The Truthfulness of the Eyewitness Accounts as Presented in the Bible

者的告的诚实依照被提出在圣

By W. R. Miller

W. R. Miller


A religion that claims to be true must be based upon truth.  Christianity not only claims to be true, it claims to be based upon actual historical events.  For Christianity to be true, it must be based upon actual historical events.

声称是真的宗教必根据真相。  基督教不要求是真, 它声称根据实际历史事件。  基督教是真, 它必根据实际历史事件。


These events are chronicled in the Bible, a collection of over 60 documents spanning over 1,500 years, written by over 40 authors including shepherds and kings, fishermen and doctors, soldiers and lawyers.  They all testified of their experiences with the supreme Creator of the universe, and how, even today, one can have a relationship with the Creator.

些事件被记载在圣, 60 个文件的一件收藏品跨过经过1,500 , 40 位作者包括牧羊人和国王, 夫和医生, 士和律  全都作经验与宇宙的至尊作者, 并且怎, 平衡今天, 你可能与作者有合作系。


For those willing to investigate their testimonies, the following questions arise:  Did the Prophets and the Apostles report their experiences accurately, or were they mistaken, or did they want to mislead their readers?  How can we accept their testimony as true?  Why should we trust them?

那些愿调查证词, 以下问题:  准确地做了先知和道者告他经验, 或是他, 或他引他?  可以接受他证词象真?  们应该信任他?


Skeptics contend, “You can’t quote the Bible to prove the Bible.  That’s circular reasoning!”

Which is like saying, “You can’t quote an encyclopedia to prove an encyclopedia.  That’s circular reasoning!”

怀疑者角逐, “您无法引述圣经证明圣  那是推理!”是象, “您无法引述百科全书证明百科全  那是推理!”


Webster’s College Dictionary
defines “encyclopedia” as “n. a book or set of books containing articles on various topics, usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or all aspects of one subject.”  Encyclopedias contain articles written by multiple authors, purporting information that can be verified.

Webster’s College Dictionary”n 百科全 或套包含文章在各, 通常在按字母序的安排, 道知所有分支或所有一个主的方面。百科全包含文章由广泛作者写, 声称可能被核的信息。


Webster’s College Dictionary
defines “Bible” as “n. 1. The collection of sacred writings of the Christian religion, comprising the Old and New Testaments.”

Webster’s College Dictionary”n 1. 基督徒宗教的神圣的文字的, 包括老和新


That’s right.  Just like an encyclopedia, the Bible is a set of books, of accounts written by multiple authors, purporting information that could be verified.  How so?  That is what this essay will demonstrate.

那是不  象百科全, 是一套, 帐户由广泛作者写, 声称能被核的信息。  么样?  那是什么这文将展示。


The books of the Bible were written by over 40 independent sources, which could be verified, or disqualified, by contemporaries with the means, motive, and opportunity to do so.   When we study the books of the Bible, we should apply the same standards as we would any historical document.

被写了40 个独立来源, 哪些能被核, 或不合格, 由当代以手段, , 并且机会做如此。   当我, 们应该运用和一会任一个史文件的准。

“All Christianity asks of men on this subject, is that they would be consistent with themselves; that they would treat the evidence of other things; and that they would try and judge its actors and witnesses, as they deal with their fellow men, when testifying to human affairs and actions, in human tribunals,” writes Simon Greenleaf, one of the founders of Harvard Law School.  “Let the witnesses be compared with themselves, with each other, and with surrounding facts and circumstances; and let their testimony be sifted, as if were given in a court of justice, on the side of the adverse party, the witness being subjected to a rigorous cross-examination.” [1]

所有基督教人在个主, 是那他与他自己会是一致的; 待其它事的; 并且那他判和会判断它的演, 如同他们处理他的人, 当作证对人的事理和行, 在人的法庭,”写西蒙・Greenleaf, 哈佛法学院的建者的当中一个。  让证人与他自己比, 互相, 并且以周的事和情况; 并且证词过滤, 好象被了在法院, 在反党的, 人被服从对严谨盘问 [1]


The writers of the Biblical accounts invited critical analysis, as revealed in 1 Thessalonians 5:21; 1 John 4:1; and Revelation 2:2.  They wanted people to believe their testimony was true.  It was imperative they provided accurate, objective and truthful information, because lives were at stake.  Not just their lives, but the lives of those who received their message.

帐户的作家邀了重要分析, 依照露在1 Thessalonians 5:21; 1 4:1; 并且2:2   要人相信他证词是真的。  它是必要的他提供了准确, 和真的信息, 生活成未定。  的生活, 但那些生活收到他的消息。


This essay isn’t a philosophical discussion.  This is an examination of the historical record and whether or not it’s valid.  Keep in mind that, while the evangelists professed the truth, they also reported historical facts.  So while the Bible addresses philosophical issues, it also reports facts which, by definition, are synonymous with truth.

文不是一次哲学讨论  纪录的考和是否它是合法的。  住那, 当福音教士公宣称了真相, 并且告了史事  如此当圣经论及哲学问题, 它并且, 的事 由定, 是同字的以真相。


Webster’s College Dictionary
:

True: “adj. 1. Being in accordance with the actual state or conditions; conforming to reality or fact: a true story. 2. Real; genuine; authentic: true gold. 3. Sincere: not deceitful: a true interest in others. 4. Loyal; faithful; steadfast: a true friend. 5. Being or reflecting the essential or genuine character: the true meaning of his statement. 6. Conforming to or consistent with a standard, pattern, etc.: a true copy. 7. Exact; precise; accurate, correct: a true balance. 8. Such as it should be; proper: to arrange things in their true order. 9. Properly so called; rightly answering to a description: true statesmanship. 10. Legitimate or rightful: the true heir. 11. Reliable, unfailing, or sure: a true sign. 12. Exactly or accurately shaped, formed, fitted, or placed, as a surface or instrument. 13. Honest; honorable; upright. 14. Conforming to the type, structural standards, or norm of a particular group: The lion is a true cat.

: “adj 1. 是与实际或条件符合; 符合现实或事: 一个真的故事。 2. 真正; 真正; 地道: 的金子。 3. : 不狡: 趣在其他人。 4. ; ; 定不移: 一个真的朋友。 5. 是或反射根本或真正字符: 他的声明的真的意思。 6. 符合或一致与, , : 一个真的拷 7. 确切; 精确; 准确, 正确: 的平衡。 8. 譬如它应该; 适当: 安排事在他的次序。 9. 适当地所; 回答描述: 的政治手腕。 10. 合法或正当: 的承人。 11. 可靠, unfailing, 或肯定: 一个真志。 12. 确切地或准确地塑造, 形成, 适合, 或安置, 表面或器。 13. 诚实; 高尚; 挺直。 14. 符合型, , 或一个特殊小的准: 子是一只真的猫。

Truth: “n. 1. The true or actual state of a matter: to tell the truth. 2. Conformity with fact or reality;  verity: to check the truth of a statement. 3. A verified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle, or the like: mathematical truths. 4. The state or character of being true. 5. Actuality or actual existence. 6. An obvious or accepted fact; truism; platitude. 7. Honesty; integrity; truthfulness. 8. (often cap.) ideal or fundamental reality apart from and transcending perceived experience. 9. Agreement with a standard or original. 10. Accuracy, as of position or adjustment.”

 

真相: “n 1. 事情的真实际: 真相。 2. 整合以事现实;  真理: 检查声明的真相。 3. 一个被核的或无可争的事, , , 似物: 数学真相。 4. 或字符是真的。 5. 实际存在。 6. 一个明或被接受的事; 公理; 平凡。 7. 诚实; 正直; 诚实 8. (常盖帽。) 理想或根本现实除之外和超越被察经验 9. 准的协议或原始。 10. 准确性, 位置或整自。

 

Fact: “n. 1. Something that actually exists; reality; truth: Your fears have no basis in fact. 2. Something known to exist or to have happened. 3. A truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true: scientific facts about plant growth. 4. Something said to be true or supposed to have happened. 5. An actual or alleged event or circumstance, as distinguished from its legal effect or consequence.”  (Bold emphasis mine.)

 

: “n 1. 某事实际上存在; 现实; 真相: 您的恐惧没有依据实际上。 2. 某事已知存在或有 3. 真相由实际经验察已知; 某事已知是真: 于植物生的科学事 4. 某事是真应该发 5. 实际嫌的事件或情况, 依照与它的法律作用或后果被区”(大胆的重点)


This essay assumes the Scriptures we have are reliable copies of the originals.  For those who wish to explore why the copies we have are reliable, check out the articles at the following links:

文假有的圣是原物的可靠的拷  那些希望探索有的拷是可靠的, 检查文章在以下:

用英:

Jimmy Williams.  “Are the Biblical Documents Reliable?” by Jimmy Williams

的文件是可靠的?”

http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/bib-docu.html

 

Dr. John Ankerberg, Dr. John Weldon.  “The Historical Reliability of the New Testament Text” Part One

文本的史可靠性第部分一个

http://www.johnankerberg.org/Articles/editors-choice/EC0802W2.htm

 

Dr. John Ankerberg, Dr. John Weldon. “The Historical Reliability of the New Testament Text” Part Two

文本的史可靠性第部分二

http://www.johnankerberg.org/Articles/editors-choice/EC0902W2.htm

 

Dr. John Ankerberg, Dr. John Weldon. “The Historical Reliability of the New Testament Text” Part Three

文本的史可靠性第部分三

http://www.johnankerberg.org/Articles/editors-choice/EC1002W2.htm

 

Dr. John Ankerberg, Dr. John Weldon. “The Historical Reliability of the New Testament Text” Part Four

文本的史可靠性第部分四

http://www.johnankerberg.org/Articles/editors-choice/EC1102W2.htm

 

James Patrick Holding.  “Textual Trysts: The Textual Reliability of the New Testament”

原文: 的原文可靠性

http://www.tektonics.org/lp/nttextcrit.html

Professor Greenleaf states, “In examining the evidence of the Christian religion, it is essential to the discovery of truth that we bring to the investigation a mind freed, as far as possible, from existing prejudice, and open to conviction.  There should be a readiness, on our part, to investigate with candor to follow the truth wherever it may lead us, and to submit, without reserve or objection, to all the teachings of this religion, if it be found to be of divine origin.” [2]

Greenleaf 教授状, “审查基督徒宗教的, 们带给调查头脑放在真相的发现上是根本的, 尽可能的, 有的偏, 并且信念打  那里应该是准, 在我的部份, 调查以公正跟随真相无哪里它也许带领, 并且, 没有储备或反, 对这种宗教所有教学, 如果它被发现神的起源。[2]

So, what proof is there that the writers of the Bible were trustworthy, and what they reported is accurate and true?  Following the outline, each heading will be demonstrated by a list of Scriptures.  In this manner we let the eyewitnesses of the events speak for themselves.

