Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (B)



Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (1791-1871) was an English inventor and mathematician whose mathematical machines foreshadowed the modern computer. He was a pioneer in the scientific analysis of production systems.

Babbage, The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, 1837.

Babbage: "Miracles are not the breach of established laws, but... indicate the existence of far higher laws."  From Wilhelm Schickard Museum of Computing History at Concordia UniversityWisconsin.


Augustus Quirinus Bachmann / Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (common name) *** Not in Gale

(1652-1723).  German anatomist, botanist, astronomer, pharmacologist. Wrote on removing useless items from the pharmacopia.

Rivinus published a large number of treatises concerning the disciplines he represented. An almost complete list of his work is compiled under the title of Dissertatione medicae diversis temporibus habitae, nunc vero in unum fasciculum collectae, Leipzig, 1710. Besides medicine he published works concerning astronomy. Observations on sunspots fascinated him so much that he was almost totally blinded for the last ten years of his life. He was a member of the Royal Society.  Associated eponyms: Rivinus' canals (Ducts of the sublingual glands), Rivinus' gland (A sublingual gland), Rivinus' notch (The tympanic notch in the upper part of the tympanic portion of the temporal bone), Viola riviniana (Wood violet).

The Galileo Project,


David J. Back *** Not in Gale
Pharmacologist.  Professor of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Liverpool.

Professor David Back obtained a B.Sc. in Pharmacology in 1970 and Ph.D. in 1973 at the University of Liverpool. He was appointed Lecturer in Veterinary Pharmacology in 1973, Lecturer in Pharmacology in 1979, Senior Lecturer in Pharmacology in1981, Reader in Pharmacology in 1986 and has been Professor of Pharmacology at Liverpool University since 1994.
Professor Back is the author or co-author of over 300 publications in pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. He is a past Editor of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. He is a member of the MRC AIDS Therapeutics Trials Committee.

Faculty webpage, University of Liverpool.

"The Pharmacology of HIV Disease,"


Sir Francis Bacon

The English philosopher, statesman, and author Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was the chief figure of the English Renaissance. His advocacy of "active science" influenced the culture of the English-speaking world.

Francis Bacon, Valerius Terminus: Valerius Terminus: On the Interpretation of Nature (annotated version), edited by Robert Stephens and James Spedding


Roger Bacon

The medieval English philosopher Roger Bacon (ca. 1214-1294) insisted on the importance of a so-called science of experience, or "scientia experimentalis." In this respect he is often regarded as a forerunner of modern science.

"Roger Bacon,"

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Johann Jacob Baier *** Not in Gale

(1677-1735).  German geologist, paleontologist, natural historian, physician, pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

Member: Medical College, Academia Leopoldina, Nuremberg Collegium medicum. Lutheran.

Director of Leopoldina, 1729; chosen president of Leopoldina. 1730 (1731?); practiced medicine in Nuremberg. 1701; directed field hospital (War of Spanish Succession),1703; professor of medicine at Altdorf University, 1704.


Matthew Baillie *** Not in Gale

(1761-1823).  Scottish pathologist and anatomist.  Inventor of treatment for dermoid cycts in the ovary.  Nephew of anatomists William and John Hunter.  Lecturer on Anatomy in London; Physician at St George's Hospital (1789); wrote Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body, (London 1793) the first publication in English on pathology as a separate subject and the first systematic study of pathology ever made.  After the publication of his book, he devoted himself to his medical practice, which by 1800 was the largest in London.  He became Physician Extraordinary to George III in 1810.  Education: Glasgow University; Balliol College, Oxford; AB (1786, Oxon); MB (1786, Oxon); MD (1789, Oxon).

Author of two Papers in the Philosophical Transactions entitled "An Account of a remarkable Transposition of the Viscera in the Human Body" and "An account of a particular change of Structure in the Human Ovarium"
Memberships: Fellow,  Royal Society, 1790.

"Matthiew Baille,"

He had the great advantage of residing with Dr William Hunter, and, when he became sufficiently advanced in his studies, of being employed to make the necessary preparations for the lectures, to conduct the demonstrations, and to superintend the operations of the students. On the death of Dr Hunter, March 1783, he was found qualified to become the successor of that great man, in conjunction with Mr Cruickshank, who had previously been employed as Dr Hunter's assistant.


Guillaume de Baillou

(c. 1538-1616).  French physician, founder of modern epidemiology, who revived Hippocratic medical practice in Renaissance Europe.  Guillaume de Baillou was born in 1538, the son of a famous mathematician, architect, and engineer. His affluent family owned an estate at Nogent-le-rotrou. He studied at the University of Paris, concentrating in Latin, Greek, and Philosophy, and later earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1568. He continued his studies there, earning a Doctorate in Medicine in 1570.  Dean of medical faculty, University of Paris (from 1580); revived Hippocratic medical practice in France. Described whooping cough (1578), gave modern definition of rheumatism; pioneer in epidemiology in Epidemiorum (1640), survey of epidemics in Paris 1570-79. He is known for his descriptions of the plague, measles, and diphtheria. He also taught the humanities, and later became professor of medicine. Baillou served as a teacher for 46 years, eventually becoming Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. Refusing to leave his medical practice, he declined King Henry IV's invitation to be a physician to the Dauphin, the eldest son of the French king, as Baillou was esteemed for his treatment of children. Baillou, however, did later became a physician to Henry IV.

The Galileo Project,


Robert G. V. Baker, BSc (Hons)(Syd.), MSc, Ph.D. (NSW), DipEd(Syd) *** Not in Gale

Environmental researcher. Dr Robert G. V. Baker, Senior Lecturer, Department of Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia. After completing a Ph.D. in 1991, Robert joined the staff of the Department of Geography and Planning in July 1993 and was promoted to Senior Lecturer in January 1996. His main research interests are in the geography of retailing and the development of applied mathematical geography. He is Vice-Chair of the International Geographical Union Commission on 'Modelling Geographic Systems' from 1996-2000. He has undertaken a range of consultancies on the impact of retail development and trading hours on local communities. He is also interested in coastal geomorphology.


Robert Baker's Web Page.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Sylvia Baker, BSc, MSc *** Not in Gale
Biologist.  Head, Trinity Christian School, Stalybridge, England. A biology graduate of the University of Sussex, and University of London.

Sylvia Baker.  "Science That Backs Up The Bible And Opposes The Theory Of Evolution,", from the booklet Bone of Contention.


Bernadino Baldi  *** Not in Gale

(1553-1617).  Italian mechanic, mathematician, historian.

The Galileo Project,

Baldi's principal contribution to physics was a commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics, which was probably written in the 1580's, but was published in 1621 after Baldi's death. In this he developed the idea of center of gravity.  He also translated Hero's Automata, and he wrote extensive lives of mathematicians.

Baldi translated the eighth book of Pappus.  He was commissioned in 1601 by the Duke of Urbino to write a life of Federigo da Montefeltro. He was historian and biographer of the Duke of Urbino from 1609 to 1617. Catholic.


Gordon C. Baldwin / Gordon Cortis Baldwin

(Born 1908).  Archaeologist.  University of Arizona, Tucson, instructor in archaeology, 1934-37; Arizona State Museum, Tucson, Assistant curator, 1937-40; National Park Service, Boulder City, NV, archaeologist, 1940-48; National Park Service, Omaha, NE, archaeologist, 1948-53; University of Omaha (now University of Nebraska at Omaha), instructor in anthropology, 1953-54; writer, 1954-74.

After writing several Western novels, Gordon C. Baldwin turned to writing nonfiction books focusing on archeological research, the customs and history of Native Americans, and the history of archeology. Many of Baldwin's books are about the American West and Native Americans, utilizing his extensive knowledge of that field from his years of teaching. Education: University of Arizona, B.A., 1933, M.A., 1934; University of Southern California, Ph.D., 1941.

Member: Westerners International (member of board of directors, 1973-79; vice-president, 1974-76), Western Writers of America (member of board of directors, 1962-63, 1968-70; president, 1968-69), Society of Southwestern Authors (member of board of directors, 1972-76), Tucson Corral of the Westerners (sheriff, 1973), Palo Alto Host Lions Club (member of board of directors, 1979-present).  Baptist.

Author: non-fiction: America's Buried Past: The Story of North American Archaeology, Putnam (New York, NY), 1962; The Ancient Ones: Basketmakers and Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest, Norton (New York, NY), 1963; The World of Prehistory: The Story of Man's Beginnings, Putnam, 1963.

Stone Age Peoples Today, Norton, 1964;The Riddle of the Past: How Archaeological Detectives Solve Prehistoric Riddles, Norton, 1965; The Warrior Apaches: A Story of the Chiricahua and Western Apache, Dale Stuart King (Tucson), 1965; Race against Time: The Story of Salvage Archeology, Putnam, 1966; Strange People and Stranger Customs, Norton, 1967; Calendars to the Past: How Science Dates Archeological Ruins, Norton, 1967; How Indians Really Lived, Putnam, 1967; Games of the American Indian, Norton, 1969; Indians of the Southwest, Putnam, 1970; Talking Drums to Written Word: How Early Man Learned to Communicate, Norton, 1970; Schemers, Dreamers, and Medicine Men: Witchcraft and Magic among Primitive People, Four Winds Press (New York, NY), 1971.

