Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (A)


Benjamin L. Aaron *** Not in Gale

is Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the George Washington University Hospital in Washington, DC, as well as Associate Professor of Surgery at the University. Dr. Aaron is a graduate of the University of Missouri, received his M.D. from the University of Texas and has held post-doctoral fellowships at the Medical College of Virginia and the University of Alabama. He had a distinguished career in the Medical Services of the U.S. Navy, retiring with the rank of Captain, and is Past Governor of the American College of Chest Physicians. Dr. Aaron headed the surgical team who operated on President Ronald Reagan when he was shot. He also performed Vice President Dick Cheney's bypass operation in 1988.


Contact page, from CardioThorasic Surgery network:


Niels Henrik Abel

(1802-1829).  Norwegian mathematician.  Known for research in theory of elliptic functions, transcendental functions, theory of integrals; proved impossibility of general solution of quintic equation.

Paul Golba.


Sir William de Wiveleslie Abney

(1843-1920). English chemist and educator.  Advanced photographic chemistry; pioneered in color photography.   Specialist in photographic chemistry; developed photographic emulsion sensitive to infrared and used it to map solar spectrum; discovered (1880) developing properties of hydroquinone.


Cristobal Acosta *** Not in Gale

(1515 - 1580).  Portugese physicist, botanist, pharmaceutical scientist and historian. A Moon crater is named in his honor (Langrenus C).

The Galileo Project,

Acosta was one of the pioneers in studying the plants, especially in their pharmaceutical uses, of the orient. His Tractado de las drogas y medicinas de las Indias orientales (dedicated to Burgos) contains systematic, first hand observations on oriental drugs. It acknowledges d'Orta's work but includes plants he did not mention and is illustrated by drawings. From a converted Jewish family. He lived as a Catholic.

Christophori A Costa. . .Aromaticum & medicamentorum in Orientali India nascentium liber: plvrimvm lucis adserens iis quae a Doctore Garcia de Orta in hoc genere scripta sunt.

Acosta was a Portuguese soldier and physician who travelled widely, visiting such exotic places as Persia, India, Malaysia, and perhaps even China. He landed at Goa in 1568 a few months after the death of Orta, and was appointed physician to the Royal Hospital of Cochin. After some years of studying the plant life of India, he returned to Portugal where his manuscript was published. This first edition of Acosta's work concentrates on the drugs of the East, drawing heavily on what had already been published by Orta. Although it is primarily a translation into Spanish of Orta's work, authorities have stated that Acosta was knowledgeable on this subject. In his translation he clarifies Orta's text and adds to its usefulness. Many of the illustrations are from accurate drawings created by Acosta himself.


Gary Lynn Achtemeier

(Born 1943).  Meteorologist. Research Meteorologist, USDA Southern Research Station. Consultant, National Forest Experimental Station, Macon, Georgia, 1975; Research scientist, S.E. Forest Experiment Station, Macon, GA,1990; Senior professional scientist, Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, University of Illinois, 1987-1990; professional research scientist, Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, University of Illinois, 1982-1987; visiting Associate Professor, Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, University of Illinois, 1981-1982; Associate research scientist, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, 1973-82; NRC grantee, National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma, 1972-1973. Career-Related: Consultant, University of Illinois MBA Program, 1979-1982; proposal reviewer NSF, 1976, NASA, 1982

BS, Florida State University, 1965; MS, Florida State University, 1969; Ph.D., Florida State University, 1972.

Memberships: American Meteorological Society (committee on severe storms 1980-81), AAAS, Sigma Xi, Chi Epsilon Pi. Member science and technical committee, Institute Meteorology and Allied Sciences, Macon, Georgia.Lodges: Kiwanis.

Contributor of articles to professional journals. Technology paper reviewer for three journals, 1976-present.

"Gary Achtemeier,  Title: Research Meteorologist, USDA Southern Research Station,"

Dr. Gary L. Achtemeier Christian Student Survival Conference, Session 4: "Evolution: Fact, Faith, or Fallacy,"

Lecturer biography: Dr. Gary L. Achtemeier received his education at Florida State University and has been a research scientist for 25 years in fields of meteorology, forestry, aerobiology, and remote sensing. He was part of the research team that developed the concept of "tornado chase" upon which the movie, Twister, is based. Now at UGA/Forestry Sciences Laboratory, his air quality research includes methods for using moonlight and light-enhancing cameras to detect smoke from smoldering nighttime fires. Dr. Achtemeier became a Christian at age 14 and has dedicated himself to "removing stumbling blocks that keep God's people from coming before his throne." He has followed the creation-evolution controversy for nearly 30 years. His studies have culminated in a book, Spiritual Espionage, which contrasts the conflict from a Christian perspective. He is acquainted with many different facets of the body of Christ. He and his wife, Sue, live in Oconee County and attend Grace Fellowship Church of God.

Smoke Management,

Contact page,

Gary L. Achtemeier, Ph.D. "High Priest of Evolution Reveals his Religion," or


Paul D. Ackerman, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Psychologist.  Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wichita State University, Kansas. Research Interests: Educational computer-software development.  B.A., University of Kansas, 1964; M.A.,University of Kansas,  1966; Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1968.

Author: The Kansas Tornado, In God's Image After All: How Psychology Supports Biblical Creationism.

Honor: 1982-1983 winner of the Wichita State University Liberal Arts and Sciences Teaching Improvement Committee (LASTIC) award for excellence in teaching.

Faculty webpage, Wichita State University:

Paul D. Ackerman, Ph.D. "The Compelling Secular Necessity of the Kansas Board of Education's Amendments to its Science Education Standards,"

In 1993 Dr. Ackerman was one of a number of Christians from the U.S. and Korea who travelled to China to present to the Chinese government the case for Christianity.  Others in this group included Dr. John Morris from the Institute for Creation Research and Astronaut Shanon Lucid.  Dr. Ackerman was not able to present this paper but did hand it out to a number of people.  It is a unique summary of how Christianity is relevant to individuals and beneficial to a nation.

Paul D. Ackerman, Ph.D. "CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES IN HUMAN AFFAIRS, Message Prepared for the Conference: The Future Impact of Christianity on China," Beijing International Convention Center, The People's Republic of China, December 1993:  This presentation for the People's Republic of China was adapted from Dr. Ackerman's book, In God's Image After All: How Psychology Supports Biblical Creationism, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49516, U.S.A., 1990. Includes testimony. "After I came to know and believe in Christ I found the adventure and fullness in life that I had longed for as a little child but had not found in my life as an unbelieving psychologist. The spiritual theme of my work as a psychologist and scientist has been that God is near and not far off; but also that we need God in order to live our lives fully and properly. The issue of the ministry God called me to as a Christian psychologist is biblical faith and joy in that faith."


José de Acosta, S.J.

(1539-1600). Spanish missionary.  Natural historian and geographer. Entered Jesuit order (1551); to Peru (1571); provincial (1576-81); theologian to council of Lima (1582); to Spain (1587); author of Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) abstracted online at  The family were converted Jews.


José de Acosta, S.J. (Spanish: 1540-1600) is called the Pliny of the New World because of his book Natural and Moral History of the Indies which provided the first detailed description of the geography and culture of Latin America, Aztec history and - of all things - the uses of coca. For his work on altitude sickness in the Andes he is listed as one of the pioneers of modern aeronautical medicine. José was far ahead of his time in the selection and description of his observations. Not satisfied, however, with mere descriptions, he tried to explain causes. José was one of the earliest geophysicists, having been among the first to observe, record and analyze earthquakes, volcanoes, tides, currents, magnetic declinations and meteorological phenomena.