如此, 么证明是那里圣的作家信得, 并且他告了什准确和真?  在概述以后, 各个标题将由圣展示。  这样们让事件的目讲话为自己。

Outline

概述

Introduction: The Prophets and the Apostles.

 : 先知和道者。

I. The Moral Imperative.

I. 道德规则

A. The prophets and the apostles knew the law regarding false witness.

A 先知和道者知道法律伪证

B. The prophets and the apostles knew the consequences for disobeying the law.

B 先知和道者知道后果为违背法律。

C. The prophets and the apostles knew the rewards for obeying the law.

C 先知和道者知道服从法律的励。

D. The prophets and the apostles knew God Himself was a witness to their actions.

D 先知和道者知道上帝是的行

E. The prophets and the apostles appealed to reason.

E 先知和道者喜原因。

F. The prophets and the apostles appealed to the truth.

F 先知和道者喜真相。

G. The prophets and the apostles appealed to the truthfulness of their testimony as eyewitness accounts.

G 先知和道者喜证词诚实当目者的告。

H. The prophets and the apostles risked their lives proclaiming the truth.

H 先知和道者冒的生活宣告真相。

 

II. Divine Confirmation.

II. 神的确

            A.  God ordained the authority of the prophets and the apostles.

            A   上帝定了先知和道者的当局。

            B.  Jesus confirmed authority to the prophets and the apostles.

            B   稣证实了当局先知和道者。

            C.  The Holy Spirit confirmed authority to the prophets and the apostles.

            C   圣灵证实了当局先知和道者。

 

III. Confirmation by Miracles.

III. Miracles

A. The truthfulness of the prophets and the apostles were confirmed by supernatural miracles.

A 先知的诚实道者由超自然的奇迹证实了。

B. The prophets and apostles warned of counterfeits, and encouraged testing.

B 先知和道者警告了假劣, 并且被鼓励的测试

 

IV. Legal Confirmation.

IV. 法律确

A.  The testimony of the prophets and the apostles was confirmed by other prophets and apostles.

A   先知和道者的证词由其它先知和道者证实了。

B.  Prophets confirmed Mosaic authorship of the Law.

B   先知证实了法律的马赛克着作。

C.  Apostles confirmed Law and the Prophets.

C   道者被证实的法律和先知。

D.  The Rulers of the People and the Synagogue confirmed the Law and the Prophets.

D   人民和犹太教堂的治者证实了法律和先知。

E.  The People confirmed the Law and the Prophets.

E   人民证实了法律和先知。

F.  Jesus confirmed the Law and the Prophets.

F   稣证实了法律和先知。

1.  Jesus believed all the Hebrew Scriptures to be authoritative.

1.  稣认为所有西伯来圣威的。

2.  Jesus denounced those who were unfamiliar with the Hebrew Scriptures.

2.  稣谴责了那些是不熟悉的以西伯来圣

3.  Jesus believed the Scriptures were inspired by the Holy Spirit.

3.  相信圣由圣灵启了。

4.  Jesus believed the Hebrew Scriptures were prophetic.

4.  相信西伯来圣言的。

5.  Jesus referred to the Hebrew Scriptures as the Word of God.

5.  提到了西伯来圣上帝的

6.  Jesus quoted from each of the divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures.

6.  引述了从个西伯来圣的分裂。

a.  The Law.

a   法律。

b.  The Prophets.

b   先知。

c.  The Writings.

c   文字。

7.  Jesus acknowledged the Passover seder, and the covenant God made with Israel.

7.  了逾越seder, 并且契上帝用以色列被做。

G.  Jude confirmed 2 Peter as authoritative.

G   Jude 证实2 彼得象威。

H.  Peter denounced false prophets and equated Paul’s epistles with Scripture.

H   彼得被谴责的假的先知和同了保信以圣

I.   Paul confirmed Luke’s testimony as Scripture.

I.   证实克的证词

J.     Paul acknowledged Luke as an Eyewitness.

J      被承克作者。

K.  Paul acknowledged other apostles and prophets.

K   了其它道者和先知。

L.     Paul acknowledged as an apostle.

L      被承为传道者。

            1.  Acknowledgement by the other apostles.

            1.  由其它道者。

            2.  Acknowledgement by God in the use of miracles.

            2.  God 奇迹的使用。

M.  As an Apostle, Paul had authority.

M   为传道者, 有当局。

N.   Paul claimed all Scripture is God-breathed.

N    要求所有圣神呼吸。

O.   The prophets and the apostles regarded Scripture as the Word of God.

O    先知和道者认为上帝的

P. What God says, the Bible says.  What the Bible says, God says.

P 上帝, 经认为  经认为, 上帝

 

V.  Historical Confirmation.

V.  史确

A.  Prophets confirmed specific historical events and persons in the Hebrew Scriptures.

A   先知证实了具体史事件和人在西伯来圣

1.  The Creation of Man.

1.  人的作。

2.  Eden.

2.  Eden

3.  Adam’s sin acknowledged.

3.  当的罪孽被承

4.  Noah.

4.  诺亚

5.  God grants the land of Canaan to the descendants of Abraham.

5.  上帝授予Canaan 土地伯拉罕后裔。

6.  Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.

6.  伯拉罕被相信的上帝, 并且它被认为对他正

7.  The sin and destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

7.  Sodom Gomorrah 的罪孽和破坏。

8.  Jacob wrestles with God.

8.  Jacob 与上帝搏斗。

9.  Hosea refers to Jacob and Rachel and Moses.

9.  Hosea 提到Jacob Rachel Moses

10.  Jacob buys land for 100 pieces of silver.

10.  Jacob 土地100 银币

11.  The bones of Joseph.

11.  瑟夫的骨

12.  Dividing the Red Sea.

12.  划分海。

13.  Daniel refers to Moses.

13.  丹尼提到Moses

14.  Micah refers to Moses, Aaron, Miriam.

14.  Micah 提到Moses, Aaron, Miriam

15.  Micah refers to Balaam, Balak.

15.  Micah 提到Balaam, Balak

16.  Observance of the Passover.

16.  逾越的遵守。

17.  Mosaic legislation on carrying the Ark of the Covenant with poles.

17.  于运的平底船的马赛克立法与杆。

18.  Independent references to manna.

18.  manna 的独立参考。

19.  Samuel recalls the Amakite treachery.

19.  Samuel 召回Amakite 倒戈。

20.  Amos refers to the Israelites wandering in the wilderness and the Amorites.

20.  Amos 提到以色列人漫在原野和Amorites

21.  The Bronze Serpent.

21.  色蛇。

22.  Jephthah, a Hebrew judge, recalls the Exodus and the conflict of Ammon.

22.  Jephthah, 西伯来法官, 召回成群外出和Ammon 冲突。

23.  Rahab the harlot.

23.  Rahab harlot

24.  Joshua refers to the Torah / Pentateuch.

24.  Joshua 提到Torah/ Pentateuch

25.  Nehemiah quotes from Deuteronomy.

25.  Nehemiah 行情从Deuteronomy

26.  Israel’s faithfulness to the Lord in the days of Joshua.

26.  以色列的从一而终对阁下在天Joshua

27.  Fulfillment of 1 Kings 13:31.

27.  履行1 的国王13:31

28.  Jeroboam’s Golden Calves.

28.  Jeroboam 的金黄产犊

29.  Elijah is acknowledged.

29.  Elijah 被承

30.  Prophecy of the Exile from the books of Moses.

30.  流放的言从Moses

31.  Jonah the Prophet.

31.  Jonah 先知。

32.  Historical records from Adam to David acknowledged.

32.  纪录了。

33.  The genealogy of Ruth acknowledged.

33.  丝谱学被承

34.  God’s judgment upon Moab.

34.  上帝的断在Moab

35.  Independent references to the Canaanite god Baal.

35.  在迦南神的独立参考Baal

36.  Daniel refers to Jeremiah the Prophet.

36.  丹尼提到Jeremiah 先知。

37.  Daniel endorses Scripture.

37.  丹尼支持圣

38.  Ezekiel refers to Noah, Daniel and Job.

38.  Ezekiel 提到诺亚, 丹尼和工作。

39.  The prophecy of Micah.

39.  Micah 言。

B.  Jesus confirmed specific historical events and persons in the Hebrew Scriptures.

B   稣证实了具体史事件和人在西伯来圣

1.  The creation of Adam and Eve.

1.  当和伊芙的作。

2.  Jesus acknowledged the concept of marriage.

2.  了婚姻的概念。

3.  Noah and the Genesis Flood.

3.  诺亚和《》洪水。

4.  The Patriarchs.

4. 

