Review of B. C. Johnson, The Atheist Debater's Handbook, 1981, Prometheus Books
copyright 1999 by Jeffrey Stueber, all rights reserved
This essay seeks reviewers, see how
Several years ago I purchased Peter Kreeft and Ronald Tacelli's Handbook of Christian Apologetics, a massive defense of Christianity. Some arguments, I think, are invalid; some are hard to fathom, but no less than, I guess, any text from a metaphysics book. Not surprisingly, atheists and humanists have amassed a dizzying array of books advocating their critiques of theism. It was perhaps four years ago I ran across Johnson's book which I suspected would launch the death of theistic beliefs. It turned out to be nothing of the kind. [In this essay I refer to Johnson by male gender although I do not know if he/she is male.]
One of Johnson's criticisms of the theistic argument to/for design criticizes the theistic habit of arguing for design using such human organs as the eye (because it has an accurate adjustment of parts to serve a function). Johnson mentions a watch because of William Paley's famous "watchmaker" argument for God's existence which concerned itself with finding a very improbable, but designed, watch on a beach.
This argument arrives at its conclusion - that the eye is designed - by starting with a claim about the way we identify watches as designed objects. It argues that we must identify products of God's design by the same method we use to identify watches as designed. The only examples the theist can use are instances - such as watches - which are not thought to be designed by God. The theist's argument must begin this way because any non-hypothetical argument must proceed from what is presumed to be true. Arguments supporting Divine design will be based upon examples where design is presumed. Without assuming God's existence, the only things presumed to be designed are objects not designed by God. Hence, to start with presumed examples of God's design would be to assume just what we are attempting to prove - namely, that there are such examples. Therefore, the only reliable method available for detecting design is the one we have successfully used to detect products not designed by God.
Johnson rhetorically asks why criteria for concluding something is designed include an accurate adjustment of parts to achieve a desired result since animals and watches both have those features (watches are designed by man and animals, supposedly, are designed by God). He wonders how we know that animals are designed by God when watches and other sophisticated machinery are designed by humans, and the only things we can find designed are those not designed by God. Perhaps, he wonders, if we saw animals on other planets, they might be designed by aliens and not God. Apparently if an accurate adjustment of parts can be produced by more than one agent, it is not good evidence for a certain agent's actions.
we cannot discover design by God using objects that are not designed by God for
our criteria. Put differently, he
proposes that to find out if A created (a1, b1, and c1), we can
never, for our criteria, use examples not created by A. This reasoning seems to be faulty as far as
the search for design is done in science.
In searching for evidence of outer-space alien intelligence, we presume
to know what signs of intelligent design we would look for if we posited design
by aliens. In fact, we can tell
differences between background noise and alien signals and erected machines to
detect these signals, such as those described in the movie Contact,
which was written by Carl Sagan who spent a great
deal of his life speculating about life on other planets. Sagan, who is
deceased now, believed there could be a million other stars in our own galaxy
alone with planets which have advanced civilizations at this moment, and was at
one time director of planetary studies at Cornell and one of the foremost
spokesmen of exobiology - a new field of study that deals with the possibility
of extraterrestrial life and the means of detecting it.  He believed there was life on other planets
despite the calculations which dictate that the odds of life evolving by chance
on other planets are extremely small.  An accurate adjustment of parts is a
criterion scientists use when testing for alien intelligence, as in the search
for alien artifacts which would give evidence of life there or the use of radio
emissions to test for alien contact, such as in programs like SETI. Such principles come into use in the search
for human artifacts in cultures we may just now be exploring - artifacts which
give us evidence that a culture was there to create them. Per Johnson, if the artifact is novel enough,
we wouldn't be able to discover or postulate whether it is designed because all
we could use is items not designed by members of that culture. Archaeologists use such principles for
detecting design all the time when they search for human drawings on cave walls
and monuments created by humans (like
Christian philosopher J. P. Moreland has also pointed out flaws in Johnson's reasoning. He notes Johnson's methodology of insisting that we can only infer design by using criteria from objects we know are designed begs the question by ruling out creatures as designed even though they are what's at issue. Johnson also reasons in a circle as just stated - he argues that we can only identify items that are designed which we know are designed. Also, the criteria are too strong and makes it impossible for God to be known by man. This also, as I stated, makes it impossible to recognize as designed any object created by alien beings. Lastly, Moreland says Johnson and others who argue similarly do not understand the nature of a criterion. Our criteria for recognizing design in human artifacts may serve in many purposes but do not constitutes the totality of the criteria of design in other cases. 
Here I think Moreland may have a point that needs developing further. It is true that aliens may create animals on other planets and we might think they were created by God when in fact they were created by "little green men." But the criteria by which we recognize design in a cave drawing or statue hardly constitute the totality of all design criteria, especially when considering cosmic design by a divine creator. There would have to be additional criteria by which we distinguish between alien-created and divine-created things.