Pyramids of the New World, Putnam, 1971; Inventors and Inventions of the Ancient Worlds, Four Winds Press, 1973; The Apache Indians: Raiders of the Southwest, Four Winds Press, 1978; Contributor of articles on anthropology to professional journals. Editor, The Roundup, 1962-66. A collection of Baldwin's manuscripts is housed at the University of Arizona Library, Tucson. Many of Baldwin's books have been published in England, Norway, Sweden, Germany, France, and Spain.  Some of Baldwin's titles have been produced as Talking Books for the blind. Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Giovanni Battista Baliani *** Not in Gale

(1582-1666).  Italian physician, mechanic.  Hydraulics specialist.  Natural philosopher.

The Galileo Project,

Baliani's most important work was the treatise on natually accelerated motion, which announced many of Galileo's conclusions before Two New Sciences appeared. The level of discussion in Baliani does not begin to approach Galileo's, so that issues of plagiary have inevitably arisen. (He had had contact with Galileo.)

Baliani also wrote on the motion of water and on some questions of natural philosophy in general.

He used an experimental method.  In 1611 he was prefect of the fortress at Savona. In 1623 he was Governor of Sarzana, and in 1624 he entered the Genoan Senate. In 1647-49 he was the governor of the fortress (Savona), and was then elevated to membership in the principal governing body of Genoa, where he remained until his death.  His involvement in a hydraulic project in Genoa led to the letter to Galileo about the weight of the atmosphere, and through the discussion in Two New Sciences to the whole debate that ended in Torricelli, Pascal, and Boyle. His correspondence with Galileo, which began in 1614, lasted for many years.


John Banister

(1650-1692).  English-born botanist.  Entomologist.  Natural historian. Anglican minister.

The Galileo Project,

Education:  Magdalen College, Oxford, 1667-74; B.A., 1671; M.A. 1674.

Banister's hope was to compose a general natural history of Virginia. He sent John Ray a lengthy catalogue of the plants of Virginia, and he published papers on the insects, mullusks, and plants of Virginia in the Philosophical Transactions.

Armistead Churchill Gordon. "John Banister."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936:   "He served several years as clerk and chaplain (J. R. Bloxam, A Register of St. Mary Magdalen College, 1853, I, 93); visited the West Indies, presumably as a Church of England missionary; and by 1678 settled in Charles City County, Va., where he devoted himself largely to scientific pursuits. Subsequently he patented land on the Appomattox River and officiated as minister for what was later Bristol Parish. In 1688 he married "a young widow." During his residence in Virginia he studied minutely the plant life of the region; corresponded with such scientists as Ray, Compton, Sloane, Bobart, and Martin Lister, whom he furnished with specimens or drawings of local flora and fauna; and worked at a 'Natural History of Virginia,' which his premature death terminated. His botanical and entomological articles, some of which appeared posthumously in the Philosophical Transactions, include his catalogues of Virginia plants, published in Ray's Historia Plantarum and Petiver's Memoirs; Observations on the Natural Productions of Jamaica; Curiosities of Virginia; Observations on the Musca lupus; On Several Sorts of Snails; The Insects of Virginia; and A Description of the Snakeroot, Pistolochia, or Serpentaria Virginiania. Without being a scientist of major importance, Banister enjoyed considerable reputation with his fellows. The Virginia Council nominated him as an original trustee of William and Mary College; Ray labelled him "eruditissimus vir et consummatissimus botanicus"; Lister termed him "a very learned and sagacious naturalist"; the historian Campbell ranks him with John Bartram. Linn'us's Genus 573, a tropical plant of the Malpighia family, is named after him (Bentham and Hooker; Genera Plantarum, I, 257). He is commonly stated to have been killed, while on a botanical expedition along the Roanoke River, by falling from a bluff, but it now appears that he was accidentally shot by a companion (Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XI, 163-64). His papers were transmitted to Bishop Compton; his herbarium was left to Sir Hans Sloane, whose collection formed the nucleus of the British Museum."


Michael A. Banks

(Born 1951).  Science and science fiction author.  Popular Computing, freelance writer, 1981-present; freelance writer and editor, 1983-present; Computer Shopper, contributing editor, 1985-92; Windows Magazine, contributing editor, 1990-92. Served two terms as an elected official, Clermont County, OH, 1988-1992. Education: Studied engineering.

Episcopalian and Lutheran.

Non-fiction works: Understanding Science Fiction, Silver Burdett (Morristown, NJ), 1982; (With Robert L. Cannon) The Rocket Book: A Guide to Building and Launching Model Rockets for Teachers and Students of the Space Age, Prentice-Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ), 1985; (Compiler) Second Stage: Advanced Model Rocketry, Kalmbach Books (Milwaukee, WI), 1985, published as Advanced Model Rocketry, 1997; Countdown: The Complete Guide to Model Rocketry, Tab Books (Blue Ridge Summit, PA), 1985; DELPHI: The Official Guide, written with the cooperation of General Videotex Corp., Prentice-Hall (New York City), 1987, revised edition, 1990; The Modem Reference (also known as The Modem Book) Brady/Simon & Schuster (New York City), 1988, published as The Modem Reference: The Complete Guide to Selection, Installation, and Applications, Brady, 1991; Getting the Most out of DeskMate 3, Brady, 1989, revised edition, 1990; (With Ansen Dibell) Word Processing Secrets for Writers, Writer's Digest Books (Cincinnati, OH), 1989; Quick and Easy Guide to REFLEX, Version 2, Compute! Books (Radnor, PA), 1990; Understanding FAX and Electronic Mail, H. W. Sams (Carmel, IN), 1990; Portable Communications: The Traveling Executive's Survival Guide, Brady, 1992.

Portable Power, Brady, 1992; Welcome to--CompuServe for Windows, MIS Press (New York City), 1992.

Windows Shareware Book, John Wiley (New York City), 1992; (With Jerry Pournelle) Pournelle's PC Communications Bible: The Ultimate Guide to Productivity with a Modem, Microsoft Press (Redmond, WA), 1992; The WordPerfect Shareware Book, John Wiley, 1993; Modem and Communication Madness!, H. W. Sams, 1995; One-Stop CompuServe for Windows, MIS Press, 1996; Web Psychos, Stalkers, and Pranksters, Coriolis Group Books (Scottsdale, AZ), 1997; The Internet Unplugged, Pemberton Press, 1997; The Modem Reference Guide : The Complete Guide To PC Communications CyberAge Books/Information Today (Medford, NJ), 2000; PC Confidential: Secure Your PC And Privacy From Snoops, Spies, Spouses, Supervisors, And Credit Card Thieves, Sybex (San Francisco), 2000.

Contributor of more than three thousand articles to periodicals, including A+, The Age, Airways Magazine, ANALOG Computing, Antique Week, American Spacemodeler, Analog Science Fiction, Argus Science Fiction, BBS, Bend of the River, BYTE, Carolina Antique News, Cavalier, Christian Reader, Christian Writer, Cincinnati Business Record, Cincinnati Enquirer, Cincinnati Suburban Press, Columbus Dispatch, Columbus Republic, Comics Buyer's Guide, Compute!, Computer Bookbase, Computer User, Computing Today, Computer Shopper, CONNECT, DOS World, ECM Newsletters, Educator News, Family Computing, Fantasy Modeling, Freelance Writer's Report, Future Life, FWR Special Reports, Good Housekeeping, Grit, Home Office/Small Office Computing, inCider, Infinity SF, Infoworld, Interface Age, I-Way, Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction, Journal Wired, Locus, K-64, Link-Up, Macintosh Horizons, Mactech Quarterly, Milford Advertiser, The Model Rocketeer, Model Rocket News, Modern People, Motor Home/Trailer Life, NetGuide Magazine, Networker, North Carolina Veteran's News, Northern Light, Omni, One Thousand, Pascom Tsushin, PC Computing, PC Laptop, PCM Magazine, PC Sources, PC Update, PC World, Pizza World, Popular Computing, Portable Computing, Practical Householder, Questar, Rainbo, Rave Reviews, Sagebrush Journal, Science, Science Digest, Science Fiction Chronicle, SF Magazine, Softalk, Software Supermarket, South Bend Tribune, Stamp World, Starlog, ST-Log, SFWA Bulletin, Tampa Bay Tribune, The Writer, Video Games & Computer Entertainment, Visual Merchandising & Store Design, West Coast Review of Books, Which Computer?, Windows Sources, Windows, Writer's Digest, Writer's Digest Yearbook, Writer's Nutshell News, Writing, Your Micro, and the America Online Online & Multimedia Magazine.

Author of chapters contributed to books, including Writer's Market, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1991, 1992; Fiction Writer's Market, 1985, 1986, 1987; The Writer's Digest Guide to Word Processing, 1985; Programmer's Market, 1985; Poet's Market, 1987, 1986; Songwriter's Market, 1987; How to Write Tales of Horror, Science Fiction, and Fantasy, 1988; Handbook of Short Story Writing, 1988; Novel & Short Story Writer's Market, 1989; The Writer's Companion, 1990; The Beginner's Guide to Getting Published, 1994; and The SF & Fantasy Writer's Resource Guide, 1995, all published by Writer's Digest Books; The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Crown, 1977; PC Protection: The Complete PC Security Resource, Bantam, 1989; Kaigai Tsushin: A Guide to International Access, Shoueisha (Japan), 1989; Networks in America, Shoueisha, 1989; and The Right College, Arco, 1990. Also author of guidebooks and user manuals for software and consumer products.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.



Benjamin Banneker

America's first recognized black scientist, Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806) was a mostly self-taught mathematician and astronomer who spent his life in an avid quest for knowledge. He gained renown by publishing astronomical almanacs and ephemerides. Very popular in the 18th century, these almanacs included astronomical data for each day of a given year; ephemerides-plural of ephemeris-were tables predicting the daily positions of celestial bodies. In addition to his scientific work, Banneker raised tobacco, played the violin and flute, worked as a surveyor, and built mechanical artifacts. His world view, it seems, successfully integrated a traditional Christian spirituality and a modern scientist's openness to the world. Finally, Banneker was acutely aware of the profound injustice of American slavery, and worked hard to discredit the belief, supported by intellectuals such as Thomas Jefferson, that the people of African descent were intellectually deficient.


Alvaro Alonso Barba *** Not in Gale

(c. 1569-1662).  Spanish Catholic priest, metallurgist.

The Galileo Project,

Barba was a priest in the Catholic church by 1588, the time of the first information about him.

Sent to Peru in 1588, where he spent life as priest.  From his observations in Peru, Barba developed the slightly earlier crude amalgamation process into the one that lasted.  From 1624, served in Potosi, apparently at the request of Juan de Lizarazu, President of the Real Audiancia de la Plata of Peru; he wrote his book, El arte de los metales, at the urging of Lazarazu. He returned to Spain in 1658 to advise on extraction of metals; he was very critical of government's policy on this in Spain; he returned to America in 1662 and died.


Johann Conrad Barchusen *** Not in Gale

(1666-1723).  Chemist.  Iatrochemist.  Pharmacist.  Physician.  Metallurgist.  Educator.

The Galileo Project,

Physician to Francesco Morosini during his military campaign, 1693; became Privatdozent in chemistry at Utrecht in 1694; City Fathers of Utrecht provided him with a laboratory in April 1695, became Lector in Chemistry at Utrecht in 1698, promoted to extraordinary professor of chemistry in 1703.  Barchusen was the first to teach a technological course (metallurgy) in a university chemistry course; he also taught iatrochemistry.


Sir Thomas Barlow *** Not in Gale

(1845-1945) Sir Thomas Barlow, physician to England's royal families during the reigns of Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, was the first to diagnosis the disease of "scurvy rickets" in infants, which became known to the German medical profession as "Barlow's disease." He served as president of the Royal College of Physicians here from 1910 to 1915 and was president of the International Medical Congress here in 1913. He had received honorary degrees from several universities, including Harvard, Montreal and Toronto.  -United Press, January 14, 1945.


Thomas John Barnardo

(1845-1905).  British physician and philanthropist, born in Ireland. Known for his establishment (from 1870) in England and British possessions of over 90 Dr. Barnardo's Homes for orphaned and destitute children.


Richard Dee Barnhart

(Born February 3, 1944).  Computer science educator, consultant.  Mathematics Professor Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee, 1971-78; computer programmer KMC Co., Knoxville, Tennessee, 1978-80, data processing manager, 1980-82; software developer Management Software, Knoxville, 1982-83; Associate Professor Mathematics and computer sciences Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia, 1984. Education:  B.S., Whitworth College, 1966; M.S., University Idaho, 1968, Ph.D., 1972.

Member: American Mathematics Society, Mathematics Association.  American Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Thomas G. Barnes *** Not in Gale

(1911-2001). Physicist.  Professor Emeritus of Physics of Texas Western College of the University of Texas at El Paso. A faculty member at UTEP for 43 years, and the director of the prestigious Schellenger Research Laboratories for 12 years, Barnes' scientific work embraced many fields, from medicine to geophysics. His research led to patents on electronic sound ranging devices, such as the Dodar (the predecessor to sonar), directional microphones, and magnetic sensing, electrochemical extraction and seismic energy devices. He also worked on the vector cardiograph, which was the first three-dimensional computer display to study the heart.
He also served as a consultant and researcher for Duke University (1942-1945), the Navy Electronics Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research Office and Globe Universal Sciences. He was a Director and former President of the Creation Research Society (1973-1976). Barnes was the first Dean of the ICR Graduate School, serving from its founding in 1981 until his retirement in 1984.  M.S. degree from Brown University (1936) while studying under the famous physicist R.B. Lindsay, and D.Sc. from Hardin Simmons (1950). Barnes authored five books in the field of physics, including a textbook on electricity and magnetism, plus many scientific papers, and his monograph for ICR, Origin and Destiny of the Earth's Magnetic Field (1973).

"In Memoriam: Thomas G. Barnes ,"  From Nova Quarterly, v. 38, n. 2; No. 148.  The University of Texas at El Paso.


Robert Barnes *** Not in Gale

(1817-1907).  English obstetrician. One of the pioneers of surgical gynaecology. Co-founder of the British Gynæcological Society.

Robert Barnes commenced his medical studies in Norwich in 1832 as an apprentice to Dr. Richard Griffin. As his parents moved to London, he completed his studies there at University College and St. Gorge's Hospital. He became M.R.C.S. in 1842 and subsequently went to Paris for one year. On his return he settled on Notting Hill. He taught at the Hunterian School of Medicine and taught forensic medicine at the Dermott's school on Windmill Street, while he was obstetrician at the Western General Dispensary. He was conferred doctor of medicine in 1848 and in 1859 became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
In 1859 he became obstetrical assistant, and in 1863 was appointed obstetrician in chief at the London Hospital and, in 1865, at St. Thomas's Hospital, where he had lectured on obstetrics since 1862. In 1875 he changed to the same position at the St. George's Hospital, to which he was elected consulting obstetrician in 1885. He was also active at the Seamen's Hospital, at the East London Hospital for Children and at the Royal Maternity Hospital. He was one of the founders of the Obstetrical Society of London in 1858, and from 1865-1866 its president. With James Hobson Aveling (1825-1892), Robert Barnes founded the British Gynæcological Society in 1884, of which he was honorary chairman until his death. In 1907 both societies were fusioned as the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Section of the Royal Society of Medicine.
In 1874 he gave the Lumleian lectures On convulsive Diseases of Women; 1877-1878 censor at the College of Physicians. He was made honorary member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1883, of the Medical Society of London in 1893, and of the Royal Medical and Surgical in 1905. Of the large fortunes he amassed, he spent richly on scientific institutes, among them the pathological laboratory at the St. George's Hospital - which bears his name.
He published actively, and on a great variety of women's health concerns.

Associated eponyms: Barnes' bags or dilators; A series of graduated rubber bags for dilating the uterine cervix in cases where labour is to be induced; Barnes-Neville forceps, A forceps used for both mid and low deliveries;  
Barnes-Neville-Simpson forceps (Sir James Young Simpson), An obstetrical forceps.



Barry J. Barnett *** Not in Gale

Agricultural Economist.  Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia. 2001-present.  Previous: Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Mississippi State University, 2000-2001; Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Mississippi State University, 1995-2000; Post-Doctoral Research Scholar, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kentucky, 1993-1995; Research Assistant, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kentucky, 1988-1993.  Education: B.S. in Agricultural Economics, University of Kentucky, 1984; B.B.A. in Finance with a minor in Economics, University of Kentucky, 1984; Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics, University of Kentucky, 1993.

Awards: Outstanding Faculty Member Award, Graduate Student Organization, Department of

Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, 2004; Outstanding Faculty Member Award, Agricultural and Environmental Economics Undergraduate Club, University of Georgia, 2004;

Excellence in Teaching Award, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Mississippi State

University, 1999; Teaching Award of Merit, Gamma Sigma Delta Agricultural Honor Society, Mississippi State University, 1999.

Member: American Agricultural Economics Association, American Economic Association,Western Economic Association International, Association for Evolutionary Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, Western Agricultural Economics Association, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia, The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia,

Consultant: Board of Directors, Risk Management Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2000-2004;

America's Clean Water Foundation, 2001-2003; U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State, 2000-2002.