5.  Lot and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

5.  Sodom Gomorrah 的破坏。

6.  Moses and the burning bush.

6.  Moses 和灼的灌木。

7.  David eating the showbread.

7.  showbread

8.  The Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon.

8.  Sheba 的女王/王后参Solomon

9.  The Exodus.

9.  成群外出。

10.  Tyre and Sidon.

10.  胎和Sidon

11.  Elijah, Elisha, the widow of Sidon.

11.  Elijah, Elisha, Sidon 的寡

12.  Jonah the Prophet, The great fish, Nineveh.

12.  Jonah 先知, 大的, Nineveh

13.  The murders of Abel and Zechariah.

13.  Abel Zechariah 谋杀

14.  Daniel the Prophet.

14.  丹尼先知。

15.  Jesus accepted prophecy from the Hebrew Scriptures.

15.  被接受的言从西伯来圣

C.  Matthew confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

C   证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

D.  Luke confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

D   证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

E.  John confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

E   证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

F.  Stephen confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

F   斯蒂芬证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

G.  Peter confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

G   彼得证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

H.  Paul confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

H   罗证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

I.  The writer of Hebrews confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

I.  希伯来的作家证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

J.  James confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

J   詹姆斯证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

K.  Jude confirmed historical events and people from the Hebrew Scriptures.

K   Jude 证实史事件和人从西伯来圣

L.  Jesus, Matthew, Mark,  Luke, Peter, James, John confirmed afterlife appearances of Moses and Elijah.

L   , , 标记,  , 彼得, 詹姆斯, 证实Moses Elijah 年出

M.  Paul confirmed the life and ministry of Jesus Christ.

M   罗证实了生活和部耶基督。

1.  Paul confirmed the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

1.  罗证实了耶基督的活。

2.  Paul confirmed the Lord’s Supper.

2.  罗证实下的Supper

3.  Paul referred to Jesus’ prohibition of divorce and remarriage.

3.  提到了离婚和再婚的耶的禁止。

4.  Paul proclaimed the resurrected Jesus Christ.

4.  宣告了活的耶基督。

5.  Paul acknowledged the power of Jesus Christ.

5.  了耶基督的力量。

6.  Paul confirmed Jesus’ prophecy regarding His return.

6.  罗证实了耶于他的回

7.  Paul acknowledged the gospel of Jesus Christ.

7.  了耶基督福音

8.  Paul preached the gospel of Jesus Christ.

8.  罗讲道了耶基督福音

9.  Paul preached the same doctrine of salvation as Jesus and the other Apostles.

9.  象耶和其它道者道了救世同教条。

a.  Jesus.

a  

b.  Other Apostles.

b   其它道者。

c.  Paul.

c  

d.  Results.

d   果。

10.  Paul urged his readers to follow the example of Christ.

10.  敦促他的者跟随基督例子。

a.  Paul affirmed the beatitudes.

a   肯定了至福。

b.  Service to others.

b   其他人的服

c.  Other examples.

c   其它例子。

 

VI.  Prophetic Confirmation.

VI.  言确

A.  The Jewish Authorities, and the people, anticipated the Messiah from prophecies in the Hebrew Scriptures.

A   犹太当局, 并且人民, 期望耶言在西伯来圣

B.  Jesus confirmed prophecies concerning Himself.

B   证实于他自己。

C.  Matthew confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

C  修被证实于耶

D.  Mark confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

D   标记证实于耶

E.  Luke confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

E   克被证实于耶

F.  John confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

F   翰被证实于耶

G.  Philip confirmed prophecies about Jesus.

G   菲利普被证实于耶

H.  Apollos confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

H   Apollos 证实于耶

I.   Paul confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

I.   证实于耶

J.  Paul confirmed prophecies of the Holy Spirit.

J   圣灵的被证实言。

K. Writer of Hebrews confirmed prophecies of Jesus.

K 希伯来的作家证实了耶稣预言。

L.  Peter confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

L   彼得被证实于耶

M.  James confirmed prophecies concerning Jesus.

M   詹姆斯被证实于耶

N.  Other eyewitness accounts concerning Jesus and prophecy.

N   其它目者的于耶言。

 

VII.  Confirmation by Nonbelievers and Hostile Eyewitnesses.

VII.  Nonbelievers 敌对者。

A.  Satan cited Scripture as authoritative.

A   Satan 援引圣威。

B.  Many people witnessed the miracles and acts of God, Jesus, the Holy Spirit, the prophets and apostles.

B   多人目了奇迹和不可抗力, , 圣灵, 先知和道者。

1.  The population of the children of Israel during the Exodus.

1.  以色列的孩子的人口在成群外出期

2.  Miraculous feeding of over 100 people.

2.  神奇哺100 个人。

3.  Miraculous feeding of over 5,000 people, plus healings.

3.  神奇哺5,000 个人, healings

4.  Followed by the miraculous feeding of over 4000 people, plus healings.

4.  被神奇哺4000 个人跟随, healings

5.  Regional healings involving great multitudes.

5.  地方healings 介入了不起的多。

6.  Jesus exorcises a man with an unclean demon, spreading fame.

6.  稣驱逐一个人与一个的邪魔, 播的名望。

7.  A great multitude witnesses the healing of the epileptic.

7.  了不起的多目愈合癫痫

8.  Acknowledgement of Lazarus’ resurrection; a great multitude praises Jesus when He enters Jerusalem.

8.  Lazarus 活的承; 了不起的多称当他入耶路撒冷。

9.  Approximately 120 disciples, post-Resurrection.

9.  120 , 活。

10.  Approximately 3000 people become Christians, post-Resurrection.

10.  3000 个人成基督徒, 活。

11.  Over 5000 people become Christians, post-Resurrection.

11.  5000 个人成基督徒, 活。

12.  The ministry of Paul and Barnabas adds multitudes of believers.

12.  部保Barnabas 增加多信徒。

13.  Over 500 witnesses to the resurrected Christ.

13.  对复活的基督的500 人。

C.  The truthfulness of the testimony of the prophets and the apostles were confirmed by adversaries with the means, motive, and opportunity to refute them.

C   先知的证词诚实道者由证实了以手段, , 并且机会反

1.   Pharoah Siamon (Unnamed in 1 Kings) and Queen Tahpenes. Contemporary of King Solomon.

1.   Pharoah Siamon (无提名在1 国王) 并且女王Tahpenes Solomon 国王当代。

2.   Pharoah Shesonk I/Shishak.  Contemporary of King Rehoboam.

2.   Pharoah Shesonk I/Shishak   Rehoboam 国王当代。

3.  Pharoah Shabaka (Unnamed in 2 Kings).  Contemporary of King Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah and the prophet Isaiah.

3.  Pharoah Shabaka (无提名在2 位国王)   Hezekiah 国王当代, Ahaz 的儿子, Judah 的国王和先知艾赛尔

4.  Tirhakah, King of EthiopiaContemporary of King Hezekiah and the prophet Isaiah.

4.  Tirhakah, 埃塞俄比的国王。  先知艾赛尔国王Hezekiah 和当代。

5.  Pharoah So.  Contemporary of Ahaz king of Judah and Hoshea, son of Elah and king of Israel in Samaria.

5.  Pharoah 如此。  Judah Hoshea Ahaz 国王当代, Elah 的以色列的儿子和国王在Samaria

6.  Pharoah Necho II.  Contemporary of Josiah, king of Judah, Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam the son of Shaphan, Achbor the son of Michaiah, Shaphan the scribe, and the prophet Jeremiah.

6.  Pharoah Necho II   Josiah 当代, Judah 的国王, Hilkiah 教士, Ahikam Shaphan 的儿子, Achbor Michaiah 的儿子, Shaphan 抄写, 并且先知Jeremiah

7.  Pharoah Apries/Hophra.  Contemporary of Zedekiah, king of Judah, and the prophet Jeremiah.

7.  Pharoah Apries/Hophra   Zedekiah 当代, Judah 的国王, 并且先知Jeremiah

8.  Naaman, Syrian commander.

8.  Naaman, 叙利司令

9.  Nebuchadnezzar, King of Neo-Babylonian Empire (605 – 562 B.C.)  Contemporary of King Zedekiah, Pharaoh Necho, Jehoiachin, and the prophets Jeremiah and Daniel.

9.  Nebuchadnezzar, 新巴比帝国(605 - 562 B 的国王。C ) Zedekiah 国王当代, Pharaoh Necho, Jehoiachin, 并且先知Jeremiah 和丹尼

10. Herod Antipas the tetrarch, ruler of Galilee and Perea.  (4 B.C. – A.D. 39)

10. Herod Antipas tetrarch, Galilee Perea 治者。  (4 B C - A D 39)

11.  The Jewish Authorities.

11.  犹太当局。

12.  Nicodemus.

12.  Nicodemus

13.  Annas, the High Priest.

13.  Annas, 高的教士。

14.  Gamaliel I.

14.  Gamaliel I

15.  Caiaphas, the High Priest.

15.  Caiaphas, 高的教士。

16.  Pontius Pilate, Governor of Judea.

16.  Pontius Pilate, Judea

17.  Saul/Paul of Tarsus.

17.  Saul/Tarsus 的保

18.  Proconsul Sergius Paulus.

18.  代理Sergius Paulus

19.  Porcius Festus.

19.  Porcius Festus

20.  King Herod Agrippa II.

20.  Herod Agrippa II 国王。

 

VIII. Confirmation of Objective Testimony.

VIII. 观证词的确

A.  The prophets and the apostles included testimony that indicated their own sinfulness and skepticism.

A   先知和道者包括表明他自己的有罪和怀疑的证词

1.  Adam.

1.  当。

2.  Abram.

2.  Abram

3.    Moses.

3.    Moses

4.    Samson.

4.    Samson

5.    David, King of Israel.

5.    , 以色列的国王。

6.    Solomon, King of Israel.

6.    Solomon, 以色列的国王。

7.    Disobedient prophets.

7.    不服从的先知。

8.   Elisha, the prophet.

8.   Elisha, 先知。

9.    Jeremiah, the prophet.

9.    Jeremiah, 先知。

10.   John the baptizer.

10.   baptizer

11.   The disciples of Jesus Christ.

11.   基督的徒。

a.   The disciples testify of their own lack of knowledge and understanding.

a    徒作自己的缺乏知和了解。

b.   Fear, lack of faith.

b    恐惧, 缺乏信念。

c.   Lack of faith.

c    缺乏信念。

d.   Pettiness.

d    微小。

e.    Judgmental.

e    

f.    Fallible.

f     Fallible

g.   Weak.

g    微弱。

h.  Disloyal.

h   不忠

(I.  Judas betrayed Jesus Christ.