Johnson later says the only way we can test for design is by finding items that differ from nature. This criterion, however, is too limiting. What "differs" from nature, one mountain with a person's face on it or one-hundred? What differs from nature, one crop circle or ten? Proceeding further in our inquiry, I believe we would find that what does indeed make a watch "differ" is its accurate adjustment of parts, which Johnson is trying to get us away from. A cave drawing will also differ from nature because it expresses certain messages which we know are commonly created by intelligence or intelligent beings. Therefore, the criterion for design is that which Johnson tries to get us away from: an accurate adjustment of parts and an intelligent message perceived which is not unlike that created by other intelligence or intelligent beings.
We consider something designed if nature could not produce that item itself. There must also be some predictability between the designer and the designed so as to suppose we would predict the designed would be something the designer would create. These are the criteria for supposing design. 
Before continuing, I note two additional comments. It is inconsistent for atheists like him to use metaphysical arguments against God's existence - like the "argument from evil" which supposes the existence of evil rules out God's existence. This presupposes we know what kind of world God would create. If it is true, as Johnson supposes, we cannot know what God would create by looking at things not created by Him, then we have no criteria for knowing what kind of world (perfect or imperfect, moral or immoral) god would create since we can only look at a world we assume he did not create. We cannot assume God created the world for that would be to beg the question since what is at issue is whether God created the world. Therefore, the only way to detect what kind of world God would create would be to look at a world we assume is not created by God. If what Johnson supposes is true, we can't know what world He would create by looking for criteria in a world not created by Him. Since very few, if any, atheists argue as if they don't know what kind of world God would create, Johnson's arguments don't seem to agree with common atheist arguments. Also, those who theorize that God created don't just focus on biological life, but on the design of the universe which is beyond aliens' ability to create. 
Johnson continues by drawing an analogy between objects a theist considers designed and a whirlwind. "If only a single particle has moved contrary to its course, the exact arrangement of particles would be different." And so perhaps Johnson thinks the eye is no more designed than a whirlwind. Yet Johnson's analogy is grossly unfair. Indeed, one change in a particle in that whirlwind will not change much and the whirlwind will continue to function, even when it picks up an object and continues to spin until it dies. This analogy is spurious though. It is very simple to construct a whirlwind in a laboratory or the same formation in a bathtub and indeed some have argued that the formation of a whirlwind or funnel in water when the water is draining is a small-scale example of order arising from disorder.  It is more difficult to construct DNA which is considered designed by intelligent-design theorists. The whirlwind is actually simple compared to structured items or organs which have complexity. With astronomical observations of cosmological constants, in addition to the study of DNA, we see how the smallest change might be disastrous to the formation, development, and existence of life. We also see how different a whirlwind is from life which does not cease to exist like a whirlwind and which is far more complex than a whirlwind.
Johnson criticizes the design argument by misstating theist arguments. He tells about a rock formation that spells out a phrase that says George Washington was the first president. Johnson starts out by telling how this message would not convey useful information if we believed that the sentence is an accidental arrangement of rocks and then extends that analogy to the eye, stating that "if we rely on our eyes to give us correct information, we must believe they are the result of intentional design." Johnson believes that theists argue for the design of the eye because eyes give us useful information. This is not so. Theists argue for the design of the eye because it has an "accurate adjustment of parts" (that which Johnson has already supposedly banished from consideration) and that these parts must all be present and function together in order for the eye to exist at all. If many of these parts would not exist at the same time as the others, the eye would be as useful as a ladder without the steps to it and would be discarded by the animal possessing it because it would be of no value whatsoever.
Johnson continues his attack on theism by arguing many things in life can happen even though the odds against them are incredibly high. His example is meeting someone on a bus. Consider every chance occurrence that must have happened for you to meet that person on that bus. Surely the odds must be incredibly high against it happening; yet you did meet that person. Therefore, the odds must not be that high or must not mean anything. Johnson forgets that the only reason you met that person on the bus is because intelligent action was involved, the two of you choosing to take that bus. The meeting did not happen by random occurrence.
It's understandable why Johnson would include in his arguments an attack on probability because many theists' arguments rest on evolution being just too improbable, especially when it has to generate something as intricate as a cell. He mentions the eye and states the combination of atoms that make up an eye is "only one out of billions of possible combinations" and therefore the eye combination is just as probable as any other combination. Therefore he concludes that it is incorrect to say that the eye is improbable because its probability is the same as any other combination. Ergo, the eye is not that incredible after all.
I must remember that logic if I ever go to a gambling casino and decide to mess with the dice so it gives me constant roles of seven (which, by the way, I have no knowledge of doing). When the head of the casino questions me if I rigged the dice, I will tell him that the combination of sevens he witnessed is not to be unexpected because it has the same probability as any other combination, and therefore merely an inevitable result of chance.
This interpretation which Johnson uses is not the correct interpretation of arguments regarding chance which a theist uses, and which a casino boss would use. The casino boss would not reason as Johnson, but instead would reason as so: "The long succession of sevens being rolled by Mr. Stueber is so improbable because there are so many successions of rolls that are not rolls of sevens. Therefore the probability is so much greater for rolls that are not sevens than for rolls that are successions of sevens. Therefore Mr. Stueber must be rigging the dice." Thus a theist argues, "There may be one possible combination that makes an eye work and there are a tremendous amount of combinations that do not make an eye work. One combination may make an eye work, but perhaps a few million or billion may make it not work. Therefore the probability against the right combination of an eye is extremely large." 