Home Page, Barry J. Barnett-College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences-Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics,

Curriculum vita:


Stephen M. Barr

Professor.   Theoretical particle physicist at the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware.

Dr. Barr received his undergraduate degree from Columbia and his graduate degrees from Princeton. After post-doctoral work at the University of Pennsylvania, he became a research Assistant Professor at the University of Washington (1980-85) and Associate physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory (1985-87). He joined Bartol Research Institute in September 1987.

His research has spanned many areas of theoretical particle physics, but with special emphasis on grand unified theories, theories of CP violation, the problem of the origin of quark and lepton masses, theories with extra space-time dimensions (such as Kaluza-Klein and superstring theories), and the interface between particle physics and cosmology.

He has made significant contributions in all these areas, perhaps the most notable being the development of classes of models that solve the important "strong CP problem" (the problem of why the strong interactions unlike the weak are symmetric under CP), the development of the idea that the pattern of quark and lepton masses is due to effects at the unification scale, the co-discovery of the important "flipped SU(5)" grand unification scheme, work on theories of baryogenesis (the origin of matter at the time of the big bang), the discovery of large contributions to the electric and magnetic dipole moments of elementary particles in theories with an extended Higgs structure, contributions to the development of realistic SO(10) grand unified models, and a mechanism for explaining the large mixing observed in atmospheric data between muon and tau neutrinos.

He is the author of Modern Physics and Ancient Faith (University of Notre Dame Press, 2003) and has written over 120 research papers spanning a wide range of subjects in particle physics and also including his expertise in grand unified theories. Professor Barr is on the editorial advisory board of First Things and has written on science and religion for such journals as National Review, The Weekly Standard, Public Interest, Academic Questions and First Things.

Faculty webpage, Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware

Bartol Research Institute, Faculty ProNewFiles,

Stephen M. Barr.  "First Things What Can We Reasonably Hope For? A Millennium Symposium,"

A review of Modern Physics and Ancient Faith, 2003.

Kenneth Silber.  "God's Physics Experiment." Review.  Published July 31, 2003.  Physicist Stephen M. Barr has fired the latest broadside in the contentious debate over what science tells us about the existence of God. His book Modern Physics and Ancient Faith presents a case that developments in physics and related fields give support to the idea of a cosmic designer and indeed fit well with the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Modern Physics and Ancient Faith. Often invoked as justification for unbelief, modern science here provides the basis for an unusual and provocative affirmation of religious faith. A physicist at the University of Delaware, Barr deploys his scientific expertise to challenge the dogmas of materialism and to assert his belief that nothing explains the order of the galaxies better than divine design.


Joachim Barrande

(1799-1883). French geologist and paleontologist. Authority on Silurian formation of Bohemia; author of Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme (1852-94), in which he identified over 4000 new fossil species.  Catholic.


Eric C. Barrett, BSc, MSc (Sheffield), Ph.D., DSc (Bristol) *** Not in Gale

Meteorologist.  Eric C. Barrett is Director and Reader of Remote Sensing at the University of Bristol in England and Dean of the Slavic Gospel Association's Radio Academy of Science.  Education: B.Sc. degree (First Class Honors) in geography, University of Sheffield, 1962; M.Sc. for research in climatic change, University of Sheffield, 1964; Ph.D., University of Bristol, 1969; D.Sc., University of Bristol, 1982 for "his sustained and distinguished contribution to geographic science." Awarded the Hugh Robert Mill Medal and Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society for his research into the estimation of rainfall from satellite cloud imagery.  Member: Kensington Baptist Church, Bristol, England.

He is the author of a dozen books and about a hundred papers on environmental science.

Faculty webpage, University of Bristol School of Geographical Sciences,

Co-author (with David Fisher), Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Isaac Barrow

Isaac Barrow  (1630-1677), English mathematician and theologian, is noted for his contributions to the field of optics. He is also remembered as the professor who served as inspiration and mentor to Isaac Newton.  Professor of Greek, Cambridge (1660-63); first Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge (1663), resigned (1669) in favor of his pupil Isaac Newton. Chaplain to Charles II (1670); master of Trinity College, Cambridge (1673). Translated Euclid (1660).

Author of Lectiones XVIII Cantabrigiae in scholis publicis habitae; In qubus opticorum phaenomenon genuinae rationes investiganture, ac exponunture, 1669; Lectiones gemoetricae: In quibus (praesertim) generalia curvarum linearum symptomata declaranture, 1670; in which he approached the calculus, controversial pieces including Pope's Supremacy (1680), and Sermons.  Scriptores optici, 1823 (the collected texts of optical lectures); The Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow, Compiled by W. Wherell, 1860.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Isaac Barrow," or

Barrow | Isaac | 1630-1677 | mathematician classicist, and divine. (in German)

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Peter H. Barry / Peter Hosford Barry

(Born 1941).  Neuroscientist.  Phyisologist. Educator.  Dr. Peter H. Barry is an Emeritus and Conjoint Professor in the School of Medical Sciences and Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, being previously a Professor of Physiology in the School of Physiology and Pharmacology, at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia from 1994-2001 and previously also Sub-Dean (Information Technology) in the Faculty of Medicine there from 1995-1998. He originally graduated from the University of Sydney (Australia) with a B.Sc. (Hons) in Physics in 1963, followed by a Ph.D. in Biophysics in 1968. He then went to the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) to work with Dr. Jared Diamond for 3 years, followed by just over a year at the Physiological Laboratory in the University of Cambridge, working with Dr. Richard Adrian. He then returned to Australia as a Queen Elizabeth II Fellow, collaborating with Dr. Peter Gage before taking up a lectureship there in 1974. In 1991, he was awarded a D.Sc. by the University of New South Wales for his research in Membrane Biophysics.  In 1999, he was awarded the Vice-Chancellor's Award for Teaching Excellence Using Educational Technology. 

Professor P. H. Barry - Information.

Member: National Committee for Biomedical Sciences of the Australian Academy of Science; The New York Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.); The Biophysical Society (U.S.A.); The Society of General Physiologists (U.S.A); The Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society; The Australian Society for Biophysics (President, 2003-2004); The Australian Neuroscience Society; Association for Chemoreception Sciences (AChemsS; USA).
Fellow of the Institute for the Study of Christianity in an Age of Science and Technology (ISCAST)

Faculty webpage, School of Medical Sciences,University of New South Wales,

Staff directory,

Publications for Emeritus Professor Peter Barry:

Peter H. Barry.  "Interactive Electrophysiological Software for Research and Teaching,"

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Caspar Bartholin / Caspar Berthelsen Bartholin / Bartholinus

(1585-1629). Danish physician. Professor of medicine (1613), then of divinity (1624), University of Copenhagen. First to describe olfactory nerve as first cranial nerve. Author of Anatomicae Institutiones Corporis Humani (1611), widely used manual of anatomy. His sons Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680) and  Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698) also contributed to advances in science.

The Galileo Project,


Erasmus Bartholin *** Not in Gale

Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698), Danish physician, mathematician, astronomer and physicist, was professor of medicine, Copenhagen (1657-98); discovered in Icelandic feldspar the phenomenon of double refraction of light. Son of Caspar Bartholin. Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Observed the comets of 1665 and other astronomical objects, and published about this topic.  As a physician, he introduced quinine in the fight against malaria.  Education: Taught initially by private teachers, then attented Latin school.  1642-4: University of Copenhagen, B.A. in 1644; M.A. in 1647.   Studied mathematics at the University of Leiden for several years beginning in 1645.  In 1651 Bartholin studied mathematics in France and Italy, ultimately at Padua where he was Consiliarius for the German Nation and Vice-syndicus for the university.  Acquired his M.D. in1654 at Padua.  For the next two years he travelled and studied in Italy.  He worked with Ole Roemer on Tycho's manuscripts and with Niels Stensen on crystallography.


Thomas Bartholin *** Not in Gale

Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680), known for his observations of the lymphatics, was professor of mathematics (1646-48), of anatomy (1648-61), at Copenhagen; physician to King Christian V (1670-80); enlarged his father's Institutiones Anatomicae, and defended Harvey's doctrine of the circulation of the blood.  Also pharmacologist.  Son of Caspar Bartholin.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Bartholin published many works on anatomy, physiology and medicine, from 1645 through 1674, and a general work on pharmacology in 1658.  In 1654, along with the rest of the medical faculty at the university, Bartholin published advice to the people on how to take care of themselves during the plague.  In 1673 he held the first exams for midwives in Denmark.

Bartholin's father was a professor at the University of Copenhagen. His mother's father, Thomas Fincke, was a professor at the university, as was his aunt's husband, Ole Worm. Erasmus B. was his brother. Thomas's son Caspar, who was also an anatomist of importance, would follow at the university. Peder Soerenson, who is in the DSB as Severinus, and apparently held a chair at the university, also belongs in this circle; he was the husband of Fincke's cousin Drude Thorsmede, the daughter of the brother of Fincke's mother. Add to the circle Christian Soerensen (or Severin, known as Longomontanus) who was also related.

Sometime between 1641 and 43, Bartholin was made a member of the learned society of Venice, Accademia de' signori incogniti.  He maintained a lasting friendship with Marco Aurelio Severino, and a prolific correspondence with many scientists throughout Europe--among others, Pierre Bourdelet (France), Hermann Conring (Germany), Guy Patin (Paris), Johannes Scheffer (Uppsala), Niels Stensen (Denmark), Sktanislau Lubienitzsky (Poland). Letters are published in Epistolae medicinales (1663-7).  Thomas Bartholin was responsible for the royal decree of 1672 that decided the organization of Danish medicine for the next hundred years.


Daniello Bartoli, S.J.

(1608-1685). Italian physicist and historian. Entered Jesuit order (1623); wrote religious novel L'uomo di lettere (1645), Dell'istoria della compagnia di Gesu (1653-73).

The Galileo Project,

Late in life Bartoli returned to interests that Riccioli had stimulated, and he expounded and popularized the works of contemporary physicists, particularly barometric experiments and the concept of atmospheric pressure. He also wrote on sound and on freezing.


Gian Giacomo Bartolotti *** Not in Gale

(c. 1471-c.1530).  Italian physician and educator.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Bartolotti translated Cebe's Table (Pinax) in 1498, and later published his Opusculum de antiquitate medicinae, a brief treatise on the history of ancient medicine. In 1498 he was assigned to teach a course at the University of Ferrara, but he is not listed with the regular appointment.  Toward the close of the century he was practicing medicine, and in the early 16th century he was doing so at Venice.


Benjamin Smith Barton

A physician, natural historian, and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815) was one of the central figures in Philadelphia's early national scientific establishment. Having received his medical training in European universities, Barton was appointed Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 1789, lecturing on botany, materia medica, natural history. A prolific author, he established his reputation as one of the nation's preeminent botanists through his botanical text book The Elements of Botany (1803), but his contributions to zoology, ethnology, and medicine were equally noteworthy. Barton's monograph on the "fascinating faculty" of the rattlesnake and his efforts in historical linguistics (New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America, 1798) were widely read, and his Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal (1804-1809) was one of the nation's first medical journals and an important outlet for natural historical research.

From Benjamin Smith Barton Papers,1789-1815.


Talib Barwani *** Not in Gale

Tanzanian electronics engineer.  Trained in the Britsh Royal Air Force in ground telecommunications.  Currently serves his missionary society as an extension secretary from his home in Loughborough, England.

Talib Barwani.  MUSULMANES QUE ENCONTRARON A CRISTO "13.Con Cristo vivo en plenitude,"

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.


Saint Basil the Great

(ca. 329-379). Greek Father of Eastern communal monasticism; founded a large hospital in Caesaria, Asia Minor (Turkey).  Named a Doctor of the Church after his death.  Patron saint of hospital administrators.

"Basil the Great, Saint."

"The Life of Saint Basil the Great."


Thomas Bateman *** Not in Gale

(1778-1821).  Physician and dermatologist. He became a pupil of Dr Robert Willan, a pioneer in the diseases of the skin, at the Carey Street Public Dispensary. In 1804, due to Willan's influence, he was elected physician both at the Dispensary and at the Fever Institution (later the Fever Hospital). In 1805 he was admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. Based on his experience at the Fever Institution, between 1804 and 1816, Bateman wrote a series of reports on the diseases of London and the state of the weather. He contributed these papers to the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which he had jointly established in 1805 with Dr Duncan, junior, of Edinburgh, and Dr Reeve, of Norwich. The reports contributed to the establishment of his reputation, bringing him to the notice of a wider audience. The papers were later collected in one volume and published as Reports on the Diseases of London (1819).

At the Dispensary, under the tutelage of Willan, Bateman began to pay particular attention to diseases of the skin. Willan had been the first to describe these diseases in 'a positive scientific manner, without being swayed by theoretical and formulistic conceptions' (DNB, vol. III, p.393), and Bateman followed in his footsteps, extending and perfecting his methodology. With Willan's retirement in 1811, Bateman became the principal authority in London on all affections of the skin.


British Association of Dermatologists.


Don Batten, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

(Born 1951). Agronomy and horticultural scientist.  Private horticultural consultant, Creation Ministries International, Brisbane, Australia, 1994-present.  Research Horticulturist, NSW Agriculture, Tropical Fruit Research Station, Alstonville, 1976-990. Senior Research Horticulturist, NSW Agriculture, Tropical Fruit Research Station, Alstonville, 1991-1994; Research Horticulturist, NSW Agriculture, Tropical Fruit Research Station, Alstonville, 1976-1990.  B.Sc.Agriculture(First Class Honours) from the University of Sydney, 1969-72; Ph.D. from the University of Sydney, Department of Agronomy and Horticultural Science,1973-76, Thesis: Induction of adventitious root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).


"I came to see, after considerable prayer and study, that evolution is really a belief system parading as science. It is an alternative religion designed to banish the creator God to the realm of abstract philosophy only (contrary to Romans 1:20). In the end I came to see the importance of the written Word of God."

Don Batten and Carl Wieland talk to Raymond Jones.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


William J. Bauer *** Not in Gale

is President of the Bauer Engineering Company of Chicago, which has designed many of the major engineering systems in Chicago and around the world. He has a Ph.D. in Hydraulics from the University of Iowa and is author of numerous technical papers. He is a frequent and effective speaker on scientific creationism.

William J. Bauer, Ph.D. "CREATION AND THE SEVEN-DAY WEEK,"- Impact, No. 75 September 1979,


Gaspard Bauhin

(1560-1624). Swiss botanist and anatomist. Professor, Basel (from 1582); one of first to describe ileocecal (Bauhin's) valve(1588); compiled Theatrum Anatomicum (1605), finest anatomical textbook of the day; introduced a binomial system of nomenclature for botany in Pinax theatri botanica (1623). His elder brother Jean Bauhin (1541-1613), physician and botanistat Basel; physician to duke of Wurttemberg (from 1571); compiled Historia plantarum universalis (1650-51).

The Galileo Project,

Co-physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg (his father, son, and grandson were also physicians in various courts).  His books dedicated to various barons. Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugee from France.


Jean Bauhin *** Not in Gale

(1541-1613).  Swiss physician and botanist at Basel; physician to Duke Frederick of Wurttemberg (from 1571); wrote  Historia plantarum universalis, a compilation of all that was then known about botany.  It was not complete at his death, but was published at Yverdon in 1650-51.  Elder brother to Gaspard Bauhin.

Studied botany at Tbingen under Leonard Fuchs (1501-1566), and travelling with Conrad Gesner, practiced medicine at Basel, where he was elected professor of rhetoric in 1766. Four years later he was invited to become physician to the Duke of Wurttemberg at Montbliard, where he remained till his death in 1613. He also wrote a book, De aquis niedicagis (1605).

The Galileo Project,

Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugree from France.  Displayed his archeological collections in a museum at Duke Frederick's chateau. 

Bauhin was friend and correspondent of Gesner collaborators and informants in many countries, and with botanists everywhere he went.  Jean Bauhin was instrumental in establishing the College of Medical Practioners in Montpeliard, which regulated the duties of all practitioners and provided free medical services to the poor.


Jean Gaspard Bauhin *** Not in Gale

(1606-1685).  Professor of botany at Basel for thirty years.  Son of Gaspard Bauhin.  Doctor to Louis XIV, King of France (1638-1715).


Dr. Nathan Louis Bauld

(Born 1934).  Professor of Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Research chemist, Rohm & Haas Co., Philadelphia, 1960-61; postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1959-1960.

Author: Radicals, Ion Radicals and Triplets, 1997; author 2 chapters; contributor over 100 articles to professional journals; patentee in field of ion physical-organic and cation radical chemistry.


Curriculum vitae:


Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


John R. Baumgardner *** Not in Gale

Geophysicist.  Dr. John Baumgardner, a scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1984, was considered by U.S. News & World Report (June 16, 1997) to be "the world's pre-eminent expert in the design of computer models for geophysical convection, the process by which the Earth creates volcanoes, earthquakes, and the movement of the continental plates." He is creator of the program Terra used by geologists worldwide. Dr. Baumgardner earned degrees from Texas Tech University (B.S., electrical engineering), and Princeton University (M.S., electrical engineering), and earned a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from UCLA.


"Scientists Who Believe: An Interview with Dr. John Baumgardner,"

"I believe science as we know it is a product of the Christian worldview. It was only in the Christian world that science developed and I believe could have developed. For example, in the Buddhist or Hindu worldview this physical realm is more or less regarded as an illusion and not representing ultimate reality. Of course, Christians don't regard this world as eternal, but nevertheless it's real. Science has flowed from a Christian understanding of reality, a Christian understanding of God, and a Christian understanding of the natural world. In general I believe that science is legitimate, that it does reveal the glory of God, that it does confirm what the Scriptures say is valid and true."