The Galileo Project,


John Couch Adams

The English mathematical astronomer John Couch Adams (1819 -1892) was a principal figure in the discovery of the planet Neptune. or

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith;, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Rutherford Adkins / Rutherford H. Adkins

(1924-1998).  Physicist.  Professor of physics who taught at many educational institutions before becoming Nashville's Fisk University's eleventh president.  He attended Virginia Union University and  Temple University in the early 1940s; Virginia State University, B.S., 1947; Howard University, M.S., 1949; Catholic University of America, Ph.D., 1955.  Began academic career at Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia, as a member of physics faculty, late 1940s; member of physics faculty at Tennessee A&I University (now Tennessee State University) Nashville, 1958-62; affiliated with Fisk University, Nashville, TN, from 1962 to 1976 as professor of physics, Associate Dean, Dean; also served as interim president, 1975-76; served as president of Knoxville College, Knoxville, TN, from 1976 to 1981; from 1981 to 1990 he served as distinguished visiting scientist and professor of physics at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD; he also held academic posts at Morehouse College, and the Georgia Institute of Technology, both Atlanta, GA, during the early 1990s; returned to Fisk as part-time professor, 1993, named chair of Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, 1993, named interim president, 1996-97, and president, 1997.  Baptist.

Member of 100th Fighter Squadron of the 332nd Fight Group (Tuskegee Airmen) until 1945.


E. Theo Agard / Eugene Theodore Agard *** Not in Gale

(Born 1932).  Medical Physicist.  Former Director of Medical Physics at Flower Hospital Oncology Center, Ohio, U.S.A.  B.S. (hons) first class in physics from the University of London; M.S. in physics from the Middlesex Hospital Medical School at the University of London; Ph.D. in physics from the University of Toronto, Canada.  Health Physics Society national board of Directors since 1993.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.  "The problem with the origin of life is well stated by the question, 'Which came first, the chicken or the egg?'  Every egg anyone has ever seen was laid by a chicken and every chicken was hatched from an egg.  Hence, the first chicken or first egg which appeared on the scene in any other way would be unnatural, to say the least."


Professor Carl Adolph Agardh

(1785-1859). Swedish botanist, mathematician, national economist, member of the Parlament from 1817 (although he was somewhat impulsive and believed in faithfullness to ideas rather than to a political party), clergyman (bishop in Karlstad in 1835) and member of the Swedish Academy. His education took place at the university of Lund and as a botanist he devoted his studies to the algae, as did his son Professor Jacob Georg Agardh, 1813-1901, who was appointed Professor of botany in Lund from 1854 and also devoted his studies to the algae. His main work Species, genera et ordines algarum in 3 volumes arrived 1848-1901. Like his father he was interested in economy and was member of the Parlament from 1862/63.


Maria Gaetana Agnesi

(1718-1799). Italian mathematician. Professor, University of Bologna (from 1750); author of Propositiones philosophicae (1738), Instituzioni analitiche (1748) on differential calculus; known especially for discussion of cubic curve known through mistranslation as Witch of Agnesi.


Georgius Agricola / Georg Bauer

 The German mineralogist and writer on mining Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) is a major figure in the history of technology. His main contribution was his book on mining and metallurgy, De re metallica.

The Galileo Project,

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith;, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


François De Aguilon, S.J. *** Not in Gale

Mathematician.  Architect.  Aguilon was the originator of St. Ignatius (later St. Charles) in Antwerp, perhaps in cooperation with a lay brother, Peter Huyssens, an accomplished architect. Aguilon was certainly responsible for the first phases of construction. He worked on other architectural projects.


A special school for mathematics was started in 1611 at Antwerp by François De Aguilon (1546-1617): and produced Jesuit geometers such as Tacquet and de la Faille. It demonstrated how serious the Society was about geometry. The French Jesuits also developed another important school for Jesuit mathematicians which flourished for generations. Peter Paul Rubens designed the engravings for the illustrations of Aguilon's major work, Opticorum libri sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles (Anvers, 1613), "Six Books of Optics, useful for philosophers and mathematicians alike", concerns geometrical optics, which in the Jesuit schools was taught under the heading of Geometry. He was given the task of organizing the teaching of geometry and science which would be useful for geography, navigation, architecture and the military arts. His plan was to synthesize the works of former geometers starting with Euclid and apply geometry to the three ways in which the eye perceives: directly, then by reflection and finally by refraction. Aguilon had planned to write books on catoptrics and dioptrics but his death interfered with the publication of the two later sections. His treatment of different kinds of projections, especially stereographic, was meant to aid architects, cosmographers, navigators and artists.

The Galileo Project,


George Biddell Airy

(1801-1892). English astronomer. Astronomer royal (1835-81); equipped Royal Observatory at Greenwich with newly designed instruments; reduced all lunar and planetary observations made at Greenwich in 1750-1830 and otherwise organized work of observatory; invented cylindrical lens for correction of astigmatism (1827).


Salomon Alberti *** Not in Gale

(1540-1600).  German physician, specialist in anatomy.

The Galileo Project,

Alberti's most noteworthy achievement was the study of the venous valves. He was the first to provide illustrations of venous valves in Tres orationes (Nuremberg, 1585).  Having studied the lacrimal apparatus, he published De lacrimis in 1581.  He also provided an extended account of the ileocecal valve, the cochlea, and, as an original contribution, the renal papillae.  In Oratio de surditate et mutitate (Nuremberg, 1591), he discussed the problem of deafness and muteness. His treatise De achorbuto, published in the same year, was led by his interest in the problem of scurvy.  He taught in the medical faculty at Wittenberg for many years, and became physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Saxony in 1592. There he was dean of the philosophical faculty, thrice dean of the medical faculty, and also thrice rector of the University.  He was physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm from 1592-1600.


St. Albertus Magnus

The German philosopher and naturalist St. Albertus Magnus (ca. 1193-1280), also known as Albert the Great, was a dominant figure in the evolution of Christian scholastic thought and a precursor of modern science.  The patron saint of natural scientists and known in his lifetime as "The Great Doctor," Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) was one of the most important scientific polymaths of the Middle Ages. In the natural sciences he is known for his clear, accurate observations and his dispelling of erroneous beliefs through careful investigation.



Alcuin of York

The English churchman Alcuin of York (ca. 730-804) was an educator, statesman, and liturgist. In the total range of his talents he was unequaled by any other man of his time.

From J. J. O'Connor and E F Robertson

In 781 Alcuin accepted an invitation from Charlemagne to go to Aachen to a meeting of the leading scholars of the time. Following this meeting, he was appointed head of Charlemagne's Palace School at Aachen and there he developed the Carolingian minuscule, a clear script which has become the basis of the way the letters of the present Roman alphabet are written. Before leaving Aachen, Alcuin was responsible for the most precious of Carolingian codices, now called the Golden Gospels. These were a series of illuminated masterpieces written largely in gold, often on purple coloured vellum.

The development of Carolingian minuscule had, although somewhat indirectly, a large impact on the history of mathematics. It was a script which was much more readable than the old unspaced capital script which was in use before this and, as a consequence, most of the mathematical works were freshly copied into this new script in the 9th century. Most of the works of the ancient Greek mathematicians which have survived do so because of this copying process and it is the 'latest' version written in minuscule script which has survived.


Buzz Aldrin

Also known as: Edwin E(ugene) Aldrin, Jr., Edwin E. Aldrin, Edwin Eugene Aldrin, Jr., Dr. Edwin Eugene Aldrin, Jr., Buzz Aldrin, Edwin E(ugene) Aldrin, Edwin Aldrin, Dr. Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.

(Born 1930).  An American astronaut who was the second man on the Moon with the Apollo 11 mission. Decorated D.S.M., Legion of Merit, D.F.C. with oak leaf cluster, Air Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters; recipient numerous awards including Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1969.

Author: Return to Earth, 1973, Men From Earth, 1989.

Buzz Aldrin's Official Website:

Bill Carrell. Communion on the Moon - Buzz Aldrin.


Ulisse Aldrovandi

(1522-1605). Italian naturalist and physician. Taught at Bologna (1553-1605); director of botanical garden established (1568) at his instigation by senate of Bologna; introduced systematic study of natural history; author of beautifully illustrated volumes on ornithology, entomology, ichthyology, etc., and of Antidotarii bononiensis epitome (1574), official pharmacopoeia.

The Galileo Project,

Il teatro della natura di Ulisse Aldrovandi (in Italian)


Hattie Elizabeth Alexander

was a U.S. microbiologist, bacteriologist and pediatrician who became the leading authority on the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Her pioneering studies paved the way for advances in treatment that have saved countless lives.  First woman president, American Pediatric Society, 1964. During her career she published some 150 papers as well as chapters in textbooks on microbiology and pediatrics and delivered many honorary lectures at medical and academic institutions.



James S. Allan *** Not in Gale

Zoologist, geneticist.  Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. M.S. in agriculture from the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa; B.S. in agriculture from the University of Natal.

Dr. Don Batten and Carl Wieland. "Jumping ship: Dr. Jim Allan, a geneticist, tells of his 'double conversion',", first published in Creation 20(3):26-27, June 1998.  Dr. Allan's testimony.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Wesley D. Allen *** Not in Gale

(Born 1961).  Chemist. Research Scientist, Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia (1995-present).  Previous: Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University (1988-1994); Postdoctoral Research Associate, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (1987-88). 

His research in chemistry at Vanderbilt in 1978 under the direction of Professor David J. Wilson concerned adsorbing colloid flotation of heavy metals, a water purification technique, and earned him several national awards, e.g., a Westinghouse Science Talent Search Scholarship (final 40), and an Edison Centennial Scholarship. In August 1979 he entered Vanderbilt University as a Harold Stirling Vanderbilt Honors Scholar and held the attendant full academic scholarship for four years, receiving numerous additional academic honors during this period. His undergraduate thesis concerned ab initio quantum chemical studies of the highly strained, "antiaromatic" molecule thiirene and its saturated analogue thiirane.

In May 1983 he graduated from Vanderbilt University with a Bachelor of Arts degree, summa cum laude with high honors in chemistry, and a double major in chemistry and physics.  In August of 1983 Dr. Allen enrolled in graduate school in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, where he held an NSF Graduate Fellowship in Chemistry from 1983-1986. At Berkeley he continued work in development and chemical applications of ab initio quantum chemistry under the guidance of Professor Henry F. Schaefer III. Dr. Allen completed requirements for the Ph.D. degree in the Department of Chemistry at Berkeley in September 1987. In 1986 Dr. Allen became associated with Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA and undertook several additional research projects in a Berkeley-Sandia collaboration. From July 1987 until June 1988 he continued worked at the Combustion Research Facility of Sandia National Laboratories as a postdoctoral Research Associate under the supervision of Dr. J. S. Binkley. In July 1988 Dr. Allen joined the faculty at Stanford University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry, where he directed Ph.D. research in theoretical chemistry and taught advanced physical chemistry until 1994. Since 1995 Dr. Allen has been a research scientist at the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry at the University of Georgia. He has authored over 60 publications in scientific literature.
Dr. Allen was raised in a Christian home and made a personal decision for Christ in 1973. He was heavily involved in campus ministries at Stanford University and has continued to promote Christian outreach and scholarship in various ways at the University of Georgia. He and his wife Anne are active members of Faith Presbyterian Church in Watkinsville, Georgia.

From Biographical sketch.

Faculty webpage, Wesley D. Allen-Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia,

Member: The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia


William Allen *** Not in Gale

(1779-1843).  Chemist, an astronomer and a Fellow of the Royal Society who founded Allen and Hanbury's medical and chemical company (still in existence). In 1804 he began his Royal Institution Lectures, and he was involved in establishing schools promoted by his fellow-Quaker Joseph Lancaster, leading to the foundation of the British and Foreign Schools Society.


Scott Corbett.  Cape Cod's Way: "William Allen and His Quaker Beliefs,"


Prospero Alpini / Prospero Alpino

(1553-1616 or 1617). Italian botanist and physician. Professor at Padua(from 1593); author of De medicina Aegyptorum (1591), De plantis Aegypti liber (1593), De praesagienda vita etmorte aegrotontium (1601); credited with introducing coffee and bananas to Europe.

The Galileo Project,

Alpini's De plantis Aegypti  was the first treatment of the plants of Egypt. He accompanied the Venetian consul to Egypt as his personal physician, residing there from 1580 to 1583. He was the first European to mention the coffee plant and the first to record the sexual differences of the date-palm tree. Alpini was director of the Padua botanic gardens until his death in 1617.


Johann Heinrich Alsted *** Not in Gale

Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588-1638), German Protestant divine. He was some time Professor of philosophy and theology at Herborn, in Nassau, and afterwards at Weissenburg[?] in Transylvania, where he remained till his death in 1638. He was a prolific writer, and his Encyclopaedia (1630), the most considerable of the earlier works of that class, was long held in high estimation. From


Dunston Philoman Ambrose

(Born February 23, 1955 in Melamanakudy, India).  Entomology educator, researcher.  Lecturer zoology, St. Xavier's College, Palayankottai, Tamil Nadu, India, 1982; Assistant Professor zoology, St. Joseph's College, Trichy, India, 1981-82; field biologist, BNHS, Point Calimere, India, 1980-81. Director Entomology Research unit St. Xavier's College, 1982.  Education: BSc, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil, India, 1974; MSc, American College, Madurai, India, 1976; Ph.D., University Madras, Coimbatore, India, 1980; DSc, Madurai Kamaraj University, India, 1999.

Member: Heteropterist Association (U.S.), Biocontrol Advancement.

Honors: Recipient Speaker award XIX International Congress Entomology, Beijing, 1992, Career award University Grants Commission, India, 1993, St. Xaveriah Research award, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000.

Author: (monograph) Assassin Bugs, 1999; editor: Biological and Cultural Control of Insect Pests, 1996; Contributor of numerous articles to science publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.



Arie van Nieuw Amerongen

(Born 1944).  Biochemist.  Educator.  Medical researcher.  Head department of Oral Biochemistry, Division of Oral Biochemistry, ACTA (Academic Centre for Dentistry) - Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Expertise: anti-microbial peptides; saliva; oral health; peptide synthesis. Professor biochemistry, Vrije University, 1990; Associate Professor, Vrije University, 1978-90; Assistant Professor, Vrije University, Amsterdam, 1974-78.

The Skeletal Tissue Engineering Group Amsterdam (STEGA) is a multidisciplinary group of scientists working on fundamental and clinical aspects of skeletal tissues and implants. STEGA performs research in tissue engineering, orthopaedics, dentistry, cell biology, biochemistry, biomechanics, biomaterials, clinical physics, medical imaging, and computer science.

STEGA has been established as a foundation in 1998, and finds its roots in the Department of Orthopaedics of the Vrije Universiteit, the Department of Oral Cell Biology of the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), and the Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics of the University Hospital Vrije Universiteit  in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives of the STEGA foundation are to perform and promote fundamental and clinical research on the maintaince, repair, and regeneration of skeletal tissues in general, and on orthopaedic and dental implantology in particular.