More can be said about Johnson's faulty analogy between a random act producing a meaningful result and a chance meeting on a bus. Duane Gish even mentions how this type of argument was used on him in a debate and his refutation of it.
In the exchange between Sluijser and Gish, Sluijser attacked Gish's probability argument by asserting that he had calculated the probability that Gish would be on that particular spot in the world at that particular time and, according to these calculations, it was impossible for him to be there. Gish was quick to point out that his being there was not due to random chance processes but that he was there because he had been invited and had used deliberate processes to get there. Response from the audience showed that they realized that Sluijser had strengthened Gish's probability argument by unwittingly demonstrating that random chance processes could never accomplish events that would require deliberate actions by an intelligent being. 
I think it best that atheists abandon these arguments due to their disastrous results to their beliefs.
Johnson can't leave the subject of God's attributes alone and says the Christian God is not blameless for He has known that certain people have gone and will go to hell and in fact allows it to continue to flood the gates of hell. Well, I don't know why God created humans, but I do know the God of Christianity did not do it just to have people in hell. This would be inconsistent with grace and inconsistent with Jesus' death on the cross for redemption. Christianity says that the path to heaven is to stay on the narrow path and to love God with all you heart, soul, and mind. How do we stay on the straight and narrow? We do by obeying God and putting Him first in our life. Too many people would rather take the steps which seem pleasing but which lead to destruction, danger, and damnation.
Yet, this sort of argument you will find repeated often in humanist and atheist circles - especially in what I call "the argument from evil." See a plane crash. Shouldn't God have done something about it? See a riot in which people are killed. Shouldn't a just God have done something about it?
On this argument, we should first ask how much evil is too much evil? What is the cut-off mark here? Are five murders a day too much? How about ten? Or is one bad enough? How many plane crashes are too much? This argument is not an argument to dismiss God's existence but merely to point out anger toward God. We should also point out that atheists by their own arguments dismiss any moral absolutes. In this case, why are these crimes and occurrences wrong? If society says so, how do we know society is right? Society can change and has changed its beliefs. If there are no moral absolutes, what absolute standard has God erred against? Why should God condemn the thief and not us if we have no absolute standard to judge by?
Furthermore, why should someone else be judged but not us? If you ask the rapist if God should damn him for what he did, he might just as well ask the same question as any atheist might ask, "What right does God have to force His morals on me?" We like to believe that everyone else is wrong while avoiding our errors. We may be as guilty as those that atheists do want condemned, but in a lesser degree.
If there is a moral absolute, then should we not admit that God has provided it. In this case, shall we conclude that God should have done something about an evil deed? If so, what? Shall God have judged that person or eliminated that person? Shall God have "snapped His fingers" and willed transgressors out of existence? In this case, shall the same be done to us because we are as guilty of sin as the worst sinners by our standards?
Shall He make robots of us all so we can't do any wrong? In this case, we would have no free will to do right or do wrong. Actually, we are all guilty and all deserve punishment, not just the ones atheists disagree with. If we all do, then there is no grace possible. But through the sacrifice on the cross, salvation is possible. In this case, the better option is to preach like the disciples and preach the Lord's grace. The events that unfold give all a chance for grace and they are to run their course until God decides otherwise. Instead of being angry, we should do His work and preach the Gospel and stand up for right and wrong.
I must note an interesting spin on this debate. In a computer network forum, a pagan said that he wouldn't want to live in heaven because we'd be walking around like zombies, beings without much choice to do what we want. In this case, how would God fix the problem of evil? He couldn't eliminate evil on this planet and make everything heavenly, for that would be just what those who subscribe to this pagan belief don't want. He can't allow evil to continue, for that would not work. What could God do to please the unbeliever? I don't think you'd find an answer.
. Roy Stemman, The
Supernatural: Visitors From Outer Space,
1976, Aldus Books Ltd.:
. John Weldon and Zola Levitt, UFOs: What on Earth is Happening?, Harvest
. J. P. Moreland, Scaling the
. These are the criteria I proposed in the Society-of-Christian-Philosophers' internet forum and I was told by a few people I was correct.
. A conversation between an atheist (Joe) and Johnson would look like so:
Joe: I can't believe God would create a world with so much sorrow.
Johnson: Really. And how did you arrive at the criteria by which you conclude this world was not designed by God? Do you have any examples of worlds created by divine beings?
Joe: No, I don't.
Johnson: Then how do you know what a world designed by a divine being would look like?
. This has been argued by, for example, Fritjof Capra in The Web of Life (1996, Anchor Books) who mentions Prigorine's ideas about self-organization which have been criticized by Duane Gish in Creationists Answer Their Critics (1993, Institute for Creation Research)
. J. P. Moreland, in his Scaling the Secular City, discusses this argument by Johnson also. I believe that he arrives at the same conclusions I have here, although he certainly takes the long way around discussing it instead of my direct approach.
. Duane Gish, Up With
Creation, 1978, Creation-Life Publishers: