Scientists of the Christian Faith: A Presentation of the Pioneers, Practitioners and Supporters of Modern Science
Compiled by W. R. Miller
Is Christianity based upon fabrication, fables and falsehoods? If one believes the eyewitness accounts of the Bible, does that make one ignorant, irrational, even insane?
Anti-theists seem to think so.
"Religion is fundamentally opposed to everything I hold in veneration-courage, clear thinking, honesty, fairness, and, above all, love of the truth." -- Henry Louis "H.L." Mencken, American editor and critic (1880-1956).
As we shall see, these notable skeptics have failed to do their homework, as have skeptics who propogate these quotes on their websites. History itself reveals that mankind's greatest minds - scholars, mathematicians, doctors, lawyers, historians, engineers, and yes, scientists and inventors - have been, and continue to be Christians.
David F. Coppedge at http://creationsafaris.com/wgcs.htm points out that:
This collection presents over 1600 mini-biographies of scientists of the Christian faith-including scholars, mathematicians, and theologians who advanced the cause of science. These Christians pioneered disciplines ranging from oceanography to astronomy, geology to biology, rocket science to genetics. The mini-biographies are presented in alphabetical order. Beginning March 2007 for ease of reference we are dividing each letter of the alphabet into its ownb separate page. Links to online websites are provided for those wishing to research a particular scientist. Researchers are invited to order the biographies by clicking on the hypertext, as well as check out the biographies published by Gale.
I have relied upon the lists of Henry Morris (Men of Science, Men of God (ISBN 0-890510-80-6), Mike Poole (the booklet God and the Scientists, ISBN 1-901796-02-7), Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher (Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, ISBN 0-8024-7634-1), Paul M. Anderson (Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, ISBN 0-8308-1599-6), Henry Schaefer III (website at http://www.chem.uga.edu/doc/ResFacHFS.html and http://leaderu.com/offices/schaefer/docs/scientists.html), Dan Graves (Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, ISBN 0-8254-2024-X and Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, ISBN 0-8254-2034-7, website http://www.rae.org/influsci.html), the NAHSTE Project (http://www.nahste.ac.uk/project/index.html), the School_of_Mathematics_and_Statistics University_of_St_Andrews,_Scotland (http://www-maths.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/), Colin Webster's essay at http://www.cornerstoneuk.org.uk/q1_sci2.html, Dr. Don DeYoung's "Men and Women of Mathematics and of God," at http://www.creationresearch.org/creation_matters/98/cm9811.html, a small list of English scientists by P.S.Williams (BA - Cardiff, MA - Sheffield), from "Thinking Through. . . Jesus - Divine and Human?" at http://www.peter-s-williams.co.uk/The%20Real%20Jesus/Jesus.doc plus the databases at the online Gale Biography Resource Center, which include Merriam-Webster's Biographical Dictionary, Encyclopedia of World Biography, Notable Women Scientists, Contemporary Black Biography, Explorers and Discoverers of the World, Marquis Who's Who TM and Contemporary Authors Online.
Roughly a third of the scientists have biographies posted at The Galileo Project, a hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the scientists of his time. The project, whose homepage is here: http://galileo.rice.edu/ is supported by the Office of the Vice President of Computing at Rice University. The initial stages were made possible by a grant from the Council on Library Resources to Fondren Library. Contributors to the Project are noted here: http://galileo.rice.edu/About/galileo_development.html. Albert Van Helden, Lynette Autrey Professor of History at Rice University, is responsible for the written text in the Project (except where otherwise noted). The Project features a Catalog of the Scientific Community of the 16th and 17th Centuries. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/catalog.html. This is a searchable database of detailed histories of over 600 individuals who made significant contributions to Western science. These histories have been compiled by Richard S. Westfall, Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University. From this I've compiled a list of 522 Galileo-era scientists known to be Christians, with links to biographies at The Galileo Project. For quick and easy reference, researchers can access this list here: http://www.tektonics.org/scim/galilmony.html
Database information can be found at: http://www.galegroup.com/BiographyRC/, and at a library that subscribes to the Gale Biography service. "Not in Gale" simply means the scientist has no extensive biography in the online Gale databases; however, their bios may be found in the print editions. A separate section lists an additional 35 science practitioners who are probable Christians, though I have been unable to confirm this through online research.
This listing is by no means definitive, or complete. There are/have been literally thousands of Christians involved in the sciences.
Dr. Francis S. Collins is Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. He currently leads the Human Genome Project, directed at mapping and sequencing all of human DNA, and determining aspects of its function. His previous research has identified the genes responsible for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntington's disease and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. For the rest of his credentials, click on the link here: http://www.genome.gov/10000980. Collins spoke with Bob Abernethy of PBS, posted online at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/transcripts/collins.html, in which he summaries the compatability of fact and faith thusly:
"I think there's a common assumption that you cannot both be a rigorous, show-me-the-data scientist and a person who believes in a personal God. I would like to say that from my perspective that assumption is incorrect; that, in fact, these two areas are entirely compatible and not only can exist within the same person, but can exist in a very synthetic way, and not in a compartmentalized way. I have no reason to see a discordance between what I know as a scientist who spends all day studying the genome of humans and what I believe as somebody who pays a lot of attention to what the Bible has taught me about God and about Jesus Christ. Those are entirely compatible views.
