Scientists of the Christian Faith:

 From the Era of Galileo


The Galileo Project is a hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time. The project, whose homepage is here:, is supported by the Office of the Vice President of Computing of Rice University. The initial stages were made possible by a grant from the Council on Library Resources to Fondren Library.  Contributors to the Project are noted here:  Albert Van Helden, Lynette Autrey Professor of History at Rice University, is responsible for the written text in the Project (except where otherwise noted). The Project features a Catalog of the Scientific Community of the 16th and 17th Centuries at  This is a searchable database of detailed histories of over 600 individuals who made significant contributions to Western science. These histories have been compiled by Richard S. Westfall, Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University.  From this I’ve compiled a list of 522 Galileo-era scientists known to be Christians, with links to biographies from the Galileo Project.


For a comprehensive list of pioneers, practitioners and supporters of modern science, please click here:


Abreu, Aleixo de


Acosta, Cristobal


Acosta, Jose de


Agricola, Georgius [Georg Bauer]


Aguilon, Francois d'


Alberti, Salomon



Aldrovandi, Ulisse


Alpini [Alpino], Prospero



Anthelme, Voituret



Anthonisz, Adriaan


Apian [Bienewitz or Bennewitz], Peter


Aranzio [Aranzi], Giulio Cesare


Arbuthnot, John


Argenville, Antoine-Joseph Dezalier d' [Dezalier d'Argenville]


Aromatari, Giuseppe degli


Aselli, Gaspare



Auzout, Adrien



Bachmann, Augustus Quirinus [Rivinus]


Baier, Johann Jacob


Baillou, Guillaume de


Baldi, Bernadino



Baliani, Giovanni Battista


Banister, John


Barba, Alvaro Alonso


Barchusen, Johann Conrad


Barrow, Isaac


Bartholin, Caspar



Bartholin, Erasmus



Bartholin, Thomas



Bartoli. Daniello


Bartolotti, Gian Giacomo


Bauhin, Gaspard


Bauhin, Jean


Becher [Beccher], Johann Joachim



Beeckman, Isaac


Beguin, Jean


Bellini, Lorenzo


Belon, Pierre


Benedetti, Giovanni Battista


Bidloo, Govard


Billy, Jacques de


Biringuccio, Vannoccio


Blaeu, Willem Janszoon


Blondel, Nicolas-Francois


Boerhaave, Hermann


Bohn, Johannes

Bombelli, Rafael


Bonomo [Bonomi], Giovan


Bonaventura, Federigo


Boodt, Anselmus Boetius de


Borel, Pierre


Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso


Borrichius [Borch], Olaus


Botallo [Botalli, Botal], Leonardo


Boulliau, Ismael




Bourguet, Louis


Boyle, Robert


Brahe, Tycho


Bramer, Benjamin


Briggs, Henry


Bromell [Bromelius], Magnus von


Brouncker, William


Browne, Thomas


Brozek, Jan [Broscius, Brocki, Broski, Broszcz, Brzoski, Zbroek]


Brunfels, Otto


Buergi, Joost


Buono, Paolo del


Buot, Jacques


Buteo, Johannes


Cabeo, Niccolo


Caius [Keys, Kees], John


Campani, Giuseppe


Camerarius (Camerer), Rudolf Jakob


Canano [Canani, Cannano], Giovanni Battista


Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan


Carcavi [Carcavy], Pierre de


Casal Julian, Gaspar R. F. N.


Casseri [Casserio], Giulio


Cassini, Gian Domenico [Cassini I]


Cassini, Jacques [Cassini II]


Castelli, Benedetto


Cataldi, Pietro Antonio


Cavalieri, Bonaventura


Celaya, Juan de


Cesi, Federico


Cestoni, Giacinto [Diacinto]


Ceulen, Ludolph van


Ceva, Giovanni


Ceva, Tomasso


Charleton, Walter


Cheyne, George


Childrey, Joshua


Christmann, Jacob


Clavius [Klau], Christoph

Clersellier, Claude

Coiter, Volcher

Colombo, Realdo


Commandino, Federico


Copernicus, Nicolas


Cordus, Euricius


Cordus, Valerius


Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria


Cortes de Albacar, Martin


Crabtree, William


Crollius [Croll], Oswald

Croone [Croune], William


Crousaz, Jean-Pierre de

Cysat, Johann Baptist

Dalechamps, Jacques

Dalencé, Joachim


Danti, Egnatio [Egnazio, Ignazio]


Dasypodius [Rauchfuss], Cunradus

Dechales, Claude F. M.