(I.  Judas 被背叛的耶基督。

(II.  The disciples abandoned Jesus Christ.

(II.  徒抛弃了耶基督。

(III.  Peter denied Jesus Christ.

(III.  彼得被否的耶基督。

i.   The disciples were skeptical of Christ’s resurrection.

i.   徒是怀疑的基督的活。

B.  The prophets and the apostles testified of those who disbelieved in spite of the miracles.

B   先知和道者作那些怀疑竟管奇迹。

C.  The prophets and the apostles testified of those who disbelieved in spite of the message.

C   先知和道者作那些怀疑竟管消息。

 

Conclusion:  Therefore, the testimony of the prophets and the apostles is true.

结论:  所以, 先知和道者的证词是真的。

 

Appendix 1

1

Acceptable in a Court of Law: The Eyewitness Testimony of the Evangelists

可接受在法庭: 福音教士的目证词

Appendix 2

2

            A. Are the testimonies biased evidence?

            A 证词是偏心的?

            B. Were the Scriptures deliberately altered to fit prophecies?

            B 故意地被修改适合?

Appendix 3

3

Objections to Truth

真相的反

            A.  Was there intent to deceive?

            A   有是意向欺骗吗?

            B.  Was the Gospel incomplete or not fully revealed?

            B   福音残缺不全或没充分地露了?

Appendix 4

4

Affirmation of the Apostles

道者的肯定

            A.  Jesus gave them understanding in matters of doctrine and fulfillment of prophecy.

            A   稣给了他了解在教条言的问题和履行。

            B.    The Holy Spirit gave them understanding in matters of doctrine and prophecy.

            B     圣灵了他了解在教条和问题

 

 

The Eyewitness Accounts as Presented in the Bible

者的告依照被提出在圣

Introduction: The Prophets and the Apostles

: 先知和道者

Who wrote the Bible?  The authors were known by various names, most commonly as “Prophets.”  Other titles: “Man of God” (1 Kings 12:22), “Servant of the Lord” (1 Kings 14:18), “Messenger of the Lord” (Isaiah 42:19), “Seer” or “Beholder,” (Isaiah 30:9-10), “Man of the Spirit” (Hosea 9:7, Micah 3:8) and a “Watchman” (Ezekiel 3:17).  “Apostles” appeared in the New Testament, in addition to the Prophets, both titles authoritative as spokesmen for the Lord. [3]

写了圣?  作者由各的名字知道, 最共同地作先知。其它标题: “上帝的人” (1 国王12:22), “下的仆人” (1 国王14:18), “下的信使” (赛尔42:19), “看者,”(赛尔30:9-10), “精神的人” (Hosea 9:7, Micah 3:8) ” (Ezekiel 3:17)   道者在新, 除先知之外, 两个标题权威作为阁下的言人。[3]

The following is a list of the Biblical authors [4] who composed their works under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.  Details are provided for five of the gospel writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Peter, as presented by Simon Greenleaf in Testimony of the Evangelists.

下列是圣的作者名[4] 谁组成了他们的工作在圣灵的启发之下。  细节为五福音书作家被提供: 马修, 标记, 卢克, 约翰, 并且彼得, 依照由西蒙・Greenleaf 提出在福音传教士的证词。

1.      The Writer of Job.

Book of Job, regarded as the earliest written book of the Bible.

工作, 看待如同圣的最早期的

 

2.      Moses.  Shepherd.  Leader.  牧羊人。  领导

Writer of The Pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy), plus Psalm 90.

Pentateuch (》的作家, 成群外出, Leviticus, 数字, 并且Deuteronomy), 90

 

3.      Joshua.  Military general.  事将

Joshua 1-24:27.

 

4.      Eleazar, son of Aaron.  High priest.   Aaron 的儿子。  高的教士。

Joshua 24:28-33.

 

5.      Samuel.  Prophet.  先知。

Judges.  Possibly Ruth.

 

6.      Nathan.  Prophet.  先知。

Judges.

 

7.      Gad.  Prophet. 先知。

Judges.

 

8.      Ezra.

Ezra, Chronicles, Nehemiah.

 

9.      Nehemiah.  Cupbearer.

      Book of Nehemiah.

 

10.  Writer of Esther.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Esther.

 

11.  David.  Shepherd.  Soldier.  Musician.  King.  牧羊人。  士。  家。  国王。

Psalms 2-9, 11-32, 34-41, 51-65, 68-70, 86, 95, 101, 103, 108-110, 122, 124, 131, 133, 138-145.

 

12.  Solomon.  King. 国王。

Proverbs, Song of Solomon (Canticles), Psalms 72 and 127, Ecclesiastes.

 

13.  Zabud, son of Nathan the prophet.  Nathan 的儿子先知。

1 Samuel, 2 Samuel.

 

14.  Sons of Korah.

Psalms 42-49, 84-85, 87; Numbers 26:9-11.

 

15.  Asaph.  Priest. 教士。

Psalms 50, 73-83; Ezra 2:41.

 

16.  Heman.  Wise Man.  明智的人。

Psalm 88; 1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chronicles 15:19

 

17.  Ethan the Ezrahite.

Psalm 89.

 

18.  Agur ben Jakeh.  Oracle.  Oracle

Proverbs 30.

 

19.  Lemuel.  King.  国王。Oracle.  Oracle

Proverbs 31.

 

20.  Isaiah.  Prophet.  先知。Poet.  Poeta.

Book of Isaiah.

 

21.  Jeremiah.  Prophet.  先知。 Son of Hilkiah the priest.  Hilkiah 的儿子教士。

Book of Jeremiah.  Possibly Lamentations.  Possibly I and II Kings.

 

22.  Ezekiel.  Priest. 教士。 Prophet.  先知。Son of Buzi. Buzi 的儿子。

Book of Ezekiel.

 

23.  Daniel.  Prime minister.  理。

Book of Daniel.

 

24.  Hosea.  Prophet.  先知。Son of Beeri.  Beeri 的儿子。

Book of Hosea.

 

25.  Joel.  Prophet.  先知。Son of Pethuel.  Pethuel 的儿子。

Book of Joel.

 

26.  Amos.  Herdsman.  Herdsman

Book of Amos.

 

27.  Obadiah.  Prophet.  先知。

Book of Obadiah.

 

28.  Jonah.  Prophet.  先知。Son of Amittai.  Amittai 的儿子。

Book of Jonah.

 

29.  Micah.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Micah.

 

30.  Nahum.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Nahum.

 

31.  Habakkuk.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Habakkuk.

 

32.  Zephaniah.  Prophet of royal descent.  皇家下降的先知。

Book of Zephaniah.

 

33.  Haggai.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Haggai.

 

34.  Zechariah.  Priest.  教士。Son of Berechiah.  Berechiah 的儿子。Grandson of Iddo.  Iddo 子。

Book of Zechariah.

 

35.  Malachi.  Prophet. 先知。

Book of Malachi.

 

36.  Matthew.  Tax collector.  务员Son of Alphaeus.     Alphaeus 的儿子。

Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:

Matthew, called Levi, was a Jew of Galilee, but of what city is uncertain. He held the place of publican, or tax-gatherer, under the Roman government, and his office seems to have consisted in collecting the taxes within his district, as well as the duties and customs levied on goods and persons, passing in and out of his district and province, across the lake of Genesareth. While engaged in this business, at the office or usual place of collection, he was required by Jesus to follow him, as one of his disciples; a command which he immediately obeyed. Soon afterwards, he appears to have given a great entertainment to his fellow-publicans and friends, at which Jesus was present; intending probably both to celebrate his own change of profession, and to give them an opportunity to profit by the teaching of his new Master. He was constituted one of the twelve apostles, and constantly attended the person of Jesus as a faithful follower, until the crucifixion; and after the ascension of his Master he preached the gospel for some time, with other apostles, in Judea, and afterwards in Ethiopia, where he died.

, Levi, Galilee 的犹太人, 但什城市是不定的。 他拿着地方publican, 或税收集者, 罗马政府之下, 并且他的公室似乎包括了在收集税在他的区之内, 并且任和俗被征收在物品和人, 过进出他的区和省, 横跨Genesareth 湖。 当参与, 公室或通常地方, 他由耶要求跟随他, 他的徒的当中一个; 他立刻服从的命令。 很快之后, 他看上去大的娱乐他的家伙publicans 和朋友, 在哪耶是存在; 大概意欲两个祝他行的自己的变动, 并且提供他机会利由他的新大教学。 他被构成了十二位道者的当中一个, 并且常出席耶的人作一个忠的追随者, 直到在十字架上; 并且在他的大以后上生他道了有一段时间了福音, 与其它道者, Judea, 并且之后在埃塞俄比, 那里他死了。

He is generally allowed to have written first, of all the evangelists; but whether in the Hebrew or the Greek language, or in both, the learned are not agreed, nor is it material to our purpose to inquire; the genuineness of our present Greek gospel being sustained by satisfactory evidence. The precise time when he wrote is also uncertain, the several dates given to it among learned men, varying from A.D. 37 to A.D. 64. The earlier date, however, is argued with greater force, from the improbability that the Christians would be left for several years without a general and authentic history of our Savior’s ministry; from the evident allusions which it contains to a state of persecution in the church at the time it was written; from the titles of sanctity ascribed to Jerusalem, and a higher veneration testified for the temple than the comparative gentleness with which Herod’s character and conduct are dealt with, that bad prince probably being still in power; and from the frequent mention of Pilate, as still governor of Judea.