John Baumgardner. "Why I Believe in God,"  From testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


John Kenneth Beadles

(Born September 22, 1931). Biologist, educational administrator.  Teacher of science at Alva (Oklahoma) Public schools, 1957-62; Graduate research Assistant Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 1963-64, Graduate research trainee, 1964-65; Assistant Professor of biology Arkansas State University, State University, 1965-66, Professor biology, Chairman department of Biological sciences, 1968-84, dean Graduate School, 1984-93, retired, 1993; Professor, researcher, adviser U.S.AID program Oklahoma State University, Ethiopia, Africa, 1966-68; B.S., Northwestern State College, 1957; postgraduate Phillips University, 1959, University Oklahoma, summers 1960-61; M.S., Oklahoma State University, 1962, Ph.D., 1965.

Fish disease Consultant Trustee Jonesboro United Way, 1975-80, Board of Directors 83-85, Member allocations and admissions committee, 1975-80, 89-93; Member Crowley's Ridge Devel. Council, Board Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1972-73, Board Women's Recovery Center, 1987. Served with USN, 1950-54. U.S. Soil Conservation Service, grantee, 1975-78; Arkansas Game and Fish Commission grantee, 1979-80; U.S. C.E. grantee, 1972-78; Arkansas Eastman Co. grantee, 1974-75; Al C. Young Assocs. Tulsa Inc. grantee, 1981-82.

Member American Fisheries Society, Southwestern Association Naturalists, American Society Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Arkansas Academy Science (President 1981-82), Sigma Xi. Baptist. Lodge: Rotary (President 1978-79, dist. governor 1985-86).

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


George Carroll Beakley, Jr.

(Born 1922).  Engineering scientist.  Associate dean and director of engineering science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 1957-present. Previous posts: Tarleton State College (now Tarleton State University), Stephenville, Texas, associate professor of engineering, 1947-53; Bell Helicopter Corp., Hurst, Texas, design engineer, 1953-54; Airesearch Mfg. Co., Phoenix, Ariz., development engineer, 1956; Arizona State University, Tempe, professor of engineering, 1956-present, chairman of mechanical engineering, 1956-67.  Education: Texas Technological College (now Texas Tech University), B.S.M.E., 1947; University of Texas, M.S.M.E., 1952; Oklahoma State University Ph.D., 1956.

Member: National Society of Professional Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Institute of Industrial Engineers, American Society for Engineering Education, Tau Beta Pi, Kappa Mu Epsilon, Phi Kappa Phi, Pi Tau Sigma, Sigma Xi, Alpha Pi Mu.  Southern Baptist.  U.S. Army, Infantry, 1943-46; became first lieutenant.

Author: (With H. W. Leach) Elementary Problems in Engineering, Macmillan, 1951, 2nd edition published as Engineering: The Profession and Elementary Problem Analysis, Macmillan, 1960, 3rd edition published as Engineering: An Introduction to a Creative Profession, 1967, 5th edition (with Evans and Keats), in press; (With Leach) Careers in Engineering and Technology, Macmillan, 1969, 3rd edition, 1984; (With Leach) The Slide Rule, Macmillan, 1953; (With Leach) The Slide Rule and Technical Problem Solving, Macmillan, 1963, 2nd edition published as The Slide Rule and Its Use in Problem Solving, 1969, 3rd edition published as The Slide Rule, Electronic Hand Calculator, and Metrification in Problem Solving, 1975; (With John Hawley and Donald D. Autore) Graphics for Design and Visualization: Problems, Macmillan, 1973; (With E. G. Chilton) Introduction to Engineering Design and Graphics, Macmillan, 1973; (With Chilton) Design: Serving the Needs of Man, Macmillan, 1974; (With Leach) Introduction to Engineering Graphics, Macmillan, 1975; (With Autore) Electronics Drafting, Bobbs-Merrill, 1982; Freehand Drawing and Visualization, Bobbs-Merrill, 1982; (With Lovell) Computation, Calculators, and Computers, Macmillan, 1983; Introduction to Technical Illustration, Bobbs-Merrill, 1983; (With Autore and Patterson) Architectural Drawing and Design, Macmillan, 1984; (With Haden) Computer Aided Processes in Instruction and Research, Academic Press, in press.

Contributor to professional journals.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Kenneth Mark Beane

(Born 1959). Designer, scientist, engineering researcher.  Registered geologist. Adjunct faculty engineering, Murray State University, 1996. Professional consultant, International Society for Responsible Technicians, Murray, 1995; Research Assistant, Mississippi State (Mississippi) University, 1992-95; Teaching Assistant, Mississippi State (Mississippi) University, 1991-92.  Achievements include development of slender load bearing structural wood systems, optical-computer based systems in technical communications and instruction, structural and systems design in industrial design, systems analysis and project mgmt.  Education: BS, Murray State University, 1990; student, Mississippi School Arch., 1989-90; MET, Mississippi State University, 1992; MS, Mississippi State University, 1994; postgraduate, Syracuse University, 1996; postgraduate, Southern Illinois University, 1996.

Member: ASTM, Association Engineering Geologists, Society Engineering Science, National Registry Environmental Professionals (registered), Industrial Designers Society America (Certified), Tennessee Academy of Science, Society Wood Science and Tech., Association Conservation Engineers.  Southern Baptist.

Author: Architectural Design Specifications, 1989, Structural Mechanics and Design, 1994.


Johann Joachim Becher / Johann Joachim Beccher

(1635-1682). German chemist and physician. Physician to elector of Mainz (1663), elector of Bavaria (1664); commercial counsellor to Emperor Leopold I (1666); suggested establishment of German colonies in South America and building of Rhine-Danube canal. Carried on experiments for transmuting the Danube sand into gold. Advanced a theory of combustible earth that influenced Stahl's phlogiston theory of combustion. Author of Physica subterranea (1669), on the nature of minerals and other substances.

The Galileo Project,

John H. Lienhard.  "Engines of Our Ingenuity.  No. 293: JOHANN JOACHIM BECHER,"  Click here for audio of Episode 293.


Antoine Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) was a French physicist who discovered radioactivity through his investigations of uranium and other substances, which laid the foundation for many scientific advances of the early twentieth century. In 1903 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie.  Becquerel's other notable research included the effects of magnetism on light and the properties of luminescence.  He was a member of a scientific family extending through several generations, the most notable being his grandfather Antoine-Cesar Becquerel (1788-1878), his father, Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (1820-91), and his son Jean Becquerel (1878-1953).

"Antoine Henri Becquerel,"

Biography of A.H. Becquerel.


Isaac Beeckman

(1588-1637).  Dutch physicist, astronomer, mathematician, theologian, who also studied nautical science, Hebrew, medicine, and experimented in combustion, pumping and hydrodynamics. He had also been apprenticed in a factory where he learned a great deal about building devices to perform experiments.

Beeckman strongly believed that hypotheses should be verified through experimentation, a feeling echoed by Galileo. Beeckman applied logical mathematical methods in his experiments in physics and deduced numerous principles.

In 1613 Beeckman put forward the concept of inertia : so long as no outside force acted on an object, the object's velocity or direction should not change. (Beeckman reached this conclusion nearly 30 years before Isaac Newton was born.) Five years later he used his law of inertia to establish the law of uniformly accelerating objects. He discovered the distance that an object falls is directly related to the square of the amount of time it is falling, and used algebraic notation to express the law.

Beeckman believed that mechanical explanations for phenomena were more satisfactory than theories that had been accepted just because they were based on simplicity. He rejected the popular theory that an "internal magnetic force" was responsible for the movement of the Earth and suggested his concept of inertial motion was much more fitting.

Beeckman was also responsible for establishing Europe's first meteorological station in 1628.

"Isaac Beeckman." World of Scientific Discovery, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 1999.

The Galileo Project, (in German).


Carlo Willem Joannes Beenakker *** Not in Gale

(Born 1960).  Mesoscopic physicist.  Graduated in Physics from Leiden University, 1982; Doctorate in Theoretical Physics from Leiden University; Thesis advisor: P. Mazur, 1984; Postdoctoral research in Stanford and in Santa Barbara, as a Fellow of the Niels Stensen Foundation, 1985; Member of the scientific staff of the Philips Research Laboratories in Eind-hoven,1986-1991; External Professor of Theoretical Physics at Leiden University (chair sponsored by the Leids Universiteitsfonds), 1991; Professor of Theoretical Physics at Leiden University, 1992-present.

Honors: C.J. Kok prize of Leiden University for the Ph.D. thesis "On Transport Properties of Concentrated Suspensions," 1985; PIONIER award, 1993; Royal/Shell prize for "the discovery and explanation of quantum effects in the electrical conduction in mesoscopic systems" (with H. van Houten and B.J. van Wees), 1993;Winner of the Dutch National Science Quiz, 1997; NWO/Spinoza award, 1999. Elected member of the Royal Holland Society of Sciences and Humanities, 2001. Elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2002. Physica Prize, 2003.  Consultant at the Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven (1992-1996).