AM-Pharma and Biomet-Merck are both partners in a Dutch STW-project, co-ordinated by Dr. Arie van Nieuw Amerongen and Dr. Paul Wuisman (Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Hospital) at the Free University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands). The main scope of the research is the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA-infections using bone cement and collagen fleeces impregnated with AM-Pharma's proprietary AMP's.

Professor Arie van Nieuw Amerongen Ph.D., biochemist.

Education: MS, Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1970; Ph.D., Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1974.

Member: International Association for Dental Research, European Organization for Caries Research Accord.

Contributor articles to professional journals; patentee on composition for protecting teeth, therapeutic composition for replacing andor supplementing body fluids, antimicrobial peptides.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.  "From my scientific work I am deeply impressed by the wisdom and knowledge of the almighty God as Creator and supporter of His creation."


André-Marie Ampere

The French physicist André Marie Ampère (1775-1836), with his original and penetrating analysis of the magnetic effects of current-carrying wires, was the founder of electrodynamics.

The True Scientist
Happy the one who in his learned watches,
Contemplating the marvels of this vast universe,
Before so much beauty, before so much grandeur,
Bows the knee and acknowledges the divine creator.
I do not share the foolish incoherence
Of the scientist who would contest the existence of God,
Who would close his ears to what the heavens declare,
And refuse to see what the shines before his eyes.
To know God, to love Him, to offer Him a pure homage
That is true knowledge and the study of the wise.

(Translation from French by F. Skiff, 2000)



Clayton Anderson *** Not in Gale

(Born 1959).  Astronaut.  Received a bachelor of science degree (Cum Laude) in Physics from Hastings College, Nebraska in 1981 and a master of science degree in Aerospace Engineering from Iowa State University in 1983. Distinguished Alumnus Award, National Council of Alpha Chi (2001). NASA Quality and Safety Achievement Recognition (QASAR) Award 1998; NCAA National Christian College Basketball Championships Official (1997, 1998); JSC Certificate of Commendation (1993); Outstanding Young Man of America (1981, 1985, 1987); Bronco Award Winner, Hastings College (1981).

Anderson joined the Johnson Space Center in 1983 in the Mission Planning and Analysis Division where he performed rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory designs for early Space Shuttle and Space Station missions. In 1988 he moved to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) as a Flight Design Manager leading the trajectory design team for the Galileo planetary mission (STS-34) while serving as the backup for the Magellan planetary mission (STS-31). He was later assigned the Gamma Ray Observatory (STS-37) and Tethered Satellite/EURECA (STS-46) missions. In 1989, Anderson was chosen as the supervisor of the MOD Ascent Flight Design Section and, following a reorganization, the Flight Design Engineering Office of the Flight Design and Dynamics Division. In 1993 he was named the Chief of the Flight Design Branch. From 1996 until his selection Anderson held the post of Manager, Emergency Operations Center, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Selected by NASA in June 1998, he reported for training in August 1998. Training included orientation briefings and tours, numerous scientific and technical briefings, intensive instruction in Shuttle and International Space Station systems, physiological training, ground school to prepare for T-38 flight training, as well as learning water and wilderness survival techniques.

Anderson most recently served as the lead for the Enhanced Caution and Warning (ECW) System development effort within the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) Project. Previously, he was the Crew Support Astronaut for the Expedition 4 International Space Station Crew, providing ground support to the crew on technical issues in addition to supporting their families. Anderson also served as a Space Station Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) for Station missions and as the Astronaut Office crew representative for the Station's electrical power system. In November of 2002, Mr. Anderson completed training in the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Skills program. Anderson is currently assigned as the Flight Engineer for an upcoming International Space Station Long Duration Expedition in 2006.


Clayton Anderson.  "ISS Expedition Journal,"

Clayton C. Anderson.  "Lt. Col. Michael P. Anderson Memorial Plaza, Dedication Ceremony, Creighton University, June 12, 2004,

Anderson eulogizes astronaut Michael Anderson (no relation) of the shuttle Columbia, which had disintegrated on re-entry in 2003.


David Lee Anderson

(1951-1999).  Soil Chemist. Associate Professor, University of Florida, Belle Glade, 1987-99; Assistant Professor, University of Florida, Belle Glade, 1982-87; soil chemist, USDA, Auburn, Alabama, 1981-82; Research Associate, N.C. State University, Raleigh, 1976-77; Research technician, N.C. State University, Plymouth, 1975; soil scientist, U.S. Peace Corps, Yurimaguas, Peru, 1973-74. Education: MS, N.C. State University, 1978; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981

Member: Agronomy Society America, American Society Sugar Cane Technologists.  Baptist.

Author: Nutritional Deficiency and Toxicity Symnptoms in Plants, 1991, Sugarcane Cropping Systems, 1991, Sugarcane Nutrition, 1991; Contributor of articles to professional publications.


John Anderson *** Not in Gale

Anderson (1833-1900), a native of Scotland, became the first curator of the Indian Museum in 1865. Although based in Calcutta, he joined the Sladen expedition to Burma and Yunnan in 1868, and a second expedition to the same region in 1875. These two expeditions provided the material upon which Anderson based his first large herpetological work, Anatomical and Zoological Researches, known especially for its excellent plates of Asian turtles. After 1886 Anderson returned to Britain and later initiated work in the more arid areas of southwest Asia and north Africa.

John Anderson. The course of creation .  Cincinnati, W. H. Moore & co., 1851.


Edward J. Anderson *** Not in Gale

Mathematician.  Professor of Operations Management, Director of Research Australian Graduate School of Management, University of New South Wales, Australia.  Research interests: Electricity markets, Scheduling problems, Algorithms for optimization, Rendezvous search problems. Professor in Operations Management and Operations Research at the University of Cambridge, 1979 - 1995.  MA with honors in Mathematics from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and a Ph.D. in Control and Management Systems from the University of Cambridge. 

Contributor to professional journals.
Faculty webpage,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Harold James Anderson

(Born 1928).  Forest products company executive. Student, University Wisconsin, 1948-49; B.S. in Chemistry, St. Norberts College, 1952. Scientist, Marathon Corp., Rothschild, Wisconsin, 1952-57; Senior scientist, American Can. Co., Neenah, Wisconsin, 1957-63, Group Leader, 1963-68, Supervisor, 1968-72, Manager, 1972-74, Manager new product technology, 1974-75, Product Manager, Green Bay, 1975-79; Associate Director paperboard process development, James River Corp., Neenah, Wisconsin, 1979-83, Director paperboard development, 1983-90, Consultant, 1991. Served with U.S. Army, 1946-48.

Member: TAPPI. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Michael P. Anderson

(1959-2003).  Astronaut.  Died on February 1, 2003 over the southern United States when Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew perished during entry, 16 minutes prior to scheduled landing. Lieutenant Colonel Michael P. Anderson served as the Payload commander on his second flight into space. Just before leaving on the flight, Anderson told his minister that, "If this thing doesn't come out right, don't worry about me; I'm just going on higher."  Washington State Highway 904, running through Cheney, Washington, where he graduated from high school, was renamed in his memory. After his death, Asteroid 51824 Mikeanderson was named for him.

After completing a year of technical training at Keesler AFB Mississippi he was assigned to Randolph AFB Texas. At Randolph he served as Chief of Communication Maintenance for the 2015 Communication Squadron and later as Director of Information System Maintenance for the 1920 Information System Group. In 1986 he was selected to attend Undergraduate Pilot Training at Vance AFB, Oklahoma. Upon graduation he was assigned to the 2nd Airborne Command and Control Squadron, Offutt AFB Nebraska as an EC 135 pilot, flying the Strategic Air Commands airborne command post code-named "Looking Glass". From January 1991 to September 1992 he served as an aircraft commander and instructor pilot in the 920th Air Refueling Squadron, Wurtsmith AFB Michigan. From September 1992 to February 1995 he was assigned as an instructor pilot and tactics officer in the 380 Air Refueling Wing, Plattsburgh AFB New York. Anderson logged over 3000 hours in various models of the KC-135 and the T-38A aircraft.