他一般被允首先写了, 所有福音教士; 但是否在希伯来或希腊语语, 或在两个, 博学不同意, 亦不是它物质对的目的询问; 的当前希腊福音的踏由令人意的据被承受。 精确候当他写了是不定的, 几个日期被它在博学的人之中, 化从A D 37 A D 64. 早日期, 但是, 与更加巨大的力量被争, 从不大可能性, 基督徒会身去几年没有我的救主的部的一般和地道; 从它当包含迫害状在教会的然暗指它被写了; 从神圣的标题咎到耶路撒冷, 并且更高的尊敬作证为Herod 的字符和品行付的比温和与, 那位坏王子仍然大概是在力量; 并且从Pilate 繁提及, 仍然Judea

That Matthew was himself a native Jew, familiar with the opinions, ceremonies, and customs of his countrymen; that he was conversant with the Sacred Writings, and habituated to their idiom; a man of plain sense, but of little learning, except what he derived from the Scriptures of the Old Testament; that he wrote seriously and from conviction, and had, on most occasions, been present, and attended closely, to the transactions which he relates, and relates, too, without any view of applause to himself; are facts which we may consider established by internal evidence, as strong as the nature of the case will admit. It is deemed equally well proved, both by internal evidence and the aid of history,  that he wrote for the use of his countrymen the Jews. Every circumstance is noticed which might conciliate their belief, and every unnecessary expression is avoided which might obstruct it. They looked for the Messiah, of the lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, in the circumstances of whose life the prophecies should find fulfillment, a matter, in their estimation, of peculiar value: and to all these this evangelist has directed their especial attention.

修是他自己一个当地犹太人, 熟悉, , 并且他的; 他是精通以神圣的文字, 并且habituated 的成; 简单的感的一个人, 但一点学会, 除了什他从旧的圣经获得了; 他写了重和从信念, 并且有, 在多数, 是存在, 并且出席, 系的交易, 并且, , 没有掌声任何看法他自己; 是我由内部据建立的事, 样强象案件的本将承 它是被视为的相等地好, 两个由内部据和史援助,  他写了至于他的民的使用犹太人。 许调解他的信仰的情况被注意, 并且也阻碍它的个多余的表示被避免。 们寻找了耶, 后裔, 并且担在Bethlehem, 应该发现履行生活的情况, 事情, 在他的估, 奇怪价: 并且所有名福音教士指了他的特别关注。

Allusion has been already made to his employment as a collector of taxes and customs: but the subject is too important to be passed over without further notice. The tribute imposed by the Romans upon countries conquered by their arms was enormous. In the time of Pompey, the sums annually exacted by their Asiatic provinces, of which Judea was one, amounted to about four millions and a a half of sterling, or about twenty-two millions of dollars. These exactions were made in the usual forms of direct and indirect taxation; the rate of the customs on merchandise varying from an eight to a fortieth part of the value of the commodity; and the tariff including all the principal articles of the commerce of the East, much of which, as is well known, still found its way to Italy through Palestine, as well as by the way of Damascus and of Egypt. The direct taxes consisted of a capitation-tax, and a land-tax, assessed upon a valuation or census, periodically taken under the oath of the individual, with heavy penal sanctions. It is natural to suppose that these taxes were not voluntarily paid, especially since they were imposed by the conqueror upon a conquered people, and by a heathen too, upon the people of the house of Israel. The increase of taxes has generally been found to multiply discontents, evasions and frauds on the one hand, and, on the other, to increase vigilance, suspicion, close scrutiny, and severity of exaction. The penal code, as revised by Theododius, will give us some notion of the difficulties must have been increased by the fact that, at this period, a considerable portion of the commerce of that part of the world was carried on by the Greeks, whose ingenuity and want of faith were proverbial. It was to such an employment and under such circumstances, that Matthew was educated; an employment which must have made him acquainted with the Greek language, and extensively conversant with the public affairs and the men of business of his time; thus entitling him to our confidence, as an experienced and intelligent observer of that day were, as in truth they appear to have been, as much disposed as those of the present time, to evade the payment of public taxes and duties, and to elude, by all possible means, the vigilance of the revenue officers, Matthew must have been familiar with a great variety of forms of fraud, imposture, cunning, and deception, and must have become habitually distrustful, scrutinizing, and cautious; and, of course, much less likely to have been deceived in regard to may of the facts in our Lord’s ministry, extraordinary as they were, which fell under his observation. This circumstance shows both the sincerity and the wisdom of Jesus, in selecting him for an eyewitness of his conduct, and adds great weight to the value of the testimony of this evangelist.

暗指已被做他的就税和俗收藏家: 但主太重要以至于不能通在没有通知。 进贡Romans 国家由他的胳膊征服是极大的。 Pompey , 和由他洲省年年苛求, Judea 是一个, 四成千上万和一半英, 或大二十二成千上万美元。 索被做了以直接和接征税的通常形式; 俗的率在商品化从八商品的价的第四十部份; 并且税包括方的商的所有主要文章, , 象知名的, 仍然找它的道路意大利通巴勒斯坦, 并且便一句大士革和埃及。 直接税包括了按人数算税, 并且土地税, 在估价或人口调查, 段性地采取在个体的誓言之下, 以重的刑事可。 它是自然假, 些税自愿未被缴纳, 是从他由征服者加了被征服的人, 并且由异教徒, 在以色列房子的人民。 税增量一般被发现倍增牢, 避和欺一方面, 并且, 在另一, 增加警惕性, 怀, 接近的察, 并且严肃 刑法典, 依照由Theododius 校正, 某一困的概念一定被事增加了, 个期, 那世界的部份商的一个可的部份由希腊人继续, 的机巧和想要信念是谚语的。 它是对这样和在些情况下, 修是教育的; 一定做了他被熟悉希腊语语言的就, 并且广泛地精通与公共事和商人他的时间; 如此给权的信心, 那天的一名老明的, 如同他们实际上看来, 被配置象那些当前时间, 逃避公税和任的付款, 并且逃避, 所有可能的手段, 收支官的警惕性, 修一定通的形式巨大品, , 狡猾, 并且欺, 并且一定得日常地怀, 详细检查, 并且; 并且, 当然, 被欺不可能可以事在我下的部中, 非凡然他, 哪些属于他的察。 情况示真和耶智慧, 选择他的品行的目, 并且增加了不起的重量来名福音教士证词的价

37.     Mark. (John-Mark.)

       Book of Mark.


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:

Mark was the son of a pious sister of Barnabas, named Mary, who dwelt at Jerusalem, and at whose house the early Christians often assembled. His Hebrew name was John; the surname of Mark having been adopted, as is supposed, when he left Judea to preach the gospel in foreign countries; a practice not unusual among the Jews of that age, who frequently, upon such occasions, assumed a name more familiar than their own to the people whom they visited. He is supposed to have been converted to the Christian faith by the ministry of Peter. He traveled from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, and afterwards accompanied them elsewhere. When they landed at Perga in Pamphylia, he left them and returned to Jerusalem; for which reason, when he afterwards would have gone with them, Paul refused to take him. Upon this, a difference of opinion arose between the two apostles, and they separated, Barnabas taking Mark with him to Cyprus. Subsequently he accompanied Timothy to Rome, at the express desire of Paul. From this city he probably went into the Asia, where he found Peter, with whom he returned to Rome, in which city he is supposed to have written and published his Gospel. Such is the outline of his history, as it is furnished by the New Testament. The early historians add, that after this he went into Egypt and planted a church in Alexandria, where he died.

标记Barnabas 的一个虔姐妹的儿子, 命名的玛丽, 居住了在耶路撒冷, 并且在的房子早期基督徒常装配了。 他的西伯来名字是; 标记姓氏被采取, 象假想的, 当他留下Judea 道福音在外国; 践不异常在那年的犹太人之中, 谁频繁地, 这样场, 比他自己承担了一个名字熟悉访的人民。 应该转换了成基督徒信念由部彼得。 他旅行了从耶路撒冷到Antioch 与保Barnabas, 并且在别处之后伴随他 当他了在Perga Pamphylia, 他留下他和回到了耶路撒冷; 哪个原因, 当他之后会去与他, 采取他。 , 看法差异出了在二位道者之, 并且他分离了, Barnabas 采取标记用他到塞浦路斯。 他随后伴随梯牧草到罗马, 在保明确欲望。 个城市他大概, 那里他找到彼得, 他退回到罗马, 在哪个城市他应该写了和出版了他的福音 这样是他的史概述, 照原由新 早期史学家, 入埃及和植了一个教会在亚历山大之后, 那里他死了。

It is agreed that Mark wrote his Gospel for the use of Gentile converts; and opinion deriving great force from the explanations introduced into it, which would have been useless to a Jew, and that it was composed for those at Rome, is believed, not only from the numerous Latinisms it contains, but from the unanimous testimony of ancient writer, and from the internal evidence afforded by the Gospel itself.