De Groot, Jan Cornets (NNBW gives his name also as Johan Hugo de

Delamain [Delamaine], Richard

Delisle, Guillaume

Derham, William

Descartes, René


Digges, Leonard

Digges, Thomas

Divini, Eustachio

Dodart, Denis

Dodoens, Rembert

Dominis, Marko Antonije

Doppelmayr, Johan Gabriel


Douglas, James

Drebbel, Cornelius

Dubois, Jacques

Duchesne [Quercetanus], Joseph


Dudith [Duditus], Andreas


Dudley, Robert

Duerer, Albrecht

Duhamel, Jean-Baptiste

Duverney [Du Verney], Joseph-Guichard

Edwardes [Edgaurdus], David

Ent, George

Erastus [Lieber], Thomas


Ercker [Erckner, Erckel], Lazarus


Estienne, Charles [Carolus Stephanus]


Eustachi, Bartolomeo

Evelyn, John


Fabri [Fabry], Honoré


Fabrici [Fabricius, Fabrizi], Girolamo


Falloppio [Falloppia, in a variety of spellings], Gabriele


Fernel, Jean Francois


Ferrari, Ludovico


Feuillée, Louis


Finé, Oronce


Fink [Fincke], Thomas


Flamsteed, John

Fleischer, Johannes

Fracastoro, Girolamo


Freind, John

Gagliardi, Domenico

Galilei, Galileo

Galilei, Vincenzio

Gallois [Galloys], Jean

Gascoigne, William

Gassendi [Gassend], Pierre

Gellibrand, Henry

Gemma Frisius, Reiner [Regner, Regnier]


Geoffroy, Étienne-François

Gerard, John

Gerbezius, Marcus [Marko Gerbec]

Gesner [Gessner], Konrad

Ghetaldi [Ghettaldi], Marino

Ghini, Luca

Gilbert [Gilberd], William

Girard, Albert

Glaser, Christopher


Glaser, Johann Heinrich


Glauber, Johann Rudolf

Glisson, Francis

Goedaert, Joannes

Graaf, Regnier de

Graham, George

Grandi, Guido

Graunt, John

Gray, Stephen

Gregory [Gregorie], David

Gregory [Gregorie], James

Grew, Nehemiah

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Guericke [Gericke], Otto von

Guidi, Guido [Vidus, Vidius]

Guinter, [Winther von Andernach] Joannes

Gunter, Edmund

Haak, Theodore

Hakluyt, Richard

Hales, Stephen

Halley, Edmond***


Harris, John

Hartlib, Samuel

Hartmann, Georg

Hartmann, Johannes

Hartsoeker, Nicolaas

Harvey, William

Hauksbee, Francis

Havers, Clopton

Helmont, Johannes Baptista Van

Henckel, Johann Friedrich

Henrion, Denis

Hermann, Jakob

Heuraet, Hendrik van

Heurne, Jan van

Hevelius, Johannes

Hiaerne [Hjarne], Urban

Highmore [Heighmore], Nathaniel

Hoffmann, Friedrich

Homberg, Wilhelm

Hooke, Robert

Horne, Johannes van

Horrebow, Peder Nielsen

Horrocks, Jeremiah


Hortensius, Martinus [Ortensius or Van den Hove, Maarten]

Hudde, Jan

Huygens, Christiaan

Ingrassia, Giovanni Filippo

Joblot, Louis

Johnson, Thomas

Johnson, William

Jones, William

Jonston, John

Juncker, Johann

Jungius, Joachim

Kaempfer, Engelbert

Keckermann, Bartholomew

Keill, James

Keill, John

Kellner, David

Kepler, Johannes

Khunrath [Kunrath, Kuhnrat[h], Cunradius, Conrathus], Conrad

Khunrath [Kunrath], Heinrich

Kirch, Gottfried

Kirch, Maria Margarethe Winkelmann

Kircher, Athanasius

Koenig, Emanuel

Kunckel, Johann

La Brosse, Guy de

La Faille, Jean Charles de

Lagny, Thomas Fantet de

La Hire, Gabriel-Philippe de [Philippe II]

La Hire, Philippe de [Philippe I]

Lalouvere [Lalouère, La Loubère, Lalovera], Antoine de

Lamy, Bernard

Lancisi, Giovanni Maria

Lang, Karl Nikolaus

Langren, Michael Florent van

Lansberge, Philip van [Lansbergen, Philips]

