 1954; Carnahan lecturer in Buenos Aires, 1959. Trustee, American Schools of Oriental Research.  Education: Wooster College, A.B., 1931; McCormick Theological Seminary, B.D., 1934; Johns Hopkins University, A.M., 1936, Ph.D., 1937. Memberships: Archaeological Institute of America, National Association of Biblical Instructors, Society of Biblical Literature (former president), American Oriental Society, Society of Antiquaries (fellow), American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    Awards: D.D., Wooster College, 1949; A.M., Harvard University, 1958; Litt.D., Alma College, 1968; D.H.L., Dropsie University, 1972.

    Author: Pottery of Palestine from Earliest Times to the End of the Early Bronze Age, American Schools of Oriental Research, 1937. (With Elihu Grant) Ain Shems Excavations, Haverford College Press, Volume IV (Wright not associated with earlier volumes), 1938, Volume V, 1939. The Challenge of Israel's Faith, University of Chicago Press, 1944. (With F. B. Filson) The Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible, Westminster, 1945, revised edition, 1956. The Old Testament against Its Environment, Regnery, 1950. God Who Acts, Regnery, 1952. (Contributor) The Interpreter's Bible, two volumes, Abingdon, 1952-53. The Biblical Doctrine of Man in Society, S.C.M. Press, 1954. Biblical Archaeology, Westminster, 1957, revised edition, 1962. (With R. H. Fuller) The Book of the Acts of God, Doubleday, 1957. The Rule of God: Essays in Biblical Theology, Editorial la Aurora, 1959, Doubleday, 1960. (Editor) The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Doubleday, 1961, reprinted, Eisenbrauns, 1979. (Co-editor with David Noel Freedman) The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, Doubleday, 1961, reprinted, Scholars' Press, 1975. (Editor with Samuel H. Miller) Ecumenical Dialogue at Harvard, Harvard University Press, 1964. The Book of Isaiah, John Knox, 1964. Schechem: Biography of a Biblical City, McGraw, 1965. Religion in a Technical Age, Harvard University Press, 1968. The Old Testament and Theology, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1969. (Editor with Lawrence E. Stager and Anita Walker) American Expedition to Idalion, Cyprus, American Schools of Oriental Research, 1974. Founder, editor, co-editor, and member of executive board, Biblical Archaeologist, 1938-62; founder and advisory editor, Studies in Biblical Theology, thirty volumes, 1950-60; advisory editor, “The Old Testament Library” series, for S.C.M. Press and Westminster.
    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.


    Edwin M. Yamauchi / Edwin Masao Yamauchi

    (1937- ).  American scholar.   Shelton College, Ringwood (now in Cape May), NJ, instructor in Greek, 1960-61; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, assistant professor of history, 1964-69; Miami University, Oxford, OH, associate professor, 1969-73, professor of history, 1973--, director of graduate studies, 1978-82. Has participated in archaeological excavations in Jerusalem and Tel Anafa, Israel.  Education: Attended Columbia Bible College, 1955-56, and University of Hawaii, 1957-58; Shelton College, B.A., 1960; Harvard University, additional study, 1962; Brandeis University, M.A., 1962, Ph.D., 1964. Politics: Independent. Religion: Evangelical. Memberships: American Oriental Society, Association of Ancient Historians, Evangelical Theological Society (chairman of Eastern section, 1965-66), Society of Biblical Literature, Near East Archaeological Society (member of board of directors, 1973--; vice-president, 1978-79), Archaeological Institute of America (president of Oxford chapter, 1973-74), Conference on Faith and History (president, 1974-76), American Scientific Affiliation (fellow; president, 1983), Institute for Biblical Research (chairman, 1984-86; president, 1987-89), Ohio Academy of History, Ohio Classical Conference, Society of Biblical Literature.

    Awards: National Endowment for the Humanities fellow, 1968; American Institute of Holy Land Studies research fellow, 1968; American Philosophical Society grant for research in England, 1970; Institute for Advanced Christian Studies fellow, 1974-75.