它同意, 标记写了他的福音至于外邦人改信仰者的使用; 并且得巨大力量从解被介入它, 哪些会是无用的犹太人, 并且那它成了那些在罗马, 被相信, Latinisms 它包含, 但从古老作家一致同意的证词, 并且从内部据由福音书买得起。

Some have entertained the opinion that Mark compiled his account from that of Matthew, of this notion has been refuted by Knoppe, and others, and is now generally regarded as untenable. For Mark frequently deviates from Matthew in the order of time, in his arrangement of facts; and he adds many things not related by the other evangelists; neither of which a mere epitomizer would probably have done. He also omits several things related by Matthew, and imperfectly describes others, especially the transactions of Christ with the apostles after the resurrection; giving no account whatever of his appearance in Galilee; omissions irreconcilable with any previous knowledge of the Gospel according to Matthew. To these proofs we may add, that in several places there are discrepancies between the accounts of Matthew and Mark, not, indeed, irreconcilable, but sufficient to destroy the probability that the latter copied from the former. The striking coincidences between them, in style, words, and things, in other places, may be accounted for by considering Peter, who is supposed to have dictated this Gospel to Mark, was quite as intimately acquainted as Matthew with the miracles and discourses of our Lord; which, therefore, he would naturally recite in his preaching; and that the same things might very naturally be related in the same manner, by men who sought not after excellency of speech. Peter’s agency in the narrative of Mark is asserted by all ancient writers, and is confirmed by the fact, that his humility is conspicuous in every part of it, where anything is or might be related of him; his weaknesses and fall being fully exposed, while things which might redound to his honor, are either omitted or but slightly mentioned; that scarcely any transaction of Jesus is related, at which Peter was not present, and that all are related with that circumstantial minuteness which belongs to the testimony of an eye-witness. We may, therefore, regard the Gospel of Mark as an original composition, written at the dictation of Peter, and consequently as another original narrative of the life, miracles, and doctrine of our Lord.

一些愿意考虑观, 标记编写了他的帐户从那, 个概念由Knoppe , 并且其他人, 并且一般认为难防守。 为标记频繁地偏离从修按时间, 在事的他的安排; 并且他增加多事由其它福音教士没; 两者都不一仅仅epitomizer 大概会做。 他并且省去几件事由, 并且不完美地描述其他人, 是基督的交易与道者在活以后; 没有帐户他的出Galilee; 漏不可和以福音的任何早先知根据修。 明我许补, 那在几个地方那里是差帐户标记, 不是, 的确, 不可, 但充足坏可能性那后者被制从前。 醒目的巧合在他, , , 并且事, 在其它地方, 可以占由考彼得, 谁应该口授本福音书标记, 修相当一样亲密地被熟悉我下奇迹和演; 哪些, 因此, 他自然地会背在他; 并且, 事也非常自然地被系相似, 找不是在讲话下以后的人 彼得的代办处标记记叙文由所有古老作家断言, 并且由事实证实, 他的卑是眼的在部份的它, 那里任何是或也是相的他; 他的弱点和秋天充分地被暴露, 当也redound 他的誉的事, 或者被省去或但微地被提及; 的任一交易缺乏地是相, 在哪彼得不是存在, 并且所有被系以属于目者的证词的那minuteness 可以, 因此, 认为标记福音原始的构, 写在彼得的口述, 并且因而作生活的其它原始的叙文, 奇迹, 并且我下教条。

38.     Luke.  Doctor.  医生。

        Luke, Acts.


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:

Luke, according to Eusebius, was a native of Antioch, by profession a physician, and for a considerable period a companion of the apostle Paul. From the casual notices of him in the Scriptures, and from the early Christian writers, it has been collected, that his parents were Gentiles, but that he in his youth embraced Judaism, from which he was converted to Christianity. The first mention of him is that he was with Paul at Troas, whence he appears to have attended him to Jerusalem; continued with him in all his troubles in Judea; and sailed with him when he was sent a prisoner from Caesarea to Rome, where he remained with him during his two years confinement. As none of the ancient fathers have mentioned his having suffered martyrdom, it is generally supposed that he died a natural death.

, 根据Eusebius, Antioch 的当地人, 由行, 并且一个可的期间传道者保的伴 从偶然通知他在圣, 并且从早期基督徒作家, 它被收集了, 他的父母是外邦人, 但那他在他的青年期接受了犹太教, 从哪些他被转换了成基督教。 第一提及他是, 他是以保Troas, 自何他看上去参加了他到耶路撒冷; 继续他在所有他的麻Judea; 并且航行与他当他派遣了囚犯从Caesarea 罗马, 那里他保留了与他在他的二年期 如同无古老父提及了他的遭受殉教, 它一般应该, 他死了自然死亡。

That he wrote his Gospel for the benefit of the Gentile converts is affirmed by the unanimous voice of Christian antiquity; and it may also be inferred from its dedication to a Gentile. He is particularly careful to specify various circumstances conducive to the information of strangers, but not so to the Jews; he gives the lineage of Jesus upwards, after the manner of the Gentiles, instead of downwards, as Matthew had done; tracing it up to Adam, and thus showing that Jesus was the promised seed of the woman; and he marks the eras of his birth, and of the ministry of John, by the reigns of the Roman emperors. He also has introduced several things, not mentioned by the other evangelists, but highly encouraging to the gentiles to turn to God in the hope of pardon and acceptance; of which description are the parables of the publican and Pharisee, in the temple; the lost piece of silver; and the prodigal son; and the fact of Christ’s visit to Zaccheus the publican, and the pardon of the penitent thief.

他写了他的福音书为外邦人改信仰者的目的由一致同意肯定基督徒上古; 并且它也从它的致力并且被推断外邦人。 他特小心指定各的情况有助于陌生人的信息, 但不那么对犹太人; 后裔向上, 在外邦人的方式以后, 代替向下, 如同修做了; 追踪它由当决定, 并且如此表示, 女的被许诺; 并且他标记他的, 并且部, 罗马皇帝的王朝。 他并且介了几件事, 由其它福音教士没提及, 但高度鼓励外邦人向上帝希望体和采; 哪个描述是publican Pharisee 的寓言, 在寺; 失去的银币; 并且家子儿子; 并且基督的参Zaccheus publican, 并且penitent 的体

That Luke was a physician, appears not only from the testimony of Paul, but from the internal marks in his Gospel, showing that he was both an acute observer, and had given particular and even professional attention to all our Savior’s miracles of healing. Thus, the man whom Matthew and Mark describe simply as a leper, Luke describes as full of leprosy; he, whom they mention as had having a withered hand, Luke says had his right hand withered; and of the maid, of whom the others say that Jesus took her spirit came to her again. He alone, with professional accuracy of observation, says that virtue went out of Jesus, and healed the sick; he alone states the fact that the sleep of the disciples in Gethsemane was induced by extreme sorrow; and mentions the blood- like sweat of Jesus, as occasioned by the intensity of his agony; and he alone relates the miraculous healing of Malchus’s ear. That he was also a man of a liberal education, the comparative elegance of his writings sufficiently shows.

克是医, 从保罗证词, 但从内部标记在他的福音, 表示, 他是一名深刻, 并且了特殊和甚而所有我的救主的奇迹的专业关注愈合。 因而, 修和标记简单地描述作病患者的人, 克描述作充分麻; , 提及如同有有一只凋枯的手, 安排他的右手凋枯; 并且佣人, 其他认为采取了她的精神再来了到她。 , 专业准确性, , 说贤良出去了耶, 并且愈合病残; 述事实门徒的睡眠在Gethsemane 被极端哀痛致了; 并且提及血液象耶汗水, 依照由度他的极度痛苦惹起; 并且他独自系神奇愈合Malchus 的耳 他并且是自由式教育的一个人, 他的文字比高雅充足地示。

The design of Luke’s Gospel was to supersede the defective and inaccurate narratives then in circulation, and to deliver to Theophilus, to whom it is addressed, a full and authentic account of the life, doctrines, miracles, death and resurrection of our Saviour. Who Theophilus was, the learned are not perfectly agreed; but the most probable opinion is that of Dr. Lardner, now generally adopted, that, as Luke wrote his Gospel in Greece, Theophilus was a man of rank in that country [See Lardner, Works 6.138-139; 3.203-204; and other authors, cited in Horne, Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures 1.267]. Either the relations subsisting between him and Luke, or the dignity and power of his rank, or both, induced the evangelist, who himself also “had perfect understanding of all things from the first,” to devote the utmost care to the drawing up of a complete and authentic narrative of these great events. He does not affirm himself to have been an eye-witness; though his personal knowledge of some of the transactions may well be inferred from the “perfect understanding” which he says he possessed. Some of the learned seem to have drawn this inference as to them all, and to have placed him in the class of original witnesses; but this opinion, though maintained on strong and plausible grounds, is not generally adopted. If, then, he did not write from his own personal knowledge, the question is, what is the legal character of his testimony?

克的福音书设计将代替瑕疵和不精确的叙文然后在循, 并且交付Theophilus, 对谁它演, 生活的一个充分和地道帐户, 教条, 奇迹, 的救主的死亡和活。 Theophilus , 博学完全不同意; 但最可能的点是那Dr Lardner, 一般在采取, , 如同克写他的福音在希腊, Theophilus 是等的一个人国家[ Lardner, 工作6.138-139; 3.203-204; 并且其它作者, 援引在Horne, 的研究的介1.267] 或者持生活在他和克之, 或他的等的尊和力量, 或两个, 致福音教士, 他自己"并且有所有事的完善的理解从,"致力最大心于勾画些巨大事件一篇完全和地道叙文。 他不肯定自己是目; 一些的他的个人知交易也许虽则涌出从他"完善的理解" 被推断他有了。 一些博学似乎画了个推断至于他全部, 并且安置了他在原始的; , 虽则维护和振振有的地面, 一般不被采取。 如果, 然后, 他没有写从他自己的个人知, 问题, 是他的证词法律字符?