Selected by NASA in December 1994, Anderson reported to the Johnson Space Center in March 1995. He completed a year of training and evaluation, and was qualified for flight crew assignment as a mission specialist. Anderson was initially assigned technical duties in the Flight Support Branch of the Astronaut Office. Anderson flew on STS-89 and STS-107, logging over 593 hours in space.

Bachelor of science degree in physics/astronomy from University of Washington, 1981. Master of science degree in physics from Creighton University, 1990.

Honors: Distinguished graduate USAF Communication Electronics Officers course. Recipient of the Armed Forces Communication Electronics Associations Academic Excellence Award 1983. Received the USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training Academic Achievement Award for Class 87-08 Vance AFB. Awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal, the USAF Meritorious Service Medal, and the USAF Achievement Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster.  Posthumously awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), and the Congressional Space Medal of Freedom.



Norman Dean Anderson

(Born 1928).  Science educator, writer.  Certified Teacher and administrator, Iowa, N.C.   Professor of science education, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 1963-94; instructor, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1961-63; Teacher science, School Twp. of Pleasant Valley, Bettendorf, Iowa, 1959-61; Teacher science, supervisor, Burlington (Iowa) Public Schools, 1952-59.  Education: BA, University of Iowa, 1951; MA, University of Iowa, 1956; Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1965.

Norman Dean Anderson once told Contemporary Authors: "As a former junior high school science teacher, as a father of six, and as a university professor of science education, my continuous contacts with young people and science provide more ideas than I can write about in a lifetime. And as I read and do research for a book, more ideas for writing projects are generated. There are many motivations for writing these books--to share the excitement of science with adolescents, to create new ways of presenting ideas and activities that can be performed as part of the learning process, and perhaps most important, to organize my own thoughts and to learn, myself, about the many fascinating aspects of science."

Member: American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), National Education Association (life member), Association for Education of Teachers of Science, National Science Teachers Association (life), National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Delta Kappa.  Trustee Peace College, Raleigh, 1970-75; Board of Directors N.C. Marine Education Foundation, Raleigh, 1983-89. With U.S. Army, 1946, Japan.  Presbyterian.

Honors: North Carolina State University Outstanding Teaching Awards, 1965, 1970, Alumni Distinguished Professor, 1971; Distinguished Service Award, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, 1989; Faculty Award, North Carolina State University, 1992.

Author: Ozone: A Source Book for Teaching About Oz in the Rwosphere and Stratosphere, 1995; Ferris Wheels: An Illustrated History, 1992; co-author: Science, Students and Schools, 1980, Halley's Comet, 1981, Ferris Wheels, 1984, others (textbook series) Life Science, Physical Science, Earth Science, 1977; plus many other books.

Norman Anderson. Ferris Wheels: An Illustrated History,

Contributor to journals of science education.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Paul M. Anderson

(Born 1938).  Biochemistry educator. Dr. Anderson is Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the School of Medicine at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. He served as Head of the Department, University Minnesota School Medicine, Duluth, 1971-84; Professor, University Minnesota School of Medicine, Duluth, 1976; Associate Professor biochemistry, University Minnesota School of Medicine, Duluth, 1971-76; Research biochemist, Miles Labs., Inc., Elkhart, Indiana, 1970-71; Assistant Professor, Associate Professor Department chemistry, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1966-70; postdoctoral Fellow, Tufts University School Medicine, Boston, 1964-66. BS, University Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1959; Ph.D., University Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1964. His achievements include identification and characterization of a new pathway for urea synthesis in sharks and a newly discovered gene system in bacteria for detoxification of cyanate. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry and has published more than eighty-five papers and articles. His research work, funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, has focused on enzyme mechanisms, nitrogen metabolism in fish, and regulation of gene expression in fish.

Member: AAAS, American Chemical Society, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Protein Society, Sigma Xi (Chapter President, 1976-77, 97-98).

Editor, Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, 1998.

Paul M. Anderson, Ph.D. University of Minnesota, 1964, Faculty webpage, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Duluth. or

In June 2001, School of Medicine established the Paul M. Anderson Fellowship for graduate studies in biochemistry and molecular biology in honor of Professor Emeritus Paul Anderson. Announcement was made June 8 at school's Paul M. Anderson Research Symposium on the biochemistry of fish, which featured presentations by 10 researchers from 4 countries.

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


V. Elving Anderson / Victor Elving Anderson

(Born September 6, 1921 in Stromsburg, Nebraska, United States).  Geneticist, educator.  Research on genetics in human behavior, mental retardation, and epilepsy.  Professor Emeritus genetics and cell biology, Dight Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota, 1966; Associate Professor zoology and genetics, Dight Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota, 1961-66; Acting Director, Dight Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota, 1978-84; Assistant Director, Dight Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota, 1954-78; Faculty dept. biology, Bethel College, 1946-60. Consultant National Institute Neurol. Disease and Blindness, 1961-68; member development behavioral sciences study section NIH, 1972-75, Chairman, 1974-75; Board regents Bethel College and Seminary, 1969-74, 82-87; Board of directors Institute for Advanced Christian Studies, 1971-76, 77-81, 82-86, 88.  Education: AA, Bethel Jr. College, 1941; student, Bethel Theological Seminary, 1941-43; BA in Zoology, University of Minnesota, 1945; MS in Zoology (Genetics), University of Minnesota, 1949; Ph.D. in Zoology (Genetics), University of Minnesota, 1953.

Honor: Named Alumnus of Year, Bethel College and Seminary, 1965.

Member: AAAS (President Academy Conf. 1967), American Society Human Genetics (Director 1967-70), Minnesota Academy of Science (President 1964-65), American Science Affiliation (President 1963-65), Behavior Genetics Association (sec. 1972-74, President 1979-80), Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi (exec. Board 1972-84, President 1982-83).

Author: (with H.O. Goodman and S.C. Reed) Variables Related to Human Breast Cancer, 1958, (with S.C. Reed, C. Hartley, V.P. Phillips, N.A. Johnson) The Psychoses: Family Studies, 1973; (with W.A. Hauser, J.K. Penry, C.F. Sing) Genetic Basis of the Epilepsies, 1982; (with G.Beck-Mannagetta, H. Doose, D. Janz) Genetics of the Epilepsies, 1989; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Contact page:,VElving.html

V. Elving Anderson, Professor Emeritus, EPIDEMIOLOGY, SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH,  "Geneticists spend their lives unraveling the intricacies and mysteries of the human body. Without question, Dr. V. Elving Anderson has made appreciable contributions to this field of research. He has published studies on genetic factors in human behavioral problems, breast cancer, and epilepsy, as well as the ethical issues in genetics and other areas of biology. Professor emeritus of genetics and cell biology at the University of Minnesota, Anderson helped map the first gene for epilepsy in 1989 and currently leads a worldwide search for other epilepsy genes.

"In addition to his research findings, Anderson co-authored the book On Behalf of God: A Christian Ethic for Biology and was a contributor to Whatever Happened to the Soul? Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature."


V. Elving Anderson.  "Can We Talk? A Public Conversation About Behavioral Genetics and Society

May 2-3, 2003," Convened by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and The Hastings Center.


Edgar Andrews, BSc, Ph.D., DSc, FInstP, FIM, CEng, CPhys.
(Born 1932).  Chemist. Emeritus Professor of Materials Science, University of London.

Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Welwyn Garden City, England, technical officer, 1953-55; Rubber Producers' Research Association, Welwyn Garden City, senior physicist, 1955-63; University of London, Queen Mary College, London, England, reader, 1963-68, Professor of materials, 1968-present. Chartered engineer. Director of Evangelical Press and QMC-Industrial Research Ltd.; chairman of Clarendon School Trust, 1975-81; consultant to Dow Chemical Co.

Education: University of London, B.Sc., 1953, Ph.D., 1960, D.Sc., 1968.

Author: Chemistry and Physics of Rubberlike Substances, 1963; Fracture in Polymers (monograph), 1968; Is Evolution Scientific?, 1977; From Nothing to Nature (A Young People's Guide to Evolution and Creation), 1978; (ed. and co-author) Developments in Polymer Fracture, 1979; The Promise of the Spirit, 1982; Christ and the Cosmos, 1986; Free in Christ (commentary), 1996; A Glorious High Throne,  2003. Is Evolution Scientific? and From Nothing to Nature have been published in Swedish, and the latter book is being translated into Norwegian. Contributor of more than eighty articles and reviews to scientific journals throughout the world.

Honors: A. A. Griffith Silver Medal from Materials Science Club of Great Britain, 1977, for published works on fracture.

"Truth is a unity, and this is my basic approach to science and religion. Biblical revelation must be compatible with genuine scientific discovery, but revelation must take precedence since human enquiry is flawed by human nature. The Bible makes it clear that God is sovereign in creation, providence, and the personal salvation of the soul through faith in Jesus Christ.

"In my scientific research I am concerned mainly with understanding the phenomena of interest. Although much of my work is applied (i.e., engineering) science, I am still a physicist at heart, seeking to reveal by research the excellent harmony of nature and its unity as expressed by the laws of science."

Source: Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001.


Edgar Andrews.  "MAN: CREATED OR EVOLVED?"


Ronald D. Anderson

(Not Ronald D. Anderson, Faculty, BYU-Idaho)

(Not Ronald Dean Anderson, American United Life Professor Emeritus, Kelly School of Business, Indiana University, Indianapolis)

(Not Ronald Dean Anderson, Buffalo, Minnesota social worker)

(Not Ronald D. Anderson, clinician, Northeast Clinical Specialists, LLC, Connecticut)

Science educator.  Professor of Education (1871 - present), School of Education, University of Colorado at Boulder, with a focus on science education. His research centers on policy issues in science education and science education reform. Assistant Professor, Kansas State University at Manhattan, KS, 1964-65; Assistant Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, 1965-68; Associate Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, 1968-71.  BS Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1959; Ph.D. Education, University of Wisconsin, 1964.
Dr. Anderson is a member of numerous professional organizations and has served as president of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, president of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science, and chair of the Education Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He currently is a member of the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He received an outstanding paper award from the National Association for Research in Science Teaching in 1980 and in1986 was awarded a Fulbright Senior Research Award to conduct research in Germany.

Faculty webpage,

Curriculum Vitae

Ronald D. Anderson, University of Colorado.  "Teaching Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools;

A member of ENC's Science Advisory Board takes a closer look at the meaning of inquiry,"

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Thomas Anderson *** Not in Gale

Thomas Anderson (1819-1874) was an organic chemist. Born and brought up in Leith, near Edinburgh, the son of a physician, Anderson was educated at the High School of Leith, Edinburgh Academy and the University of Edinburgh, where he gained an MD degree in 1841.

Anderson is primarily remembered for his discovery of picoline (an isomer of aniline) and the base pyridine in a series of experiments carried out between 1848-1868 in which he distilled bone oil and investigated the concentrated fractions of organic bases created. He was also known at the time for his work on agriculture - he was chemist to the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland from 1848. In this role, he wrote Elements of Agricultural Chemistry (1860), considered to be an accurate picture of the state of science at the time, but otherwise largely unremarkable.  Anderson also looked at physiology in humans, particularly the chemical changes that occur in the body during physiological processes such as eating. In addition, Anderson worked for some time on codeine and other opiates, leading to his discovery of the composition of a number of alkaloids.


Bartholomaeus Anglicus

(fl. 1220-1240).  Franciscan Professor of theology; was the author of one of the first encyclopedias, the 19-volume De proprietatibus rerum.

Bartholomaeus Anglicus.  Mediaeval Lore From Bartholomaeus Anglicus, edited by Robert Steele ,

contrib. by William Morris.  Project Gutenberg Release #6493 (September 2004)
This Gutenberg release is not official until the last day of the month above


Betsy Ancker-Johnson

(Born 1927 in St. Louis, Missouri, United States).  Physicist, engineer, retired automotive company executive. Betsy Ancker-Johnson has been the first woman to hold a vice-presidency in the American auto industry, held management posts in government and private industry, and has also made significant contributions in solid state physics, microwave and molecular electronics, and ferromagnetism and nonreciprocal effects. The author of more than 80 scientific papers, Ancker-Johnson also holds a handful of patents and also designed 50 devices and techniques in solid-state physics.,_Betsy@841234567.html

Mary Bellis.  Inventors -- Dr. Betsy Ancker-Johnson.


Frank Andrew Anthony

(Born November 30, 1957 in Arlington, Virginia, United States). Biochemist. Senior biologist, Schering-Plough Health Care Products, Memphis, 1991; biologist II, Schering-Plough Health Care Products, Memphis, 1989-91; Research Assistant, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, 1987-89; Research fellow, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, 1984-87; teaching Assistant, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, 1980-82. Adjunct faculty Memphis State University, 1991; radiation safety committee Schering-Plough Health Care Products, Memphis, 1992.  Education: BS, Texas Christian University, 1979; Ph.D., Texas Christian University, 1984.

Member: Texas Society for Electron Microscopy, American Society for Photobiology, N.Y. Academy Sciences, Sigma Xi.

Honors: Recipient National Research Service award NIH, 1984-87, Chemistry of Behavior Research fellowship Texas Christian University, 1980-83, Shering-Plough Science Achievement award 1992; named to Outstanding Young Men of America, 1985, 87.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Voituret Anthelme *** Not in Gale

(1618-1683).  French Carthusian monk.  Astronomer.  Discovered the nova Variable R volpecula in 1672.

Published Explication de la comete and other treatises.

The Galileo Project,


Adriaan Anthonisz *** Not in Gale

(Born c.1543-1620).  Dutch mathematician, astronomer.  Cartographer and miltary engineer for the States of Holland.

The Galileo Project,

In 1578 he was summoned to Utrecht as master of fortification, and in 1579 entrusted by the States of Holland with strengthening of Naarden and Muiden. He was both engineer of the states of Holland and mathematician to the Prince of Orange around 1580. Between 1582 and 1601 he was elected burgomaster of Alkmaar several times.  He was the chief of fortifications of the United Netherlands in 86, 87, 88, 90-96, and he did much work on fortification under the Princes of Orange.  At the request of the Prince he composed a piece on the quadratuare of the circle in 1584. He also wrote on the calendar, on sun dialing (including the problem of determining latitude from the length of shadows. He wrote as well on the astrolabe, and made an instrument that showed the position of the moon. (in Dutch)


Peter Apian / Petrus Apianus / Peter Biennewitz / Peter Bennewitz

(1501-1552). German astronomer, mathematician and geographer. Professor at Ingolstadt (from 1527); author of Cosmographia (1524), Astronomicum Caesareum (1540).  Peter Apian was a Renaissance university professor who applied mathematics to the works of Claudius Ptolemy to develop new systems for surveying and mapmaking, to predict the position and movement of celestial bodies, and to calculate detailed sine tables.

The Galileo Project,

"Apian made sundials and astronomical instruments, inventing his own quadrant and armillary sphere, and also devoted himself to constructing instruments that would solve spherical-trigonometric problems mechanically.

His special form of the quadrant was useful in surveying.

Apian was a cartographer, although more an editor and publisher of maps than one who prepared them. In 1520 he did a world map based on the larger Waldseemüller world map. Apian's is the oldest world map that uses the name 'America.' In 1530 he did another world map which was much more his own work. It used the heart projection, which was not however Apian's invention. In 1533 he published a map of Saxony prepared from an earlier one by Sevastianus a Rotenhan.

Apian was the first to propose the use of moon distances (the moon's distance from fixed stars) to determine longitudes."

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Petrus Apianus,"  "Another publication between 1524 and 1540 was Apian's most important contribution to mathematics itself, rather than its applications. This was his book Instrumentum sinuum sive primi published in 1534 which contained the first sine tables calculated for every minute of arc. Like all other works by Apian this book contained a host of applications of mathematics, and the sine tables are applied to problems of astronomy, navigation and architecture."


St. Thomas Aquinas

(1225 - 1274).  The Italian philosopher and theologian St. Thomas Aquinas (ca. 1224-1274) was one of the foremost minds of medieval scholasticism. He is recognized as the leading theological authority within the Roman Catholic Church.

"Thomas Aquinas."

Many of the works by Thomas Aquinas can be found at Thomas Aquinas at CCEL including:

Summa Theologica

Thomas Aquinas at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Giulio Cesare Aranzio / Giulio Cesare Aranzi *** Not in Gale

(c. 1530-1589).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, surgeon.

The Galileo Project,

Aranzio dicovered the pedes hippocamp, the cerebellum cistern, the fourth ventricle, and the arterial duct between the aorta and the pulmonary duct.  Aranzio published De humano foetu libellus in 1563, and Liber anatomicarum observationum in 1579. In these he presented the new direction of anatomy, based not mere on simple description of the organs of the body but also on experimental investigation of their functions.  His work on the foetus led to advice on delivery.  He was the first firm advocate of the lesser circulation of the blood.

Lecturer in medicine and surgery at the University of Bologna, 1556-1570.  Professor of surgery and professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, 1570-89.  Education: He studied medicine at the University of Bologna, and received both M.D. and Ph.D. at Bologna in 1556.


John Arbuthnot

(1667-1735). Scottish physician and writer. Physician to Queen Anne (1705-14). Close friend of Swift, Pope, Gay, and a founder with them of Scriblerus Club. Author of witty political pamphlets, including one (The History of John Bull, 1727, a satire against the duke of Marlborough) which popularized and fixed modern conception of John Bull as the typical Englishman; chief contributor to Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus (1713-14; published 1741).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "John Arbuthnot,"

John Arbuthnot.  "The History of John Bull,"  Project Gutenberg Release #2643 (May 2001)


Antoine-Joseph Dezalier d' Argenville  *** Not in Gale

(1680-1765).  French scientist specializing in natural history, hydraulics and agriculture.

The Galileo Project,

In 1709 d'Argenville published Traité sur la théorie et la pratique du jardinage. He republished this work in 1747 with an added section on hydraulics suitable for gardens.  After his return from Italy, he settled in Paris where he acquired a reputation as an expert collector of objects of art and curiosities of nature. His travels to Germany, Holland, and England widened his circle of acquaintance and enlarged his collection of objects.

In 1742 he published a work of natural history, L'Histoire naturelle, 2 vols., which contained information on minerology, fossils, and shells. The work was republished in 1755 and 1757.

D'Argenville is most well-known for his work on the life of artists, Abregé de la vie des plus fameux peintres (1745-52, 1762).

Member: Société Royale des Sciences de Montpellier in 1740; the Royal Society of London in 1750-1765, and the Académie de La Rochelle in 1758.


Neil A. Armstrong

(Born 1930).  NASA astronaut.  First man to walk on the Moon.  Currently serves as Chairman, EDO Corp., 2000. From 1949 to 1952, he served as a naval aviator; he flew 78 combat missions during the Korean War.  Armstrong joined NACA, (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), NASA's predecessor, as a research pilot at the Lewis Laboratory in Cleveland and later transferred to the NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards AFB, California. He was a project pilot on many pioneering high speed aircraft, including the 4,000 mph X-15. He has flown over 200 different models of aircraft, including jets, rockets, helicopters and gliders.  In 1962, Armstrong was transferred to astronaut status. He served as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, launched March 16, 1966, and performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. In 1969, Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, and gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the Moon and the first man to step on its surface. Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Association Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters Office of Advanced Research and Technology, from 1970 to 1971. He resigned from NASA in 1971. During 1971-1979, Armstrong was Professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Cincinnati, where he was involved in both teaching and research. Chairman of AIL Systems, Inc. Deer Park, N.Y., 1989-2000.

Member: Fellow AIAA (Honorary, Astronautics award 1966), International Astronautical Federation (Honorary), Society Experimental Test Pilots; National Academy Engineering.

Honors: Octave Chanute Award Institute Aero. Sciences, 1962; the Robert J. Collier Trophy in 1969; Presidential Medal for Freedom in 1969; Kitty Hawk Memorial award, 1969, Pere Marquette medal, 1969, Arthur S. Fleming Award, 1970,  the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy in 1970; Hubbard Gold Medal National Geog. Society, 1970, and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, 1978.

Author: First on the Moon, Little, Brown, 1970; Pioneering the Space Frontier: The Report of the National Commission on Space, Bantam, 1986.

"Neil A. Armstrong,"

"Neil Armstrong,"

"Neil A. Armstrong, NASA Astronaut (former),"

Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum.


Alexander Arndt *** Not in Gale

Professor and analytical chemist.  Ph.D. Professor of Analytical Chemistry of Heidelberg University, Germany.  Former vice-president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Institute for Ecology Research.



Thomas Arnold

(1795-1842). English educator. Father of Matthew Arnold. Headmaster of Rugby(1828-42).  Developed modern British schools with introduction of mathematics, modern history, and modern languages to curriculum; introduced prefect system. Through his efforts his school became the model for other English public schools and for boarding schools throughout the Western world. Regius Professor of history at Oxford (1841).

Dr. J. C. Smith.  "Rugby and the Myth of Dr. Arnold,"

"Thomas Arnold Changed Rugby and English Schools,"

"I have been used for many years to study histories of other times, and to examine and weigh the evidence of those who have written about them, and I know of no better and fuller evidence of every sort, to the understanding of a fair inquirer, than the great sign which God hath given us that Christ died and rose again from the dead." Thomas Arnold, Sermons on the Christian Life - Its hopes, Its Fears, and its Close, (6th ed., London, 1854), p. 324.


Giuseppe degli Aromatari *** Not in Gale

(1587-1660).  Italian botanist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Aromatari is remembered today for his hypothesis of the preformation of the germ in seeds. The hypothesis was published in the two-page Epistola de generatione plantarum ex seminibus (1625), which immediately made him famous and established his priority on the doctrine of the preformation of the germ. He also investigated the so-called permeability of the interventricular septum of the heart, but on this subject no writing exists.  He also wrote on rabies.