"Science is the way -- a powerful way, indeed -- to study the natural world. Science is not particularly effective -- in fact, it's rather ineffective -- in making commentary about the supernatural world. Both worlds, for me, are quite real and quite important. They are investigated in different ways. They coexist. They illuminate each other. And it is a great joy to be in a position of being able to bring both of those points of view to bear in any given day of the week. The notion that you have to sort of choose one or the other is a terrible myth that has been put forward, and which many people have bought into without really having a chance to examine the evidence. I came to my faith not, actually, in a circumstance where it was drummed into me as a child, which people tend to assume of any scientist who still has a personal faith in God; but actually by a series of compelling, logical arguments, many of them put forward by C. S. Lewis, that got me to the precipice of saying, 'Faith is actually plausible.' You still have to make that step. You will still have to decide for yourself whether to believe. But you can get very close to that by intellect alone."
Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index
Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]
Appendix 1: Christian Pioneers of Modern Science
Daniel Graves, author of Scientists of Faith and Doctors Who Followed Christ, writes: "Many of the sciences derive directly from the work of a Christian or were greatly influenced at their inception by a Christian. … It may seem an outrageous claim that Christians were seminal to much of what dominates modern scientific thinking, but it is true. There is hardly a science or scientific idea which cannot trace its inception as a viable theory to some Christian."
A careful study of history reveals that technology and modern science was, in fact, pioneered by Christians. The case is made by Dr. Ian Hutchison and Dr. Loren Eiseley (below) and at the essays found at the subsequent links.
Ian H.Hutchinson, Head of Department of Nuclear Energy. Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. ASA Conference, 4 August 2002. "Science: Christian and Natural," http://hutchinson.belmont.ma.us/asa2002/.
Going further, though, I believe there is a constructive case to be made for the phrase Christian Science.
First, as represented by the theme of this conference "Christian Pioneers", we should recognize that modern science is built upon the foundational work of people who more than anything else were Christians. Christians were the pioneers of the revolution of thought that brought about our modern understanding of the world. MIT, my home institution, the high-temple of science and technology in the United States, has a pseudo-Greek temple architecture about its main buildings. The fluted columns are topped not with baccanalian freizes, but with the names of the historical heroes of science (not to mention William Barton Rogers, the founder). A rough assessment was carried out by a few of us some years ago of the fraction of the people listed there who were Christians. The estimate we arrived at was about 60%.
Any list of the giants of physical science would include Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, Pascal, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, all of whom, despite denominational and doctrinal differences among them, and opposition that some experienced from church authorities, were deeply committed to Jesus Christ.
Second, I observed over the years in my interactions with Christians in academia, that far from scientists being weakly represented in the ranks of the faithful, as one would expect if science and faith are incompatible, they are strongly overrepresented. The sociological evidence has been studied systematically for example by Robert Wuthnow [Robert Wuthnow, The Struggle for America's Soul, Eerdmanns, Grand Rapids, (1989), p146.], who established that while academics undoubtedly tend to be believers in lower proportion than the US population as a whole, among academics, scientists were proportionally more likely to be Christians that those in the non-science disciplines. The common misconception that scientists were or are inevitably sundered from the Christian faith by their science is simply false.
Third, the question arises, why did modern science grow up almost entirely in the West, where Christian thinking held sway? There were civilizations of comparable stability, prosperity, and in many cases technology, in China, Japan, and India. Why did they not develop science? It is acknowledged that arabic countries around the end of the first millenium were more advanced in mathematics, and their libraries kept safe eventually for Christendom much of the Greek wisdom of the ancients. Why did not their learning blossom into the science we now know? More particularly, if Andrew White's portrait of history, that the church dogmatically opposed all the "dangerous innovations" of science, and thereby stunted scientific development for hundreds of years, why didn't science rapidly evolve in these other cultures?
A case that has been made cogently by Stanley Jaki [Stanley L. Jaki, The road of science and the ways to God, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, (1978).], amongst others, is that far from being an atmosphere stifling to science, the Christian world view of the West was the fertile cultural and philosophical soil in which science grew and flourished. He argues that it was precisely the theology of Christianity which created that fertile intellectual environment. The teaching that the world is the free but contingent creation of a rational Creator, worthy of study on its own merits because it is "good", and the belief that because our rationality is in the image of the creator, we are capable of understanding the creation: these are theological encouragements to the work of empirical science. Intermingled with the desire to benefit humankind for Christian charity's sake, and enabled by the printing press to record and communicate results for posterity, the work of science became a force that gathered momentum despite any of the strictures of a threatened religious hierarchy.
So I suggest that there is a deeper reason why scientists are puzzled about how one might pursue a Christian Science distinguished from what has been the approach developed over the past half millenium. It is that modern science is already in a very serious sense Christian. It germinated in and was nurtured by the Christian philosophy of creation, it was developed and established through the work of largely Christian pioneers, and it continues to draw Christians to its endeavours today.