If it were “the result of inquiries, made under competent public authority, concerning matters in which the public are concerned,” it would possess every legal attribute of an inquisition, and, as such, would be legally admissible in evidence, in a court of justice. To entitle such results, however, to our full confidence, it is not necessary that they should be obtained under a legal commission; it is sufficient if the inquiry is gravely undertaken and pursued, by a person of competent intelligence, sagacity and integrity. The request of a person in authority, or a desire to serve the public, are, to all moral intents, as sufficient a motive as a legal commission. Thus, we know that when complaint is made to the head of a department, of official misconduct or abuse, existing in some remote quarter, nothing is more common than to send some confidential person to the spot, to ascertain the facts and report them to the department; and this report is confidently adopted as the basis of its discretionary action, in the correction of that abuse, or the removal of the offender. Indeed, the result of any grave inquiry is equally certain to receive our confidence, though it may have been voluntarily undertaken, if the party making it had access to the means of complete and satisfactory information upon the subject. If, therefore, Luke’s Gospel were to be regarded only as the work of a contemporary historian, it would be entitled to our confidence. But it is more than this. It is the result of careful science, intelligence and education, concerning subjects which he was perfectly competent to peculiarly skilled, they being cases of the cure of maladies; subjects, too, of which he already had the perfect knowledge of a contemporary, and perhaps an eye-witness, but beyond doubt, familiar with the parties concerned in the transactions, and belonging to the community in which the events transpired, which were in the mouths of all; and the narrative, moreover, drawn up for the especial use, and probably at the request, of a man of distinction, whom it would not be for the interest nor safety of the writer to deceive or mislead. Such a document certainly possesses all the moral attributes of an inquest of office, or of any other official investigation of facts; and as such is entitled, in foro conscientiae, to be adduced of the matters it contains.

如果"询问, 做在能干政府当局之下, 于公众有的事,"它会侦查个法律属性, 并且, , 会是法律上可接受的在, 在法院。 给权这样结, 但是, 充分的信心, 它不是必要的, 们应该得在一个法定委会之下; 它是充足的如果询问被承担和重地被追求, 由能干智力的人, sagacity 和正直。 一个人的求在当局, 或欲望服公众, , 所有道德意向, 充足机作一个法定委会。 因而, 知道那当怨言发对, 正式不端行恶习, 存在在某一遥, 没什共同比派遣某些机要人到斑点, 明事和他向部门报; 并且告确信地被采取作它的任意行的依据, 在那恶习的更正, 者的撤除。 的确, 任一询问果相等地肯定接受我的信心, 然它也自愿被承担了, 如果党做它得以完全和令人意的信息手段的在主 如果, 因此, 克的福音将把视为只一位当代史学家的工作, 它会有得我的信心。 但它是更多比 是仔的科学的, 智力和教育, 于他是完全能干的奇怪地熟的主, 是病治的案件; , , 哪些他已把当代的完善的知, 并且或, 但在疑之外, 熟悉党有在交易, 并且属于事件蒸的社区, 哪些是在所有的嘴; 并且叙文, 而且, 勾画至于特使用, 并且大概在求下, 一个有名望的人, 它不会是作家的趣亦不安全欺引。 这样文件一定公室审讯的所有道德属性, 或事的其他正式调查; 并且作为这样给权, foro conscientiae, 它包含的例事

39.     John.  Fisherman.  夫。Son of Zebedee.  Zebedee 的儿子。

        John, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Revelation.


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:


John, the last of the evangelists, was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on the sea of Galilee. His father appears to have been a respectable man in his calling, owning his vessel and having hired servants. His mother, too, was among those who followed Jesus, and “ministered unto him” and to John himself, Jesus when on the cross, confided the care and support of his own mother. This disciple also seems to have been favorably known to the high priest, and to have influence in his family; by means of which he had the privilege of being present in his palace at the examination of his Master, and of introducing also Peter, his friend.

 

, 福音教士的为时, Zebedee 的儿子, Bethsaida , Galilee 海。 他的父看来是一个可敬的人在他叫, 有他的船和雇用仆人。 他的母, , 是在那些之中跟随耶, 并且"帮助了他" 对约, 当在十字架, 倾诉了他自己的母亲关心和支持。 这门徒并且似乎有利地知道高的教士, 并且有影响在他的家庭; 哪些他把特是存在在他的殿在他的大的考, 并且并且介彼得, 他的朋友。

 

He was the youngest of the apostles; was eminently the object of the Lord’s regard and confidence; was on various occasions admitted to free and intimate intercourse with him; and is described as “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” Hence he was present at several scenes, to which most of the others were not admitted. He alone, in company with Peter and James, was present at the resurrection of Jairus’s daughter, at the transfiguration on the mount, and at the agony of our Savior in the garden of Gethsemane. He was the only apostle who followed Jesus to the cross, he was the first of them at the sepulchre, and he was present at the several appearances of our Lord after his resurrection. These circumstances, together with his intimate friendship with the mother of Jesus, especially qualify him to give a circumstantial and authentic account of the life of his Master. After the ascension of Christ, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, John became one of the chief apostles of the circumcision, exercising his ministry in and near Jerusalem. From ecclesiastical history we learn that, after the death of Mary the mother of Jesus, he proceeded to Asia Minor, where he founded and presided over seven churches, in as many cities, but resided chiefly at Ephesus. Thence he was banished, in Domitian’s reign, to the isle of Patmos, where he wrote his Revelation. On the ascension of Nerva he was freed from exile, and returned to Ephesus, where he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and died at the age of one hundred years, about A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor Trajan.

 

他是最年轻传道者; 突出地是下的尊敬和信心的; 是在各合被承认释放和密的往来与他; 并且作"稣爱徒被描述。"因此他是存在在几个, 哪些多数其他未被承 , 在公司中与彼得和詹姆斯, 是存在在Jairus 的女儿的, 貌在登上, 并且在我的救主极度痛苦在Gethsemane 庭院里。 他是跟随耶稣对十字架的唯一的道者, 他是一他sepulchre, 并且他是存在在我下几次出在他的活以后。 些情况, 与他密的友一起与耶的母, 是合格他告他的大生活的一接和地道。 在基督以后上生, 并且圣灵的流出在Pentecost 的那天, 翰成了割除茎的首要道者的当中一个, 行使他的部和近耶路撒冷。 教士史我学会那, 玛丽以后死亡耶的母, 行了对亚裔少年, 那里他建立了和主持了七个教会, 多个城市, 但首要居住在Ephesus 他因此被逐了, Domitian 的王朝, Patmos , 那里他写了他的示。 Nerva 上生他被解救了从流放, 并且返回到Ephesus, 那里他写了他的福音, 并且死在一百年, A D 100, 在皇帝Trajan 的第三年。

The learned are not agreed as to the time when the Gospel of John was written; some dating it as early as the year 68, others as late as the year 98; but it is generally conceded to have been written after all the others. That is could not have been the work of Some Platonic Christian of a subsequent age, as some have without evidence asserted, is manifest from references to it by some of the early fathers, and from the concurring testimony of many other writers of the ancient Christian church.

博学不同意至于候当翰福音被写了; 一些会它尽早年68, 其他人一后象年98; 但它一般被承被写了在所有其他以后。 那是不能是随后年的某些帕拉式的基督徒工作, 如同一些有没有据被断言, 是明的从在它的参考由一些早期父, 并且从古老基督教会的多其它作家同意证词

That is was written either with especial reference to the Gentiles, or at a period when very many of them had become converts to Christianity, is inferred from the various explanations it contains, beyond the other Gospels, which could have been necessary only to persons unacquainted with Jewish names and customs. And that it was written after all the others, and to supply their omissions, is concluded, not only from the uniform tradition and belief in the church, but from his studied omission of most of the transactions noticed by the others, and from his care to mention several incidents which were known to him, is too evident to admit of doubt; while his omission to repeat what they had already stated, or, where he does mention the same things, his relating them in a brief and cursory manner, affords incidental but strong testimony that he regarded their accounts as faithful and true.”

那是被写了或者在外邦人的特别关, 或在期当很多他有成的改信仰者基督教, 从它包含的各的解被推断, 在其它福音之外, 哪些能是必要的只unacquainted 以犹太名字和俗。 并且那它被写了在所有其他以后, 并且供, , 从一致的传统和信仰在教会里, 但从他的学了大多的漏交易由其他注意, 并且从他的心提及人所知他的几次事件, 然的以至于不能承; 当他的漏重覆什经陈, , 那里他提及同, 他的系他要和粗略方式, 得起偶事件但证词, 认为帐户和真。”

Further discussion on Gospel authorship, dating and authenticity can be found here:

于福音着作的讨论, 会和真性可能被发现这:

http://www.tektonics.org/ntdocdef/gospdefhub.html

 

40.  Paul.  Rabbi.  犹太教教士。Tent-maker.  Tent-maker

       Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon.