    Author: Composition and Corroboration in Classical and Biblical Studies, Presbyterian & Reformed, 1966. Greece and Babylon: Early Contacts between the Aegean and the Near East, Baker Book, 1967. Mandaic Incantation Texts, American Oriental Society, 1967. Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins, Harvard University Press, 1970. The Stones and the Scriptures, Lippincott, 1972, revised edition, Inter-Varsity Press, 1973. Pre-Christian Gnosticism, Eerdmans, 1973, 2nd edition, Baker Book, 1983. (With D. J. Wiseman) Archaeology and the Bible, Zondervan, 1979. The Archaeology of New Testament Cities in Western Asia Minor, Baker Book, 1980, published as New Testament Cities in Western Asia Minor, 1987. The Scriptures and Archaeology, Western Conservative Baptist Seminary, 1980. The World of the First Christians, Lion, 1981, published as Harper's World of the New Testament, Harper, 1981. Foes from the Northern Frontier, Baker Book, 1982. (Editor with Jerry Vardaman and contributor) Chronos, Kairos, Christos, Eisenbrauns, 1989. Persia and the Bible, Baker Book, 1990. (With Robert G. Clouse and Richard V. Pierard) Two Kingdoms: The Church and Culture through the Ages, Moody Press (Chicago, IL), 1993. (Editor with Alfred J. Hoerth and Gerald L. Mattingly) Peoples of the Old Testament World, foreword by Alan R. Millard, Baker Books (Grand Rapids, MI), 1994. (Editor) Africa and Africans in Antiquity, Michigan State University Press (East Lansing, MI), 2001.

    Contributor of chapters to books, including New Perspectives on the Old Testament, edited by Payne, Word Books, 1970; The New Testament Student and His Field, edited by Skilton and Ladley, Presbyterian and Reformed, 1982; and The Miracles of Jesus, edited by Wenham and Blomberg, JSOT Press, 1986. Contributor to dictionaries and encyclopedias, including Biblical World: A Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology, New Illustrated Bible Encyclopaedia, Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Dictionary of Christian Ethics, Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology, Handbook of Christian History, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (Supplementary Volume), Expositor's Bible Commentary, The World's Religions, New Dictionary of Christian Theology, Great Leaders of the Christian Church, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, Layman's Bible Dictionary, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, The Anchor Bible Dictionary, and International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, and to festschrifts and journals. Christianity Today, editor-at-large, 1972-80, senior editor, 1992--; consulting editor in history, Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation; member of editorial boards, Fides et Historia, Bulletin for Biblical Research, and Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith; member of editorial committee, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society.

    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005.

    Edwin Yamauchi, The Stones and the Scriptures (New York: J. B. Lippencott, 1972), p. 20.

    “There are a number of striking cases where specific passages have been doubted (it is a rare passage that has not be questioned by some critic) and have been directly confirmed. There are many more items and areas which have afforded a general illumination of biblical backgrounds, making the narratives more credible and understandable.”

    Edwin Yamauchi, The Stones and the Scriptures (New York: J. B. Lippencott, 1972), p. 161.

    “Any element in the [biblical] traditions which was not corroborated by archaeological evidence has been considered suspect or anachronistic.”

    Edwin Yamauchi, The Stones and the Scriptures (New York: J. B. Lippencott, 1972), p. 30.

    “One of the striking characteristics of the scholars who have approached the Bible primarily through literary analysis [e.g., the documentary hypothesis] is the non-use or at best the grudging use they have made of archaeological evidence.

    “A few scholars who had accepted the views of higher criticism, such as A. H. Sayce, revised their positions because of the impact of the early archaeological discoveries, but most higher critics chose not to make use of the new data.”

    Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), quoting Edwin Yamauchi, p. 78.

    “In The Antiquities [Josephus] describes how a high priest named Ananias took advantage of the death of the Roman governor Festus – who is also mentioned in the New Testament – in order to have James killed.  He convened a meeting of the Sanhedrin and brought before them a man named James, the brother of Jesus, who was called the Christ, and certain others.  He accused them of having transgressed the law and delivered them up to be stoned.  I know of no scholar who has successfully disputed this passage.  L.H. Feldman noted that if this had been a later Christian addition to the text, it would have likely been more laudatory of James.  So here you have a reference to the brother of Jesus – who had apparently been converted by the appearance of the risen Christ, if you compare John 7:5 and 1 Corinthians 15:7 – and corroboration of the fact that some people considered Jesus to be the Christ, which means ‘the Anointed One’ or ‘Messiah.’.”

    Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), quoting Edwin Yamauchi, pp. 86-87.