Russell Charles Artist *** Not in Gale

(1911-2000).  Paleoecologist.  Scholar. In 1932, Artist graduated from Butler University with a baccalaureate degree in biology. That fall, he entered graduate school at Northwestern University in Indiana to work on his M.S. in paleoecology, which he completed in 1934. In September of that year, he was accepted into the doctoral program at the University of Minnesota, and completed his Ph.D. in botany in 1938. That same year, he accepted a teaching position at Amarillo College in the Texas panhandle.  In 1945, Russell and Cathey (Alice Blanche's nickname) moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, where he began teaching at Westminister College. In 1947 he moved his family back to Texas so he could teach biology at Abilene Christian College (now a university). But, by 1948, the Artists were on their way to do mission work in the two countries of Switzerland and Germany, where they established congregations of the churches of Christ. In 1953, Dr. Artist joined the faculty of David Lipscomb College (now a university), where he taught for 23 years (13 as head of the biology department).  Russell retired from teaching in 1976.

From Bert Thompson.  "A PERSONAL NOTE-IN HONOR OF A FALLEN MENTOR,", From Reason & Revelation, July 2001, 21[7]:56.


Gaspare Aselli

(1581-1625). Italian physician and anatomist. Discovered the lacteal vessels of the intestine while dissecting a dog (1622).

The Galileo Project,


William James Ash

(Born November 3, 1931).  Geneticist, educator.  Professor emeritus, SUNY, Stony Brook, 1991; Professor, SUNY, Stony Brook, 1985-91; President, Advisory Assocs. International, Westhampton, N.Y., 1981-94; member sr. staff, U.S.-Saudi Joint Commn., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1982-83; program officer, NSF, Washington, 1979-81; Professor, Kuwait University, Arabian Gulf, 1976-78; Professor, St. Lawrence University, Canton, N.Y., 1966-81; Assistant Professor, W.Va. University, Morgantown, 1965-66; Director school, Crescent Corp., Aquebogue, N.Y., 1964-65; school geneticist, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1959-64; graduate school Assistant, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1955-59.  Education: BS, Cornell University, 1953; MS, Cornell University, 1958; Ph.D., Cornell University, 1960.

Member: Fellow American Dermatoglyphics Association; Cape Lookout Sail and Power Squadron Club, Alpenverein Club, Sigma Xi, Beta Beta Beta.  Roman Catholic.  Commander Peconic Bay Power Squadron, Riverhead, N.Y., 1986-88; scoutmaster Boy Scouts of America, Canton, 1967-69; coach, U.S. Amateur Ice Hockey Association, Canton, 1970-75. Captain U.S. Army, 1953-65.

Honors: Recipient Travel award Cornell University, 1963, Travel award NSF, 1983; NSF grantee, 1970-72, 79-81.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


E. C. Ashby / E. C. "Gene" Ashby / Eugene Christopher Ashby

(Born 1930).  Chemistry educator.  Regents Professor Emeritus, Georgia Institute Tech., Atlanta, 1993; Regents Professor, Georgia Institute Tech., Atlanta, 1973-93; Professor, Georgia Institute Tech., Atlanta, 1969-73; Associate Professor, Georgia Institute Tech., Atlanta, 1965-69; Assistant Professor, Georgia Institute Tech., Atlanta, 1963-65; Research Associate, Ethyl Corp., Baton Rouge, 1959-63; Research chemist, Ethyl Corp., Baton Rouge, 1956-59. Consultant, Ethyl Corp., 1980-91, Conoco, Ponca City, Oklahoma, 1972-76, U.S. Department Energy, 1990-98, Georgia Department Education, 1994-97, Pfizer Pharm., 1996.

BS, Loyola University, New Orleans, 1951; MS, Auburn University, 1953; Ph.D., University Notre Dame, 1956.

Honors: Lavoisier medal French Chemical Society, 1971, Sigma Xi Research award, 1968, 75, Herty medal American Chemical Society, 1983, Distinguished Professor award Georgia Institute Tech., 1988.

Contributor over 270 articles to professional journals.

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.

"I believe that pride keeps many scientists from finding God because becoming a Christian requires humbling yourself before God and becoming vulnerable before men."


Steven Arthur Austin, Ph.D.

(Born 1948). Geologist. Chairman of the Geology Department, Institute for Creation Research Graduate School.  B.S. from the University of Washington (1970), M.S. from San Jose State University (1971) and Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University (1979), all in geology.  Instr. intelligence and oceanography, U.S. Navy, San Diego, 1972-75; resident, geologist Keymar Resources, Inc., El Cajon, California, 1983.  He is chairman of the Geology Department at the Institute for Creation Research Graduate School in Santee, California.

Author: Catastrophes in Earth History, 1984.  Author of numerous papers including publication in the peer-reviewed journal International Geology Review (1999).

Member: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, International Association of Sedimentologists, Society Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Geological Society of America, Society for Sedimentary Geology.

Steven A. Austin.  "Excess argon within mineral concentrates from the new dacite lava dome at Mount St Helens volcano," First published in TJ 10(3):335-343, 1996.



Adrien Auzout *** Not in Gale

(1622-1691).  French-born astronomer, physicist, mathematician, cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

Auzout made a significant contribution to the final development of the micrometer and to the replacement of open sights by telescopic sights.  He wrote a memoir on the measurement of the earth in which he advised the attachment of telescopes to surveying instruments. He made many physical experiments and systematic astronomical observations.

He was also a founding member of the Royal Observatory.  He dedicated his Ephémérides du comète de 1664, (1665) to Louis XIV, urging the establishment of a public observatory in the dedication.

Authored works and letters on astronomy, physics, and mathematics.  His published works are reprinted in Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis 1666 jusqu'à 1699 (Paris, 1729).


Oswald Theodore Avery

Oswald Theodore Avery (1877-1955), born in Nova Scotia, was a distinguished bacteriologist and research physician and one of the founders of immunochemistry (the study of the chemical aspects of immunology), showing relation of immunological specificity to chemical products of bacteria. He is best known, however, as a discoverer that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) serves as genetic material. The Oswald T. Avery Collection is a part of the Joshua Lederberg Papers, which are at the National Library of Medicine and available digitally. The collection was assembled by Nobel laureate Dr. Lederberg because of the strong connection between Dr. Avery's work and his own. The work of Avery and his lab, observes Dr. Lederberg, was "the historical platform of modern DNA research" and "betokened the molecular revolution in genetics and biomedical science generally."

ProNewFiles in Science, National Library of Medicine, The Oswald T. Avery Collection,

Avery graduated with a B.A. degree from Colgate University in 1900 and received his M.D. degree from Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1904. He then went into the clinical practice of general surgery for three years but soon turned to research and became Associate director of the bacteriology division at the Hoagland Laboratory in Brooklyn. Avery later joined the Rockefeller Institute Hospital (1913-48). 

Biographical information.

"Oswald Theodore Avery (1877-1955)," (in German)

Lasker Living Library: Oswald Avery.


Aw Swee-Eng, Ph.D.  *** Not in Gale

Biochemist and head of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Director of Clinical Research at Singapore General Hospital.  Dr. Aw was Associate Professor of Biochemistry, University of Singapore up to 1978. Author of around 30 technical papers in his field of biochemistry and nuclear medicine.

MB, BS, Ph.D. (Chem Path) (Lond), FRCPath (Lond), FAMS.

Carl Wieland. "Chemical soup is not your ancestor," Interview with Dr Aw Swee-Eng. or  First published in Creation Ex Nihilo 16(2):46-47, March-May 1994. The website allows members of Dr. Aw Swee Eng's Sunday morning Bible study to download his classes from the Internet. The site also hosts an online version of Dr. Aw's book, Chats With Uncle Loh.

Aw Swee-Eng. Chats With Uncle Loh - First Aid In Theology,

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]