Dr. Loren Eiseley (1907-1977), a Professor of anthropology, a science history writer and evolutionist, concluded that the birth of modern science was mainly due to the creationist convictions of its founders. "It is the CHRISTIAN world which finally gave birth in a clear articulated fashion to the experimental method of science itself ... It began its discoveries and made use of its method in the faith, not the knowledge, that it was dealing with a rational universe controlled by a Creator who did not act upon whim nor inference with the forces He had set in operation. The experimental method succeeded beyond man's wildest dreams but the faith that brought it into being owes something to the Christian conception of the nature of God. It is surely one of the curious paradoxes of history that science, which professionally has little to do with faith, owes its origins to an act of faith that the universe can be rationally interpreted, and that science today is sustained by that assumption." [Loren Eiseley, Darwin's Centenary: Evolution and the Men who Discovered it, Doubleday: New York, 1961 p:62]
Kenneth Scott Latourette, Sterling Professor at Yale University, wrote, "Across the centuries Christianity has been the means of reducing more languages to writing than have all other factors combined. It has created more schools, more theories of education, and more systems than has any other one force. More than any other power in history it has impelled men to fight suffering, whether that suffering has come from disease, war or natural disasters. It has built thousands of hospitals, inspired the emergence of the nursing and medical professions, and furthered movement for public health and the relief and prevention of famine. Although explorations and conquests which were in part its outgrowth led to the enslavement of Africans for the plantations of the Americas, men and women whose consciences were awakened by Christianity and whose wills it nerved brought about the abolition of slavery (in England and America). Men and women similarly moved and sustained wrote into the laws of Spain and Portugal provisions to alleviate the ruthless exploitation of the Indians of the New World.
"… By its name and symbol, the most extensive organization ever created for the relief of the suffering caused by war, the Red Cross, bears witness to its Christian origin. The list might go on indefinitely. It includes many another humanitarian projects and movements, ideals in government, the reform of prisons and the emergence of criminology, great art and architecture, and outstanding literature."
[A History of Christianity, Vol. II, originally published by HarperCollins Publishers 1953, revised 1975, pp.1470,1471].
Eric V. Snow. Christianity, A Cause of Modern Science? Explains the historical research of Duhem, Jaki, and Merton. http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-298.htm or http://www.rae.org/jaki.html
David F. Coppedge. The World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K,
and the Birth of Science: Why modern
science arose in Christian Europe and not in other cultures. Dr. Michael
Bumbulis proposes four evidences and anticipates objections.
and Science: An essay on relation of
Protestant thought to the advancement of science, and an important refutation
of the claim that Luther and his followers ridiculed and repressed
T. V. Varughese, Ph.D. Christianity and Technological Advance: The
Ben Clausen on the origin of science, and examples of believers, with bibliography:
Christianity Aiding the Development of Science,
Colin Russell, Professor of History of Science and Technology, The Open University, England; Chairman - Vice President, Christians in Science. "Without a Memory,"
http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1993/PSCF12-93Russell.html. From Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 45 (March 1993): 219-221.
Christianity is for Weak, Stupid People? - The Role of Reason for Christians
Appendix 2: Links to websites featuring Christian scientists
the Sciences: 1540-1995 - http://www.luc.edu/libraries/science/jesuits/index.html
Vatican Observatory - http://clavius.as.arizona.edu/vo/
European Society for the Study of Science and
Theology (ESSSAT) - http://www.esssat.org/
Reasons to Believe - http://www.reasons.org/
God and Science - http://www.crosscurrents.org/godand.htm
John Ray Initiative - http://www.jri.org.uk/
Faith and Reason Ministries - http://www.faithreason.org/
Witherspoon on Theology and Science - http://www.wwitherspoon.org
Scibel - http://scibel.gospelcom.net
Jesuits in Science - http://www.jesuitsinscience.org/
Warfare of Science With Theology - http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/andrew_white/Andrew_White.html
Science Ministries Home
Page - http://christianity.com/scienceministries/
Unicorn Site - http://hometown.aol.com/scheairs/UnicornSite/Unicorn_Forest.html
Creation scientists and other biographies of interest http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/2084/
Creation Scientists in the Biological Sciences
Creation Scientists in the Physical Sciences
Affiliation of Christian Biologists
The Affiliation of Christian Biologists was formed in 1990 to:
encourage fellowship among Christian biologists
provide for exchange of ideas and equipment for effective teaching
encourage networking between Biologists who teach in Christian Colleges and Universities
provide a supportive environment for those engaged in teaching and research in non-Christian contexts
serve as a forum for discussion of problems and issues unique to the integration of biology and Christian thought.
The ACB is open to those who can assent to the purpose(above) and guidelines of the ACB and who have the required educational and/or professional background in the biological sciences
Membership in the American Scientific Affiliation (ASA), our parent organization, is a pre-requisite for ACB membership.
Affiliation of Christian Geologists
American Association of Christian Counselors
AACC is committed to assisting Christian counselors and the entire 'community of care,' licensed professionals, pastors, and caring church members with little or no formal training. It is our intention to equip clinical, pastoral, and lay care-givers with Biblical truth and psycho-social insights that ministers to hurting persons and helps them move to personal wholeness, interpersonal competence, mental stability, and spiritual maturity.
American Scientific Affiliation
The American Scientific Affiliation (ASA) is a fellowship of men and women in science and disciplines that relate to science who share a common fidelity to the Word of God and a commitment to integrity in the practice of science.
Association of Christian Economists
The Association of Christian Economists (ACE) was formed in December, 1982, at the Allied Social Science Association meetings. ACE aims to encourage Christian scholars to explore and communicate the relationship between their faith and the discipline of economics, and to promote interaction and communication among Christian economists. ACE has approximately 300 members-Christian economists in academia, business, and government, drawn from around the globe.