Paul, in his own words, before the witness of King Herod Agrippa II, his wife Bernice, Governor Festus, and Luke:

, 在他自己的, Herod Agrippa II 的国王之前, 他的妻子Bernice, Festus, 并且:


使 26:4-26

 4

 5

 6

 7

 8

 9

 10

 11

 12

 13

 14

 15

 16

 17

 18

 19

 20

 21 殿

 22 西

 23

 24

 25

 26


See also使 9:1-19; 使 22:6-16 

 


41.
      Peter.  Fisherman. 夫。

        1 Peter, 2 Peter.


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:


有并且一醒目的自然在字符被列在神圣的史学家, 很少如果曾经发现在小工作, 并且大概无被收集以相似的方式从零星和偶然生的暗指和表示, 在不同的人文字。  例如, 那彼得, 如同它也被会集从福音教士, 并且它将是几乎不可能想四个人, 写在不同的, 能同意在这样字符的描述, 如果它不是真正的; 字符, 须观, 哪些明确地无被画, 但只各, 偶然地, 在主要叙文的下部份。  因而和忱人; 突然和冲, 谦逊和准; 诚实和直接在他的目的; 他的大, 短少在毅和硬上在他的起因。 当耶提出了任何问题对传道者, 是是首要回的彼得, 并且如果他询问, 是最准讲话的彼得。  他有浮躁勇气切除高的教士的仆人的耳, 来拘捕他的大; 并且弱点拆卸在犹太人之前, 在吃与外邦人改信仰者。  是他跑与翰到sepulchre, 在耶活的第一智力, 并且以典型忱冲, 翰停留了没有  他有望和信念试图走在水, 在他的下命令; 但当他看聒噪, 他害怕。   他是一提出其它道者的竞选Judas 地方, 并且他它是敢地被保全部, Pentecost 的那天, 多充与用新酒被填装。  他是向前承是耶; 由使之后被危及他自己的生活最高的教士的仆人受, 他突然咨他自己的安全由否, 为谁, 但几个小前面, 他自称准死。  安全地肯定, 史册不得起一个相似而是没有不凡的字符的例子, 因而附描述。


42.
     James.  Brother of Jesus.  的兄弟。

        Book of James.

 

43.   Jude.  Brother of James and Judas. 詹姆斯和Judas 的兄弟。

        Book of Jude.

 

44.  Writer of Hebrews (Paul or Apollos).

       Book of Hebrews.


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:


“Such are the brief histories of men, whose narratives we are to examine and compare; conducting the examination and weighing the testimony by the same rules and principles which govern our tribunals of justice in similar cases. These tribunals are in such cases governed by the following fundamental rule;--

"这样是人的要的, 叙文我审查和比; 举办和斟酌证词由治理正的法庭在相似的案件的同样规则和原 些法庭在些情况下由以下根本规则治理;--


In trials of fact, by oral testimony, the proper inquiry is not whether is it possible that the testimony may be false, but whether there is sufficient probability that it is true.

在事实试验, 由口头证词, 适当的询问不是是否是它可能证词是假的, 但是否有充足的可能性是真的。


It should be observed that the subject of inquiry is a matter of fact, and not of abstract mathematical truth. the latter alone is susceptible of that high degree of proof, usually termed demonstration, which excludes the possibility of error, and which therefore may reasonably be required in support of every mathematical deduction. But the proof of matters of fact rests upon moral evidence alone; by which is meant not merely that species of evidence which we do not obtain either from our own senses, from intuition, or from demonstration. In the ordinary affairs of life we do not require nor expect demonstrative evidence, because it is inconsistent with the nature of matters of fact, and to insist on its production would be unreasonable and absurd. And it makes no difference, whether the facts to be proved related to this life or to the next, the nature of the evidence required being in both cases the same. The error of the skeptic consists in pretending or supposing that there is a difference in the nature of the things to be proved; and in demanding demonstrative evidence concerning things which are not susceptible of any other than moral evidence alone, and of which the utmost that can be said is, that there is no reasonable doubt about their truth.”

应该, 询问实际, 并且不是抽象数学真相。 后者独是易受那高度, 通常被命名的示范, 哪些排除错误的可能性, 并且也因此合理地必需支持数学扣除。 实际明休息在道德; 由哪些不仅仅意味据的种类得或者从我自己的感, 从直, 或从示范。 在生活普通的事理我不需要亦不不期待示范性的, 它与实际上的本是不一致, 并且持它的生会是不合情理和荒的。 并且它不, 是否事明相关对这生活或, 据的本要求是在两个案件相同。 怀疑者的错误包括在假装或假定有区必然事被; 并且在demanding 示范性的于不是易受任何不同于道德独的事, 并且哪些可能是前述的最大是, 那那里是的真相的没有合理的疑。”

 

I. The Moral Imperative.

I. 道德规则

Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists:


“The credit due to the testimony of witnesses depends upon, firstly, their honesty; secondly, their ability; thirdly, their number and the consistency of their testimony; fourthly, the conformity of their testimony with experience; and fifthly, the coincidence of their testimony with collateral circumstances.

"信用由于证词依靠, 首先, 诚实; 第二, 的能力; 第三, 的数字和他证词; 第四, 证词整合以经验; 并且fifthly, 证词巧合以抵押情况。


Let the evangelists be tried by these tests.

福音教士由测试尝试


And first, as to their honesty. Here they are entitled to the benefit of the general course of human experience, that men ordinarily speak the truth, when they have no prevailing motive or inducement to the contrary. This presumption, to which we have before alluded, is applied in courts of justice, even to witnesses whose integrity is not wholly free from suspicion; much more is it applicable to the evangelists, whose testimony went against all their worldly interests. The great truths which the apostles declared, were that Christ had risen from the dead, and that only through repentance from sin, and faith in him, could men hope for salvation. This doctrine they asserted with one voice, everywhere, not only under the greatest discouragements, but in the face of the most appalling terrors that can be presented to the mind of man. Their master had recently perished as a malefactor, by the sentence of a public tribunal. His religion sought to overthrow the religions of the whole world. The laws of every country were against the teaching of his disciples. The interests and passions of all the rulers and great men in the world were against them. The fashion of the world was against them. Propagating this new faith, even in the most inoffensive and peaceful manner, they could expect nothing but contempt, opposition, revilings, bitter persecutions, stripes imprisonments, torments and cruel deaths. Yet this faith they zealously did propagate; and all these miseries they endured undismayed, nay, rejoicing. As one after another was put to a miserable death, the survivors only prosecuted their work with increased vigor and resolution. The annals of military warfare afford scarcely an example of the like heroic constancy, patience and unblenching courage. They had every possible motive to review carefully the grounds of their faith, and the evidences of the great facts and truths which they asserted; and these motives were pressed upon their attention with the most melancholy and terrific frequency. It was therefore impossible that they could have persisted in affirming the truths they have narrated, had not Jesus actually rose from the dead, and had they not known this fact as certainly as they knew any other fact. If it were morally possible for them to have been deceived in this matter, every human motive operated to lead them to discover and avow their error. To have persisted in so gross a falsehood, after it was known to them, was not only to encounter, for life, all the evils which man could inflict, from without, but to endure also the pangs of inward and conscious guilt; with no hope of future peace, no testimony of a good conscience, no expectation of honor or esteem among men, no hope of happiness in this life, or in the world to come. Such conduct in the apostles would moreover have been utterly irreconcilable with the fact, that they possessed the ordinary constitution of our common nature. Yet their lives do show them to have been men like all others of our race; swayed by the same motives, animated by the same hopes, affected by the same joys, subdued by the same sorrows, agitated by the same fears, and subject to the same passions, temptations and infirmities, as ourselves. And their writings show them to have been men of vigorous understandings. If then their testimony was not true, there was no possible motive for this fabrication.”


 并且首先, 至于他诚实 到了有得人的经验一般路线的好, 那人通常真相, 当他没有战胜机或引相反。 个推, 哪些我有在暗示之前, 被申在法院, 正直不完全是从怀疑解脱的; 更多是它可适用福音教士, 证词去反所有他趣。 道者宣称的巨大真相, , 基督从死者起来了, 并且那只通悔悟从罪孽, 并且信念在他, 救世的人希望。 异口同声断言的教条, , 在最巨大的挫折之下, 但在可能被提出人的头脑的最人的恐怖面前。 的大最近了作罪犯, 由一个公法庭的句子。 他的宗教求推翻全世界的宗教。 个国家法律是反他的教学徒。 所有治者和了不起的人趣和激情在世界是反。 世界的尚是反。 繁殖新信念, 以最无碍和最平安的方式, 能期待没什但蔑, , revilings, 迫害, 镶边监, torments 和残暴的死亡。 他们热忱地繁殖的信念; 并且所有些苦忍受了undismayed, nay, rejoicing 。 和逐个被投入了凄惨的死亡, 幸存者只控了他的工作以增加的健和决争史册缺乏地得起等等英勇定型性例子, 耐心和unblenching 的勇气。 他个可能的机仔地回的信念地面, 并且他断言巨大事和真相的; 并且机被按了在他的注意以多数郁和妙极率。 它是因此不可能的, 持了在肯定真相他叙述, 没有耶从死者实际上上升了, 并且有他一定没已知个事象他知道其他事。 如果它是道德上可能被欺了在问题, 个人的经营带领们发现誓他错误持了在很虚假, 在它人所知之后, 是遇到, 生活, 人能予的所有罪, 从无, 但并且忍受内部和神志清楚的罪状; 没有未来和平希望, 好良心的没有证词, 誉或声望的没有期望在人之中, 幸福没有希望在生活中, 或在世界来。 这样的品行在道者而且会是完全地不可和的以事, 们拥有了我共同的自然的普通的法。 他的生活示他是人象其他我; 由同样动摇摆, 由同希望予生命, 由同喜悦影响, 由同哀痛制服, 由同恐惧鼓, 并且依于同激情, 惑和体弱, 自己。 并且他的文字示他苍劲的理解的人。 如果他证词然后不是真, 没有可能的为这制造。”

 

 

A. The prophets and the apostles knew the law regarding false witness.

20:16 
    16

 

23:1

    1

 

5:20 
    20

 

11:1 
    1  

 

13:1-3
    1

    2  

    3    

 

18:22
    22

 

19:15
    15


6:19
    19
 

12:17
    17


14:5
    5

 

14:25
    25
 

19:28
    28

 

24:28
    28

 

25:18
    18

 

8:16
    16 使

 

7:15 
    15

 

15:19
    19 ?

 

19:17-19
    17

    18

    19


10:19 
    19


18:20
    20


使 6:13 
    13


13:9
    9


13:1
    1
 

 

B.  The prophets and the apostles knew the consequences for disobeying the law.


5:1

    1