La Roche, Estienne de [Villefranche]

Lavanha, Joao Baptista

Lax, Gaspar

l'Écluse, Charles de [Carolus Clusius]


Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van


Le Febvre, Nicaise

LeFevre [LeFebvre], Jean

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm

Lémery, Louis

Lemery, Nicolas

Le Poivre, Jacques-François

L'Hospital, Guillaume-François-Antoine de

Lhwyd [Llhwyd, Lhuyd, Llwyd, Lloyd, Floyd, Luidius], Edward

Libavius [Libau], Andreas

Lister, Martin


L'Obel, Mathias de [He signed himself L'Obel; Biographie

Logan, James

Lonicerus [Lonitzer], Adam

Lower, Richard

Locke, John

Lusitanus, Amatus (Rodrigues, Joao)

Maestlin, Michael

Magalotti, Lorenzo

Magati, Cesare

Maggi, Bartolomeo

Magiotti, Raffaello

Magni, Valeriano

Magnol, Pierre

Magnitsky, Leonty Filippovich


Magnus, Olaus


Maignan, Emanuel

Mairan, Jean Jacques d'Ortous de

Malebranche, Nicolas

Malpighi, Marcello

Manfredi, Eustachio

Maraldi, Giacomo Filippo

Marchant, Jean

Marchant, Nicolas

Marci of Kronland, Joh. M. [Marcus Marci]

Mariotte, Edme

Markgraf [Marcgraf], Georg

Marsili [Marsigli], Luigi Ferdinando

Martinez, Crisostomo

Massa, Niccolo

Mattioli [Mattiolo], Pietro Andrea Gregorio [Pierandrea]

Maurolico [Marul, Marol], Francesco

Mayow [Mayouwe, Mayo], John

Medina, Pedro de

Mello, Francisco de

Mengoli, Pietro

Mercati, Michele

Mercator, Gerardus [Gerhard Kremer]

Merrett [Merret], Christopher

Mersenne, Marin

Mery, Jean

Metius, Adriaan

Metius, Jacob

Micheli, Pier' Antonio

Michelini, Famiano

Millington, Thomas


Moffett [Moufet, Mouffet, Muffet, Muffett], Thomas

Mohr, Georg

Moivre [De Moivre, Demoivre], Abraham De

Privat de Molières, Joseph

Molyneux, William

Monardes, Nicolas Bautista

Monte, Guidobaldo del [from the Latinized version, sometimes

Montmor, Henri Louis Habert de

Montmort, Pierre Remond de

Montanari, Geminiano

Moray [Murrey, Murray], Sir Robert

More, Henry

Morison, Robert

Morland, Samuel

Morton, John

Mouton, Gabriel

Muenster, Sebastian

Muralt, Johannes von

Mydorge, Claude

Mylon, Claude

Napier [Neper and numerous other forms], John

Neander, Michael

Neri, Antonio

Newcomen, Thomas

Newton, Isaac

Niceron, Jean-François

Nieuwentijt, Bernard

Noel, Etienne


Norwood, Richard

Nuñez Salaciense, Pedro

Odierna [Hodierna], Gioanbatista [Giovan or Giovanni Battista]

Oldenburg, Henry

Ortega, Juan de

Ortelius [Ortels], Abraham

Oughtred [Owtred], William

Owen, George

Ozanam, Jacques

Pacchioni, Antonio

Palissy, Bernard

Papin, Denis [Denys]

Pardies, Ignace Gaston

Paré, Ambroise

Parent, Antoine

Pascal, Blaise

Psacal, Etienne

Patrizi [Patrizzi, Patricio, Patricius], Francesco

Paulli, Simon

Pecquet, Jean

Peiresc, Nicolas Claude Fabri de

Peletier, Jacques

Pell [Pellius], John


Pereira [Pererius], Benedictus

Perrault, Claude

Perrault, Pierre

Petit, Pierre

Peyer, Johann Conrad

Picard, Jean

Piccolomini, Arcangelo

Pires, Tomé

Piso, Willem

Pitiscus, Bartholomeo

Platter, Félix


Plumier, Charles

Polinière, Pierre

Porta, Giambattista della

Pourfour du Petit, François

Power, Henry

Ramus, Peter

Rauwolf, Leonhard

Ray [Wray], John

Recorde, Robert

Redi, Francesco

Reinhold, Erasmus

Rey, Jean

Reyna [Reina], Francisco de la

Reyneau, Charles René

Rheita, Anton Maria Schyrlaeus

Riccati, Iacopo Francesco

Ricci, Matteo

Ricci, Michelangelo

Ricci, Ostilio

Riccioli, Giambattista

Richer, Jean

Ries [Risz, Riesz, Ris, or Riese], Adam

Riolan, Jean, Jr.