Association of Christian Librarians
During the summer of 1956, the first Christian Librarians' Fellowship convened, with just five members in attendance-Shirley Wood of Columbia Bible College, Dorothy Spidell of Nyack Missionary College, Mary Jane Kergerize and Marian Boyjiam of The King's College, and Emily Russell of Faith Theological Seminary
In 1957, the Association of Christian Librarians was established, and today it is one of the oldest-and largest-evangelical academic library organizations in existence, with more than 500 individual and 80 institutional members representing a wide spectrum of denominations.
Membership is open to Christian librarians who work in an institution of higher learning and affirm the ACL mission and statement of faith. Associate memberships are available to any other Christian librarians or non-librarians who are interested in librarianship and affirm the ACL mission and statement of faith.
We are united in our mission ...
The mission of the Association of Christian Librarians is to empower evangelical librarians through professional development, scholarship, and spiritual encouragement for service in higher education.
We are dedicated to being ...
A caring Christian community that integrates faith and academic librarianship, emphasizing ministry and service.
We are committed to our core values ...
Members serve Christ as librarians in institutions of higher learning.
All members are united by a common statement of faith which controls what the Association will and will not do.
Association of Christians Teaching Sociology (ACTS)
The purposes of ACTS are somewhat difficult to define, but the following, quoted from comments made by participants, suggests the concerns of those who attend.
A forum where Christian sociologists can explore the implications of the Christian faith for the thinking and doing of sociology
A place to engage in personal and professional development through concentrated discussion on the integration of the sociological vocation with the Christian calling
A unique opportunity for Christian fellowship with individuals who share our disciplinary commitment, which is both stimulating and supportive
A network for Christian sociologists, allowing social support, collaboration, and dialogue
From the beginning, we have welcomed anyone who is interested in joining our dialogue.
History: The group began in 1976, when Dr. Russell Heddendorf, then Chair of the Department of Sociology at Geneva College, invited sociologists from various Christian colleges to come to Geneva College for a meeting of dialogue and exchange. At that time the group was informally known as STCC (Sociologists Teaching in Christian Colleges). Since then about 25 to 50 people have met each June, at various colleges.
Association of Christians in Mathematical Sciences (ACMS)
The Association of Christians in the Mathematical Sciences developed initially from a desire on the part of a group of mathematics teachers at Christian colleges to integrate their faith with their academic discipline. From 1976 to 1985 this group operated informally, sponsoring conferences at Wheaton College in 1977, 1979, 1981, and 1983.
At the 1985 conference, held at the King's College, it was decided to incorporate formally, and to expand the scope of interest of the organization to the entire spectrum of the mathematical sciences.
Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International
CPFI is the first international organization of evangelical Christian pharmacists established with a focus on integration of the spiritual and vocational dimensions of the pharmacist's role. The doctrinal basis is Biblical in perspective and origin, evangelical in scope and is comparable with all the major Christian denominations. Officially incorporated as a taxexempt, nonprofit corporation in the State of Virginia in 1984. (Dean Warren E. Weaver)
Christian Association for Psychological Studies Inc. (CAPS)
CAPS is a professional association of Christians who serve as:
Psychologists, Marriage & Family Therapists, Professional Counselors, Pastoral Counselors, Psychiatrists, Professors & Researchers, Social Workers, Psychiatric Nurses,Guidance Counselors, Students & Professionals in Training.
We exist to encourage...
Understanding of the relationship between Christianity and the behavioral sciences at both the clinical/counseling and the theoretical/research levels.
Fellowship among Christians in psychological and related professions.
The spiritual, emotional and professional well-being of our members.
Educational and research opportunities that assist the profession and the community at large.
Through its various programs, CAPS encourages the pursuit of excellence ... in the counseling clinic, in the classroom, in the community and in the member's spiritual and emotional life.
Christian Educators Association International
(CEAI) is a professional organization founded in 1953. Its members are Christian teachers, administrators, school board members, and para-professionals.
History of CEAI - (Formerly National Educators Fellowship). Benjamin Weiss - Co Founder of NEF/CEAI
Our Mission Statement: "to encourage, equip and empower Christian educators serving in public and private schools."
Christian Foresters Fellowship
The mission of the Christian Foresters Fellowship is to make disciples among foresters, to encourage Christian fellowship among foresters and natural resource professionals, and to see God establish faithful men and women able to teach others in every forest area of the world.
Christian Legal Society
Our Mission: To be the national grassroots network of lawyers and law students, committed to proclaiming, loving and serving Jesus Christ, through all we do and say in the practice of law, and advocating biblical conflict reconciliation, public justice, religious freedom and the sanctity of human life.
Christian Medical and Dental Associations
The Christian Medical & Dental Associations (CMDA) are made up of the Christian Medical Association (CMA) and the Christian Dental Association (CDA). CMDA provides resources, networking opportunities, education, and a public voice for Christian healthcare professionals and students.
The Christian Medical & Dental Associations exist to motivate, educate, and equip Christian physicians and dentists to glorify God by:
living out the character of Christ in their homes, practices, communities and around the world;
pursuing professional competence and Christ-like compassion in their daily work;
influencing their families, colleagues, and patients toward a right relationship with Jesus Christ;
advancing Biblical principles in bioethics and health to the Church and society.