    ...”The fact is that we have better historical documentation for Jesus than for the founder of any other ancient religion.  For example, although the Gathas of Zoroaster, about 1000 B.C., are believed to be authentic, most of the Zoroastrian scriptures were not put into writing until after the third century A.D.  The most popular Parsi biography of Zoroaster was written in A.D. 1278.  The scriptures of Buddha, who lived in the sixth century B.C., were not put into writing until after the Christian era, and the first biography of Buddha was written in the first century A.D.  Although we have the sayings of Muhammad, who lived from A.D. 570 to 632, in the Koran, his biography was not written until 767—more than a full century after his death.

    Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), quoting Edwin Yamauchi, p. 90.  “For me, the historical evidence has reinforced my commitment to Jesus Christ as the Son of God who loves us and died for us and was raised from the dead.  It’s that simple.”


    Sources:  Dictionary of New Zealand and the online Gale Biography Resource Center, which include Merriam-Webster’s Biographical Dictionary, Encyclopedia of World Biography, Notable Women Scientists, Contemporary Black Biography, Explorers and Discoverers of the World, Marquis Who’s Who TM and Contemporary Authors Online.



    Appendix 1


    Skeptics who dismiss the credentials of Christian archaeologists cannot do so without violating the genetic fallacy, or the circumstantial ad hominem.  What follows is a listing of online websites dedicated to archaeology and the Bible.


    Bible Believers Archaeology - A Bible History Web Book

    A Bible archaeology web book covering the historical Jesus and biblical archaeology.

    Chapters cover both bible history and bible archeology.


    The Bible History Online

    The focus at Bible History Online is history and the Bible. The Bible is about God's activities in history. It deals with actual people in an actual geographical area during actual specified historical times who had contact with other actual peoples and empires whom we know of from sources outside the Bible. Knowledge of the historical background of the Bible is essential to any serious student of the Scriptures.


    Recent archaeological discoveries as well as comparative historical research and philological studies, along with an analysis and interpretation of the Old Testament text have made possible a fuller and more reliable picture of Biblical history than in previous eras. The Lord has allowed our studies of the Bible to be greatly enhanced with the tremendous technology of the computer and the Internet bringing the pictures of the past as well as the work of devoted teachers and scholars right into our homes.


    Associates for Biblical Research

    Demonstrating through field work the historical reliability of the Scriptures.


    The Biblical Archaeology Society

    Founded in 1974 as a nonprofit, nondenominational, educational organization dedicated to the dissemination of information about archaeology in the Bible lands.


    The Near East Archaeological Society (NEAS)

    Founded in 1957. In contrast to most other archaeological societies, our focus is on  research in the lands of the Bible, the modern Middle East, with a distinctively evangelical perspective.


    BibArch-The Premier Biblical Archaeology Website

    Explore the lands of the Bible, encounter their ancient cultures, and learn more of biblical archaeology. Use the resources of this site to learn how archaeology illuminates biblical text.


    Amazing Discoveries in Bible Archaeology

    Amazing discoveries are being made daily which prove that the Bible is historically accurate and that the scriptures are the inspired word of God.


    Bible Archaeology, Search and Exploration Institute - BASE

    Bible Archaeology Search and Exploration Institute. President Bob Cornuke.

    Our Mission: The Bible Archaeology,  Search Exploration BASE Institute is dedicated to the quest for archaeological evidence to help validate to the world that the Bible is true, and that it represents an accurate, non-fictional account of God’s will to bring the people of this world back into relationship with Him.

    BASE Institute fulfills its mission by engaging in activities of research, exploration & public education, to present credible archaeological information that is sound in scholarship, but also interesting and motivational to the general public.


    Archaeology and the Bible

    News and articles from a Christian, apologetical position, hosted by Associates for Biblical Research, which organizes excavations and publishes the quarterly “Bible and Spade”.


    Evidence of God

    Strong Basis to Believe Ministries provides this source for answers about spiritual truth, Jesus, God, Christianity, the Bible, Creationism, Evolution, Archaeology and Science.


    The Biblelands Project

    Is the Bible Reliable? Biblelands tours the people, places, things and topics of the Bible. From Egypt to Rome, our 360 degree, interactive IPIX pictures allow you to see the Pyramids, Walk Where Walked and Discover the mystery of Petra all from the comfort of your home or office.