Risner [Reisner, Risnerus], Friedrich

Roberval, Gilles Personne de

Roemer, Ole Christensen

Rohault, Jacques

Rolfinck, Guerner [Werner]

Rolle, Michel

Rondelet, Guillaume

Rooke, Lawerence

Roomen, Andriaan van

Rothmann, Christoph

Rudbeck, Olof

Rudolff [Rudolf], Christoff

Ruel, Jean

Ruini, Carlo

Ruland, Martin

Ruysch, Frederik

Saccheri, Giovanni Girolamo

Saint Vincent, Gregorius [Gregory of Saint Vincent]

Sala, Angelo [Angelus]

Sallo, Denys [Denis] de

Salviani, Ippolito

Sanchez [Sanches], Francisco

Santorio, Santorio

Saurin, Joseph

Sauveur, Joseph

Scaliger [Bordon, Bordonius], Julius Caesar

Schegk [Schegkius, Scheggius, Degen], Jakob [Jacobus]

Scheiner, Christoph

Schickard, Wilhelm

Schooten, Frans van

Schott, Gaspar

Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob

Scilla, Agostino

Sennert, Daniel

Serres, Olivier de

Severin [Soerensen, Longomontanus], Christian

Severino, Marco Aurelio

Severinus [Sorensen], Petrus [Peder]

Shakerley, Jeremy

Sharrock, Robert

Sherard, William

Sigüenza y Gongora, Carlos de

Sloane, Sir Hans

Sluse, René-Francois de

Snel [Snellius or Snel van Royen], Willebrord

Spiegel, Adriaan van den [Spieghel, Spigelius, Spiegelius,


Stahl, Georg Ernst

Stampioen, Jan Jansz. de Jonge

Stelluti, Francesco


Stensen [Steno], Niels

Stevin, Simon

Stifel [Styfel], Michael

Strachey, John

Streete, Thomas

Struss, Jozef

Stuart, Alexander

Swammerdam, Jan

Sydenham, Thomas

Sylvius, Franciscus dele Bo

Tabor, John

Tacquet, Andreas

Tarde, Jean

Tartaglia [Tartaleo, Tartaia], Niccolo

Telesio, Bernardino

Ten Rhyne (Rhijne), Willem

Thévenot, Melchisédech

Thomaz, Alvaro [Alvaro Tomas, Alvarus Thomas]

Torricelli, Evangelista

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

Towneley, Richard

Tozzi, Bruno

Tradescant, John (I)

Tradescant, John (II)

Trulli [Trullio, Trullius], Giovanni

Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walther

Tulp, Nicolaas

Tunstall [Tunstal, Tonstall], Cuthbert

Turner, Peter

Turner, William

Turquet de Mayerne, Theodore


Vaillant, Sebastien

Valerio [Valeri], Luca

Valsalva, Anton [Antonio] Maria

Vallisnieri [Vallisneri], Antonio

Valverde, Juan de

Varenius [Varen], Bernhard

Varignon, Pierre

Varolio, Costanzo

Vauban, Sebastien

Verantius, Faustus [Vrancic, Faust]

Vernier, Pierre

Vesalius, Andreas

Vesling, [Veslingius], Johann

Vieussens, Raymond

Vigani, John Francis

Viviani, Vincenzio

Vlacq [Vlack, Vlaccus], Adriaan

Wallis John

Ward, Seth

Wedel, Georg Wolfgang

Wendelin [Vendelinus], Gottfried

Wepfer, Johann-Jakob

Wharton, Thomas

Whiston, William

White [Blacklo, Blacklow, Blackloe, Vitus, Albius, Anglus,

Wieland [Guilandinus, Villandino], Melchior

Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

Wilkins, John

Willis, Thomas

Willughby [Willoughby], Francis

Winslow, Jacob

Winthrop, John

Witt, Jan de

Wittich, Paul

Wolff, Christian

Woodward, John

Worm, Ole

Wotton, Edward

Wren, Christopher

Wright, Edward

Zaluzansky ze Zaluzan, Adam

Zambeccari, Giuseppe

Zucchi, Niccolo

Zwelfer [Zwelffer, Zwölfer], Johann