Whether you are already a member or
considering joining, CMDA wants you to feel welcomed as one of thousands of
Christian doctors in our ranks who seek to change the face of healthcare by changing
the hearts of doctors. Our membership is made up of physicians, dentists, and
medical and dental students who unite to grow in Christ and be used by Him.
Our organization has grown to include more than 45 services and opportunities. Our initiatives range from medical and dental missions to being a voice to the Church, our government, and our culture on the vital bioethical issues of our day. Much of our influence comes directly from our members.
Christian Medical and Dental Society (CMDS), PO Box 5, Bristol, TN 37621-0005
The purpose of the Christian Medical & Dental Society is to motivate and equip doctors to practice faith in Jesus Christ in their personal and professional lives. CMDS seeks to "change the heart of health care." CMDS promotes positions on health care issues, conducts overseas and domestic mission projects, coordinates a network of Christian doctors for fellowship and professional growth, sponsors student chapters in medical and dental schools, provides educational and inspirational resources and conferences, supports Third World missionary doctors and conducts academic exchange programs overseas. CMDS was founded in 1931. It currently has over 13,000 members. Dr. David Stevens, Executive Director.
Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International.
The Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) is an interdenominational ministry of individuals working in all areas of pharmaceutical service and practice. The mission of CPFI is to bring about spiritual growth and the advancemnt of knowledge and ethics in the service and practice of pharmacy by providing the resources, tools and expertise necessary to challenge, encourage and promote the integration of Christian principles and standards within that practice. Faculty Advisor:Cham Dallas.
The CPFI was officially incorporated as a taxexempt, nonprofit corporation in the State of Virginia in 1984. Its beginnings can be traced to informal gatherings at several national pharmacy meetings starting in the late 70's. The Board members are representative of a broad range of Christian denominations including Baptist, Catholic, Church of Christ, Methodist, Pentecostal, Mennonite and nondenominational churches.
Christians in Political Science
Christians in Political Science was launched as a formal organization in the fall of 1991 by a group of political scientists from six different colleges and universities. From the outset the group defined "Christian" in both narrow and broad terms: Christianity was narrowly defined in its traditional sense rather than it its broad cultural sense; but it was broadly defined to include all Christians who believe in the historic truths of the faith irrespective of specific tradition or denomination. The group drew up a statement of faith to reflect these intentions.
Since 1991 CPS has grown steadily as an organization. It published its first newsletter in the fall of 1991, with two issued every year since. The membership adopted a set of by-laws in the fall of 1993 and elected its first slate of officers in the spring of 1994. In 1993 the first general membership meeting was held in Washington, D.C., at the time of the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. Presently over two hundred political scientists are dues paying members.
From the outset the goals of the organization have been to encourage and stimulate the members to integrate their Christian faith into their scholarship and teaching and to help make possible contact and fellowship among Christian political scientists.
Christian Sociological Society
Dr. Ronald Akers, Dept. of Sociology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 http://www.cccu.org/resourcecenter/resID.1878,parentCatID./rc_detail.asp
The Christian Sociological Society is organized to provide a forum and fellowship for Christian Sociologists and related professionals and students to enable them to integrate their sociological academic background with their Christian faith.
Christian Veterinary Missions
CVM is glad to provide a place for veterinarians and veterinary students to stay updated on what is going on in the veterinary community, worldwide. CVM provides missionary opportunities (short and long-term) as well as programs at national conferences & conventions that speak to the everyday life of veterinary practice, joined with the Christian faith. Our Mission: To challenge, empower, and facilitate veterinarians to serve others through their profession, living out their Christian faith. CVM also provides education and encouragement for those who desire to minister through service prayer, relationship building, and modeling Christ's love.
Christian Veterinary Missions, Canada
Vision: CVM Canada is an organization committed to serving Jesus Christ through the veterinary profession. Mission: CVM Canada is a fellowship of veterinarians, veterinary students and others of allied interest which gives the opportunity to minister through our profession to the needs of veterinarians, people and their animals worldwide. The organization is committed to empower veterinarians, technicians and veterinary students to Christian ministry through the veterinary profession.
Christians in Science
A professional Christian group for all who are concerned about science/faith issues. Its aims are:
1. To develop and promote biblical Christian views on the nature, scope and limitations of science, and on the changing interactions between science and faith.
2. To encourage Christians who are engaged in scientific work to maintain an active faith and to apply it in their professional lives.
3. To help Christians who are science students to integrate their religious beliefs and their scientific studies.
4. To bring biblical Christian thought on scientific issues into the public arena.
5. To communicate the Christian gospel within the scientific community.
Christians in Science, Cambridge, UK
Engineering Ministries International (EMI)
110 S. Weber, Suite 104, Colorado Springs, CO 80903 http://www.emiusa.org/
EMI's mission is to involve Christian design professionals (architects, engineers, surveyors, construction managers, etc.) in ministry. EMI puts into action Jesus' commission to proclaim the gospel in all the world. This is being accomplished by providing design and construction expertise to the needy through professional ministry teams and through the development of a national fellowship of Christian designers.
Fellowship of Christian Optometrists
The Fellowship of Christian Optometrists, International, Inc., founded in 1986, is a not-for-profit evangelical organization of Christian optometrists, optometry students, and allied ophthalmic personnel committed to world wide eye care missions and intraprofessional Christian fellowship.
North American Association of Christians in Social Work (NACSW)
Box 7090, St. Davids, PA 19087-7090
NACSW supports the integration of Christian faith and professional social work practice in the lives of its members, the profession and the church, promoting love and justice in social service and social reform.
NACSW is an interdenominational and international organization which grew out of a series of annual conferences beginning in 1950. In 1954, NACSW was incorporated in the state of Illinois, in 1957 became the National Association of Christians in Social Work, and in 1984 adopted its present name.
Leadership is vested in a Board of Directors composed of at least twelve NACSW members elected by the membership for three-year terms. The Board employs a part- time executive director, who carries out the operations of the organization. NACSW is incorporated in the State of Illinois and registered as a foreign corporation in the State of Connecticut. It is exempt from federal income tax under the provisions of Section 501©(3) of the Internal Revenue Service Code.
Nurses Christian Fellowship
Nurses Christian Fellowship (NCF) is both a Christian professional organization and a ministry of and for nurses and nursing students. NCF is a ministry of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship.
Our Purpose Statement:
In response to God's love, grace and
The Purpose of Nurses Christian Fellowship, as a ministry of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA is
to establish and advance in nursing,
within education and practice,
witnessing communities of nursing students and nurses
who follow Jesus as Savior and Lord:
growing in love for God, God's Word, God's people of every ethnicity and culture
and God's purposes in the world.
NCF provides a local, regional, national and international network for Christians in nursing. Local groups meet for prayer, Bible study, mutual encouragement and outreach. NCF staff and regional council members encourage and support nurses and provide leadership and a variety of resources for each geographic area. The National Council Exec works with the NCF Director and NCF staff leaders to develop a national plan for the fellowship.
Henry Wace. A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies
Christian Biography Resources
Christians in Science/Science and Christian Belief, list of editors and editorial board.
List of Christian Scientists
Influence of Some Early Jesuit Scientists
lunar craters named to honor Jesuit Scientists: their location and
Post-Pombal Portugal opinion of Pre-Pombal Jesuit Scientists: a recent conference
Seismology, The Jesuit Science. a Jesuit history of geophysics
A Study of Fifty-six Prominent Jesuit
Geometers During the First Two Centuries of Jesuit History. Excepts from the book by Joseph F.
MacDonnell, S.J., Professor of Mathematics
Fairfield University. Published jointly in 1989 by The Institute of Jesuit Sources and The Vatican Observatory. Library of Congress Catalog Card number: 89-80568, ISBN 0-912422-94-7
"For the first two centuries of Jesuit history 631 Jesuit
geometers are listed in Sommervogel's twelve volume work Bibliotheque de
la Compagnie de Jesus 1 where their publications are evaluated and
described. The title Jesuit Geometers, however, might seem
incongruous since the word Jesuit conjures up images of martyrs
and missionaries like Brebeuf, Xavier and deNobile, theologians like Suarez,
the Church Militant exemplified in Bellarmine, or preachers like Bourdaloue.
"On the other hand Euclid, Appolonius, Menelaus, Descartes, Fermat, Euler, Desargues and Lobachevski were geometers but not Jesuits. So what does the Society of Jesus have to do with geometry? In the educational work of the Society geometry played a very important role right from the very beginning.
"Apart from their classroom teaching, many Jesuits by their curiosity, ingenuity, correspondence, and publications contributed greatly to the growth of geometry. Their practical geometrical inventions, their discoveries of new forms of geometry, and their innovations in the teaching of geometry contributed greatly to its development. Furthermore their knowledge of geometry proved an invaluable aid in establishing missions in all parts of the world so that non-Jesuit, non-Catholic, non-Christian geometers benefited from their labors and skill. While there is no such thing as Jesuit geometry, it is certain that the geometries so familiar today would have a different form and encompass far less if these men had never existed."
Introduction to Jesuit Geometers, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jgintro.htm
Ch 1. Jesuit textbooks and publications, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg1.htm
Ch 2. Jesuit inventions in practical geometry, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg2.htm
Ch 3. Jesuit innovations in the various fields of geometry, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg3.htm
Ch 4. Jesuit influence through teaching and correspondence, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg4.htm
Ch 5. Jesuit teaching innovations, methods and attitudes http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg5.htm
Ch 6. Evaluation of these Jesuit geometers by professionals, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jg6.htm
Appendix to 56 Prominent Jesuit Geometers, http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/jg/jgappendix.htm
Annotated Science/Faith Bibliography
Scottish Technologists and Scientists
George W. Rutler. Significant Scots: Scots Pioneers in Medicine, "A Cornucopia of Pharmacopeia"
"The Scots are famously reserved in their habits and modest in demeanor, but this has not restrained their substantial claim to be the world's most intelligent people. In the catalogue of certifiable evidence is this curiosity: Although the Scots comprise less than one-half of 1 percent of the world's population, 11 percent of all Nobel prizes have been awarded to Scotsmen.
"The world's first university faculty of engineering and technical science was in Glasgow. Scotsmen have shown particular genius in medicine, as we have seen recently in the cloning of sheep by Dr. Ian Wilmot, whose wife is a Presbyterian elder.
… "David Livingstone, who secured the abolition of slavery in Zanzibar in 1873, was a physician, as was John Brown who in 1780 had argued successfully against bloodletting. [statement omitted due to inaccuracies] and in 1913 William Leishman perfected the typhoid vaccine. It may be that more lives have been saved by Sir Patrick Manson, who traced parasitic diseases to biting insects, and Sir Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin in 1928, than by any other two men in history.
… "It was a Scots Presbyterian, William Smellie (1697-1753), who first involved professional physicians in midwifery. Dr. Smellie also researched the putrefaction of corpses, but he is known to medical history as the inventor of the "long obstetric forceps" used on Queen Charlotte by the Scottish founder of modern obstetrics, William Hunter (1718-1783), whose brother John (1728-1793) was the father of scientific surgery. The ovum in mammals was discovered by William Cruickshank (1745-1800) and Matthew Baillie (1761-1823) invented treatment for dermoid cysts in the ovary. All of them were devout Scots Presbyterians, as was Alexander Skene (1837-1900) who emigrated from Aberdeen and founded the American Gynecological Society."
Jerry Bergman. "A Brief History of the Modern American Creation Movement,"
Originally published in Contra Mundum No. 7 Spring 1993, lists "Some of the More Prominent Early 1900 Creationists" at
BIOGRAPHIES AND TESTIMONIALS,
The Scientific Revolution
The Complementary Nature of
Science and Christianity
An introductory online book, by Dick Tripp (NZ)
Dr. Ard Louis, University of
Cambridge. "Urbana 03 Seminars-Science and
Faith: Friends or Foes?"
Are science and Christianity engaged in an inextricable conflict, as is often alleged, or is that merely a popular misconception? We'll discuss the Christian origins of modern science, the boundaries of what both science and the Bible can say about the created world, and how to be a faithful Christian _and_ a good scientist. We'll begin with a short video presentation of interviews with leading scientists who are Christians. http://www.urbana.org/u2003.seminars.show.cfm?seminar=55
· Science and Christianity: Friends or Foes?(powerpoint) A presentation for Urbana 03. With added notes/references.
· Science and Christianity: Friends or Foes? (html) A presentation for Urbana 03 (converted from powerpoint for the web)
Dr. Ard Louis. Science Christianity Links
"A Scientific Dissent on Darwinism"
The Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness (IDEA) Center
Origins of the IDEA Center
The Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness (IDEA) Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting intelligent design theory. The Center has existed since 2001, however it has its roots in the pre-existing Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness (IDEA) Club at UC San Diego. http://www.ideacenter.org/about/history.php
List of Intellectual Doubters of Darwinism
List of Creation Scientists of the World
http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-086.htm- IMPACT No. 86 August 1980
Do Real Scientists Believe in Creation?
Appendix 3: Christian academics
Academic Groups Serving Christians by Pete Hammond
Christaf: Christian staff at University of Southern Queensland, Australia http://www.sci.usq.edu.au/staff/passmore/Christaf/
St. Louis University Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Saint Louis University is a private university under Catholic auspices, operated by a board of trustees that has a majority of laymen and is headed by a lay chairman. It was founded in 1818 and granted a charter as a university by the Missouri legislature in 1832.
The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences was founded
in 1925 as the first department of geophysics in the western hemisphere. The
present name was adopted in 1969 to reflect the scope of departmental
activities in the sciences of the solid earth and the atmosphere.
Saint Louis University began taking conventional meteorological observations in 1860 at the request of the United States Government, which used these observations for official purposes. The observers were Francis Stuntebeck, S.J. and John Luneman, S.J. of the Theology and Philosophy departments and the observing station was called College Hill, that was located at 38 degrees and 40 minutes north and 90 degrees and 15 minutes west.
Faculty Directory, http://www.eas.slu.edu/People/faculty.html
Postdoctoral Fellows and Visitors, http://www.eas.slu.edu/People/postdocs.html
Christian Faculty Forum at the University of Georgia, Athens
Member: The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia http://www.uga.edu/cff/
is a fellowship and support group for faculty and staff who are seeking to grow in their personal relationship with God as they integrate Christian faith and scholarly work within the university community. The forum is not affiliated with any particular denomination, but is characterized by a Bible-based Christian perspective. Christian faculty and staff who are active in the CFF come from numerous academic disciplines, are involved in a broad variety of community activities, and are members of many different denominations and churches in the Athens area.
The Christian Faculty - Staff Fellowship at the University of Colorado, Boulder
University of Colorado http://stripe.colorado.edu/%7Ecfsf/welcome.html
The Christian Faculty - Staff Fellowship at the University of Colorado, Boulder, began in the summer of 1992 with only about 10 people attending meetings. By the Fall of that year, the attendance at meetings had grown to between 20 and 30 people. Now, in 1996, we average about 60 people at our meetings, and the mailing list has grown to over 200 Christian faculty, staff, and graduate students.
The Faculty / Staff Christian Community
University of California Santa Barbara http://id-www.ucsb.edu/fscf/home.html http://www.id.ucsb.edu:16080/fscf/
The Faculty / Staff Christian Community is an officially recognized organization of the University of California Santa Barbara. Its list of participants is comprised primarily of individuals who sign the annual Easter Proclamation, "He Is Risen," published in the Daily Nexus.
The first Easter Proclamation appeared in 1986 as the result of a faculty prayer meeting. It was originally signed by 13 faculty members. In recent years it has grown to more than 50 faculty and well over 50 staff members.
The Christian Faculty Fellowship, University of Florida
The Christian Faculty Fellowship is an interdenominational group of faculty, staff and graduate students at the University of Florida and Santa Fe Community College.