Member of the Council for Physics and Astronomy of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (2000-2005).

Member of the Scientific Council of the Dutch Forensic Institute (2001-2003).

Member of the Executive Board of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and of the Physics Division of the Netherlands Organization for ScientificResearch (2004-2008).

Advisory Editor, Physica A (1995-1999);Editorial Board Member, Physical Review B (1996-2002).

Editor, Physics Reports (since 1998); Divisional Associate Editor, Physical Review Letters (2003-2006).

Faculty webpage, Leiden University Netherlands.

Home page:

Curriculum vitae:

Carlo Beenakker "Truth is strongest,"

Lecture at the Phoenix Institute Symposium on "Responsibility in decision making" (Brugge, Belgium, 2000).

Jonathan Groubert.  "Federation Science Goes Where No Exhibition Has Gone Before,"  Beenakker is a Star Trek fan.


Jean Beguin *** Not in Gale

(c. 1550-c. 1620).  German pharmacologist, chemist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Beguin published the Tyrocinium chymicum in 1610. Most of the book was concerned with chemical operations rather than with theory, and he emphasized that the most effective therapy combined Galenic and Paracelsian remedies. Beguin was credited with the first mention of acetone, which he called 'the burning spirit of Saturn.' The Tyrocinium chymicum was immensely popular through the 17th century. It was translated into the major European languages and issued in many editions. It set the pattern for the notable series of French chemical textbook in the later part of the century.

Beguin wrote to his pupil, Jeremias Barth (1613) that he was engaged with transmutation.

The influence of the royal physician, Jean Ribit, and of Turquet de Mayerne enabled him to obtain permission to set up a laboratory and give public lectures.  He was almoner to King Henry IV.

Jeremias Barth encouraged Begiun to publish a "little book". As a result, Begiun published his famous Tyrocinium chymicum.


Dr. Michael J. Behe *** Not in Gale
Professor of Biology, Lehigh University.

Michael J. Behe graduated from Drexel University in 1974 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry. He did his graduate studies in biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania and was awarded the Ph.D. in 1978 for his dissertation research on sickle-cell disease. From 1978-1982 he did postdoctoral work on DNA structure at the National Institutes of Health. From 1982-85 he was Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Queens College in New York City, where he met his wife. In 1985 he moved to Lehigh University where he is currently Professor of Biochemistry. In his career he has authored over 40 technical papers and one book, Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, which argues that living system at the molecular level are best explained as being the result of deliberate intelligent design.
Dr. Michael J. Behe.

Michael Behe's Home Page.

Access Research Network, Michael J. Behe,

Michael J. Behe On-line Articles,

Michael J. Behe.  "Darwin Under the Microscope," The New York Times, October 29, 1996
Section A; Page 25  "Pope John Paul II's statement last week that evolution is 'more than just a theory' is old news to a Roman Catholic scientist like myself."… "Pope John Paul II spoke of 'theories of evolution.' Right now it looks as if one of those theories involves intelligent design."

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X

Interviewed in The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God, by Lee Strobel.  Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2004.  ISBN 0-310-24144-8, (hardbound), ISBN 0-310-24050-6 (paperback).


Sir Charles Bell

Charles Bell (1774-1842) was a Scottish surgeon and anatomist who pioneered neurophysiological research. Bell's experimental work served as a catalyst to other researchers in neurology and led to several important discoveries. Bell is remembered today for giving his name to Bell's palsy after demonstrating that lesions on the seventh cranial nerve (facial nerve) can cause facial paralysis. Author of New Idea of Anatomy of the Brain (1811), expanded into Nervous System of the Human Body (1830).

Sir Charles Bell Society.

Bells Palsy Association. and

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Lorenzo Bellini

(1643-1704). Italian physician and anatomist. Professor, Pisa (1663-93); physician to Duke Cosimo III and Pope Clement XI (1693 ff.). Discovered complex of tubules comprising kidney (subsequently Bellini's tubules) and described mechanical theory of excretion in Exercitatio anatomica de usu renum (1662); investigated senseof taste; published comprehensive mechanical-hydraulic theory in De urinis et pulsibus et missione sanguinis (1683) and Opuscula aliquot (1695).

The Galileo Project,


Pierre Belon

(1517-1564). French naturalist. Author of Histoire naturelle des estranges poissons marins (1551), containing pioneering work in comparative anatomy and embryology, Les Observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorables (1553) on his tour of eastern Mediterranean, and Histoire de la nature des Oyseaux (1955).

The Galileo Project,

Kathryn Fenton, "Dolphin communication,"

"In 1551, it was Pierre Belon du Mans who classified dolphins as 'fish with lungs.' He was the first to notice that these animals weren't like fish but more like land mammals. It wasn't until the 1700's, however, that these animals were classified taxonomically and were given the scientific name 'Tursiops truncatus'."


 James Noble BeMiller

(Born 1933).  Biochemist.  Educator. Director Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, 1986; Professor Department food science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1986; Chairman Department medical biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, 1980-83; Dean College of Science, Southern Illinois University, 1976-77; Assistant Dean curriculum School Medicine, Southern Illinois University, 1977-79; Professor biochemistry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 1971-85; Chairman Department chemistry and biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, 1966-67; Professor, Southern Illinois University, 1968-85; Associate Professor, Southern Illinois University, 1965-68; Assistant Professor biochemistry Department chemistry and biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1961-65; Assistant Professor biochemistry, Purdue University, 1959-61.  B.S. in Agricultural Biochemistry, Purdue University, 1954; M.S. in Biochemistry, Purdue University, 1956; Ph.D. in Biochemistry (with Distinction), Purdue University, 1959.

Member: Dr. BeMiller is a member of 14 professional societies and is, or has been, extensively active in the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemists (President 1988-89), the Institute of Food Technologists, the American Association of Cereal Chemists (President 2000-01), the Starch Round Table (President 1989-93), and the International Carbohydrate Organization (President 1986-88, 1998-2000).

Honors: Dr. BeMiller received a medal from the Japanese Society of Applied Glycoscience.

As of the end of 2003, he had 256 publications, two patents, and had edited 21 books and authored two. His editorships include: Editor, Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry; Associate Editor, Comprehensive Reviews of Food Science/Food Safety; Editorial Advisory Board, Starch/Staerke; Editorial Board, Journal of Applied Glycoscience; Editorial Board, Food Science and Biotechnology; Editorial Advisory Board, Carbohydrate Research; Editorial Advisory Board, Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry; Editorial Advisory Board, Food Hydrocolloids; Editorial Advisory Board, Carbohydrate Polymers; and Associate Editor, Cereal Chemistry.

Faculty webpage, Purdue University's Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research

Staff directory, Purdue University Food Science,

Biospace profile:

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty,, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Giovanni Battista Benedetti *** Not in Gale

(1530-1590).  Mathematician, physicist, mechanic, astronomer, hydraulics and military engineer.

The Galileo Project,

Benedetti published De resolutione in 1553, a book of geometry, and other mathematical works followed.  Issues of mechanics enter into his second book of geometry and were prominent in a later work.  In Parma he carried out astronomical observations, and he published a work on sundials. His interest in astrology was always obvious in his astronomical work.  Extensive considerations of optical issues, including the camera obscura, are found in his works.  He was one of the first to treat musical harmonies in terms of vibrations. However, his consideration of music is confined to two letters and seems less important in his work than other disciplines.

He designed and constructed fountains. In Turin he also inspected and improved military installations.


Neil Alfred Benfer

(Born 1920).  Oceanographer, writer, editor. Oceanographer U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Suitland, Maryland, 1951-56; soil science editor U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Beltsville, Maryland, 1956-57; earth sciences editor McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia Science and Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1957-62; tech. writer, editor U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1963-65, U.S. Environmental Science Services Administration, Washington, 1965-70; General physical scientist NOAA, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, 1970-80. Served with U.S. Army, 1942-45, ETO.   Education: B.S., Bucknell University, 1948; M.S., Pennsylvania State University, 1951.

Editor: Natural Disaster Survey Series, Professional Paper Series, San Fernando, California, Earthquake of Feb. 9, 1971 (3 vols.), U.S. Ocean Policy in 1970s.

Honors: Recipient Bronze medal Dept. of Commerce, 1980.

Member: Geological Society of America, Association Earth Science Editors.  Baptist.


Jerry R. Bergman / Jerry Rae Bergman

(Born 1946).  Biologist.  Science educator. Professor, Northwest College, Archbold, Ohio, 1987; Professor, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, 1981-86; Professor, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1973-80. Director Society for Study of Male Psychology and Physiology, Montpelier, Ohio, 1974; Research Associate, Adjunct Instructor Medical College of Ohio, Toledo.
Author: 22 books and monographs; contributor of 550 articles (translated into 14 languages) to professional journals. Recipient Langsford award for excellence in writing, 1998, Paul C. Krouse Teaching Award, 2000.