    Historical and Archaeological Evidence for Christianity

    Old Testament
    Archaeological evidence

    Archaeology and the Bible from - discusses the Ebla tablets, the Hittites, Sargon II, Belshazzar

    Archaeology and the Old Testament by Pat Zukeran - discusses the Hittites, Sodom and Gomorrah, Jericho, King David

    Archaeological Evidence of the Exodus from the Institute For Biblical and Scientific Studies

    Lectures on Biblical Archaeology
    Qumran Library - online translations of the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Jesus/New Testament

    Extra-biblical references to Jesus and Christianity (onsite)

    Jerusalem Burial Cave Reveals Names, Testimonies of First Christians by Jean Gilman - Inscriptions in first-century catacombs in Jerusalem include names found only in the NT; also evidence points to a particular catacomb as being the probable family tomb of Mary, Martha and Lazarus


    The Resurrection

    Contemporary Scholarship and the Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ by William Lane Craig

    The Resurrection: Fact or Fiction? by Pat Zukeran

    See also Dr. Craig's articles on the historical Jesus

    General articles

    The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? - Online book by F. F. Bruce

    Leadership University has put together a collection of articles on Jesus, including historical evidence for the Gospels and the resurrection.

    Archaeology and the New Testament by Pat Zukeran


    Objections answered:

    For skeptics:



    Appendix 2:  Related essays


    Glenn Miller.  “...doesn't the archaeological record in Palestine TOTALLY CONTRADICT (and hence, DISPROVE) the Bible's claims about Joshua's “Conquest” of the Land?!”

    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Archaeology and the Biblical Record”
    The authors list several instances where archaeology has confirmed the accuracy of both the Old and New Testaments. HTML  PDF

    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Archaeology and the Biblical Record - Part 1”
    Biblical archaeology is fascinating both for what it studies (the Bible and ancient remains) and the results (how these fit together in the belief system of Christians). How does archaeology provide evidence for the reliability of the Bible? HTML  PDF

    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Archaeology and the Biblical Record - Part 2”
    Drs. Ankerberg and Weldon explain that, while it is unfeasible for archaeology to prove everything in the Bible, nevertheless, it is an important step in shedding light on biblical content. HTML  PDF


    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Archaeology and the Biblical Record - Part 3”
    The authors explain that carelessness and bias on the part of the archaeologist can negatively impact the conclusions drawn from a site. Regardless, they say, even with all the problems that can occur, archaeology has repeatedly confirmed the accuracy of the biblical record! HTML  PDF


    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Biblical Archaeology—Silencing the Critics - Part 1”
    Even liberal theologians, secular academics and critics generally cannot deny that archaeology has confirmed the biblical record at many points. The authors illustrate with stories of three 20th century archeologists who had their liberal training modified by their own archaeological work. HTML  PDF


    “...Probably the three greatest American archaeologists of the twentieth century each had their liberal training modified by their archaeological work. W. F. Albright, Nelson Glueck, and George Ernest Wright all “received training in the liberal scholarship of the day, which had resulted from the earlier and continuing critical study of the Bible, predominantly by German scholars.” [Keith N. Scoville, Biblical Archeology in Focus (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1978), p. 163.]

    Albright said of himself, “I must admit that I tried to be rational and empirical in my approach [but] we all have presuppositions of a philosophical order.” The same statement could be applied as easily to Gleuck and Wright, for all three were deeply imbued with the theological perceptions which infused their work. Albright, the son of a Methodist missionary, came to see that much of German critical thought was established upon a philosophical base that could not be sustained in the light of archaeological discoveries.... Nelson Glueck was Albright’s student. In his own explorations in Trans-Jordan and the Negev and in his excavations, Glueck worked with the Bible in hand. He trusted what he called “the remarkable phenomenon of historical memory in the Bible.” He was the president of the prestigious Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion and an ordained Rabbi. Wright went from the faculty of the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago to a position in the Harvard Divinity School which he retained until his death. He, too, was a student of Albright. [Ibid., p. 163.]


    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Biblical Archaeology—Silencing the Critics - Part 2”
    Critics have a problem: any time archaeology does not directly confirm something the Bible teaches, the tendency is to allege an error in the text. On the other hand, liberal critics frequently tend to avoid the use of archaeology where it confirms the Bible! This type of bias, the authors say, seems evident to everyone—except those doing it. HTML  PDF


    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Biblical Archaeology—Silencing the Critics - Part 3”
    What role does politics play in the interpretation of archaeological data? The authors illustrate the problems, as seen in the finds at Ebla. HTML  PDF


    Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon.  “Biblical Archaeology—Silencing the Critics - Part 4”
    There are a number of striking cases where the Bible has been directly confirmed by archaeology. In this article the authors list 25 examples as they conclude their look at “biblical” archaeology. HTML  PDF