Our mission is to encourage and assist one another to grow in our spiritual and professional lives in a Godly manner, and to share our faith in Christ in appropriate ways on the campus and around the world. We want to present the Truth about Jesus Christ with intellectual and emotional integrity, while providing fellowship for Christians in academia.
To view a copy of our Welcome Ad, click here. To view a copy of our Faculty/ Staff Easter Ad, click here. The ads are in the PDF format.
Illinois State University Christian Faculty Fellowship
Illinois State University http://www.ilstu.edu/%7Edloomis/cff/cff.html
ISU-CFF is a group of Christian faculty and staff members who are interested in having a larger and broader impact for Jesus Christ on this campus. We are united by our common experience that Jesus Christ provides intellectually and spiritually satisfying answers to life's most important questions. We are affiliated with a national organization of Christian faculty and staff called Christian Leadership Ministries (CLM), which is a branch of Campus Crusade for Christ. CLM maintains an excellent web site of resources at Leadership University. We are a recognized University group. For a Statement of Faith, please click here.
The MTSU Christian Faculty and Staff Fellowship
Middle Tennessee State University http://www.mtsu.edu/~cscbp/cfsf.html
Contact Dr. Sesan Kim Sokoya, Professor at http://www.mtsu.edu/~mgmtmkt/faculty/manage/ksokoya.htm
University of Minnesota
· To challenge and strengthen faculty and staff in their Christian life.
· To raise the visibility of the Christian community on campus.
· To promote the integration of Christian faith into academic life.
With the overall objective of reaching our students and colleagues with the claims of Christ in ways that are relevant and attractive. Some 85 faculty, 48 staff and 7 administrators.
University of Oklahoma Christian Faculty and Staff Home Page
University of Oklahoma http://www.ou.edu/faculty/organizations/ouchrfas/homep.htm
The OU Christian Faculty and Staff is an association of University of Oklahoma faculty and staff who believe that a personal knowledge of Jesus Christ should be presented to the University's students. Our goal is to increase the visibility of OU's Christian faculty and staff. Our purpose is to present the traditional Christian world view as an intellectually valid option for the modern world. Our membership comes from all corners of the University of Oklahoma Campus: Transportation, Engineering, Physical Plant, Continuing Education, Psychology, Business, OU Athletics, and on and on. We also belong to a wide variety of Churches, from traditional to nontraditional. Despite the many varieties of beliefs, we have a common faith and a common commitment to present Christ to the OU Campus. The OU Christian Faculty and Staff is not an officially recognized organization. The University does not have a mechanism for recognizing faculty and staff organizations.
Other Personal Stories From OU Faculty and Staff
University of Texas
The Faculty/Staff Christian Fellowship is a non-denominational group of faculty and staff at the University of Texas-Austin that exists to assist each other in doing the following:
Any member of the faculty or staff who shares these goals is welcome to join the group.
Christians in Science, Cambridge, UK
MacQuarie Christian Studies Institute, Australia
Macquarie Christian Studies Institute (MCSI) is an innovative venture offering units in Christian Studies to students in universities across Australia. Unlike theological colleges, MCSI's main emphasis is on relating Christian faith perspectives to the world beyond the doors of the Church - in particular, the world of work, the professions, modern society, contemporary culture and everyday life. MCSI has a particular interest in equipping Christians to relate their Christian faith to their professional training, so that they develop an integrated and holistic perspective on their chosen vocations. An important aspect of MCSI's vision is also to develop Christian leaders who will have influence and be role models in many areas of our society.
Appendix 4: God and Mathematics
A number of famous mathematicians have made connections between mathematics and God, often likening God to a mathematician.
The Greek study of mathematics was closely related to that of religion. Plato is quoted as saying "God ever geometrizes" and Pythagoras as saying "Numbers rule the Universe".
Johannes Kepler stated that "The chief aim of all investigations of the external world should be to discover the rational order and harmony which has been imposed on it by God and which He revealed to us in the language of mathematics."
Isaac Newton became extremely religious in his old age, and devoted the rest of his life to the study of religion.
Leopold Kronecker is quoted as saying "God made the integers, all the rest is the work of man."
James Jeans said "From the intrinsic evidence of his creation, the Great Architect of the Universe begins to appear as a pure mathematician".
According to Henri Poincare "If God speaks to man, he undoubtedly uses the language of mathematics."
Georg Cantor equated what he called the Absolute Infinite with God. He held that the Absolute Infinite had various mathematical properties, including (if I recall correctly) that every property of the Absolute Infinite is also held by some smaller object.
St. Anselm's ontological argument sought to use logic to prove the existence of God. A more elaborate version was given by Gottfried Leibniz; this is the version that Gödel studied and attempted to clarify with his ontological argument.
Kurt Gödel created a formalization of St. Anselm's ontological argument for God's existence known as Gödel's ontological proof .
While Gödel was deeply religious, he never published his argument because he feared that it would be mistaken as establishing God's existence beyond doubt. Instead, he only saw it as a logical investigation and a clean formulation of Leibniz' argument with all assumptions spelled out.
English: Scientists of the Christian Faith
Dutch: Wetenschappers van het Christelijke Geloof
French: Scientifiques de la foi chrétienne
German: Wissenschaftler des christlichen Glaubens
Korean: 기독교 믿음의 과학자
Russian: Научные работники христианская вера
Spanish: Científicos de la fe cristiana
Updated August 30, 2004.