Jerry Bergman, Ph.D. "Some Biological Problems With The Natural Selection Theory,"

Jerry Bergman, Ph.D "Does Nothing in Biology Make Sense Except in the Light of Evolution?"  1/24/2004.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


John C. Bergstrom *** Not in Gale

Agricultural economist.  Professor of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia at Athens.

B. S., University of Maryland, College Park, December 1979; M. S., Clemson University, Clemson, August 1982; Ph. D., Texas A&M University, College Station, December 1986.

Honors: Special Honors Received for Academic Achievement Member, ODE - International Honor Society in Economics Izaak Walton League of America Conservation Scholorship, University of Maryland, 1979

Awards, Special Recognition; Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award, Agricultural and Environmental Economics Club, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, The University of Georgia, 1999; Selected by The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences to represent the College in the Class 7, ESCOP/ACOP Leadership Development Program, September, 1997-June, 1998; Outstanding Graduate Faculty Award, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, The University of Georgia, 1996; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Certificate of Appreciation, For outstanding leadership and technical design in conduct of the Guntersville project and collaboration in other projects, August, 1994; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Certificate of Recognition, Chequamegon and Nicolet National Forests, Wisconsin, 1993, For service and significant contributions to the Scientific Roundtable on the Socioeconomic Impacts of Ecosystem Management, June, 1993; Junior Faculty Award, Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society, 1992; Society of American Foresters Certificate of Appreciation, May, 1991, For service as session coordinator, National Conference on the Economic Value of Wilderness, Jackson, Wyoming, May, 1991; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Certificate of Appreciation, December, 1989, For Research on Equilibrium Modeling and other significant contributions to the 1989 RPA Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Assessment.

Member: Phi Kappa Phi - National Honor Society, The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia

Faculty webpage, John C. Bergstrom-College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences-Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics,University of Georgia,

Member: Curriculum vita:

Leadership U. Faculty webpage,

John C. Bergstrom.  "Principles of a Christian Environmental Ethic: With Applications to Agriculture, Natural Resources, and the Environment,"


George Berkeley

Born in the same year as the great composers Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Frideric Handel, and Domenico Scarlatti, Berkeley (1685-1753) was one of the seminal figures in Western philosophy, his doctrines exerting a particularly significant influence on analytic philosophy. As a mathematician, George Berkeley is known for his thought-provoking critique of the mathematical theories of his time, particularly infinitesimal calculus.

George Berkeley, An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision.


Johann Bernoulli

Bernoulli (1667-1748), whose authority as a mathematician (especially after Newton's death in 1727) seemed unrivaled, also furthered the field of mechanics.  Scholars believe that Bernoulli may have been the first to realize the importance of the principle of conservation.


Robert James (Sam) Berry, FRSE

(Born 1934).  Evolution and ecology educator, researcher, Emeritus Professor of Genetics at University College London.  Professor, University College London, 1978; Lecturer., reader to Professor genetics, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine University of London, 1962-78.  He is a former President of the Linnean Society, the British Ecological Society, the European Ecological Federation, the Mammal Society, and Christians in Science.  Author: God and the Biologist and God's Book of Works: The Nature & Theology of Nature  and coauthor of Science, Life and Christian Belief, and God's Stewards (World Vision, 2002).  He has written a popular account of the environment of the Orkney Islands (Orkney Nature) plus many other books. In The Natural History of Shetland, R. J. Berry and co-author J. L. Johnston provide what Kenneth Mellanby termed in the Times Literary Supplement as the "first comprehensive record" of flora and fauna in the Shetland Islands.

Member: Natural Environment Research Council, 1981-87, Human Fertilization & Embryology Auth., 1990-96. In 1996 he received the UK Templeton Award for 'sustained advocacy of the Christian faith in the world of science', and in 2001 the Marsh Award for Ecology.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004:  "As far as my Christian writings are concerned, these have all arisen from a need to use my scientific expertise to correct misunderstandings or misinterpretations of Scripture (which abound in the evolution area) or to advance debate in new areas-such as on the theology of DNA. In general, both my scientific and Christian writings spring from a belief that we have a responsibility to use any talents we have to the best advantage."


Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel

The German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) established the modern ideals and standards of precision in astronomy and obtained the first measurement of the distance to a star.


Friedrich Bessel.


John A. Bewick / John Arters Bewick

(Born 1937).  Consulting firm executive.  John Bewick is the founder and president of Compliance Management, Inc., a firm specializing in environmental compliance systems for industry and government. Dr. Bewick has over 20 years of experience with environmental problems at the local, state and national levels. He is currently a Lecturer at MIT, teaching the Environmental Management course in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning. Previous positions: Scientist, Reactor Physics Division,  Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, 1961-63; Lecturer physics Peace Corps, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 1963-65; analyst EPA, N.Y.C., 1970-71; program analyst U.S. AEC, Washington, 1971-74; Development Manager energy group Cabot Corp., Boston, 1974-78; secretary Massachusetts Executive Office Environmental Affairs, Boston, 1979-83; acting Director Center for Environmental Management, Tufts University, 1983-84; President Bewick Assocs., Inc., Environmental Consultant Firm, 1984-90; founder Compliance Management, Inc., 1989. Education: BEngineering Physics, Cornell University, 1960; MS, University Michigan, 1962; MBA., Harvard University, 1967, DBA, 1972.  Baptist.

Honor: Named Man of Year, Utility Contractors Association, 1982.

Compliance Management, Inc.


William Bickford

(1774-1834).  An English leather merchant who invented the miner's safety fuse. He made a major contribution to safety and productivity in the mines and quarries, and even after electric ignition was introduced in 1952 the majority of charges were set off using fuses not very different from the one patented by him in 1831.  Bickford went into partnership with Thomas Davey, a working miner and a Methodist class leader, to construct the machinery for fuse production.

From Hutchinson Dictionary of Scientific Biography, © Helicon Publishing Ltd.


Govard Bidloo *** Not in Gale

(1649-1713).  Dutch anatomist, biologist, surgeon, studied microscopy.

The Galileo Project,

Little is known about Bidloo's education, but he must had received the traditional classical instruction, for at the age of 23 he translated a Latin anatomical treatise Ruysch into Dutch.

In 1670 he was apprenticed to a surgeon in Amsterdam and was obliged to attend Ruysch's anatomical lessons and Gerard Blasius' botany lessons at the Hortus medicus.  Bidloo's chief work was his anatomical atlas, published with a Latin text in 1685 and with a Dutch text in 1690, the first large scale anatomical atlas since Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica. His anatomical atlas was plagiarized by Willim Cowper, who published in 1698 as The anatomy of humane bodies. Bidloo proved, in his other anatomical work, Opera omnia, that the nerves are not hollow tubes,as had been believed since the time of Galen, but are taut, transparent fibrous threads.  Bidloo is remembered as a biologist for his admirable work on the liver fluke. He described his work on this parasite in a letter to Leeuwenhoek.

In addition to his continuing medical practice Bidloo was also a surgeon. He also served as a physician and surgeon with the army.

Professor of anatomy at The Hague, 1988; Professor of medicine and surgery at the University of Leiden, 1694-1713.  In 1689, Bidloo accompanied William III to England as his personal physician. Until William's death he was back and forth in England and the Netherlands, frequently in attendance on the King.  In 1690, William III appointed him "superintendent-general of all physicians, apothecaries and surgeons of the military hospitals of the Netherlands". In 1692 he was given the additional duty of supervising the English hospitals. Physician in ordinary to William III, 1701-1702.

Member: Royal Society, 1701-1713.


Jacques de Billy, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1602-1679).  Mathematician, Astronomer, Educator.  Catholic, Jesuit.

The Galileo Project,

Taught mathematics at Jesuit college at Pont à Mousson while a theology student, 1629-30; taught mathematics at Jesuit college at Rheims, 1631-33. According to Humbert he taught also in the Jesuit college at Grenoble and was rector of Chalons, Langres, and Sens.  Master of studies and professor of theology at the College de Dijon, taught mathematics privately.  Professor of Mathematics, College de Dijon, 1665-68.

He dedicated his Tabulae lodoicae, 1656, (note the name) to Louis XIV.

Connections: Taught Jacques Ozanam, Claude Gasper Bachet de Meziriac; corresponded with Fermat and Bachet.

Appendix to Jesuit Geometers,

Le Journal des Savants (Scavans) (6 sept.1666) published his method for finding a date in the Julian calender.15 entries are found in Sommervogel;  some examples are the following: Nova Geometriae Clavis Algebra (Paris, 1643), Opus Astronomicum (Paris, 1661) ,  De Proportione Harmonica (Paris, 1658), Discours de la Comete (Paris, 1665), Doctrinae  analyticae inventum novum (Toulouse 1670).   De Billy is frequently mentioned in Cajori's History of mathematical notations.


Jean Baptiste Biot

(1774-1862). French mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. Professor, Beauvais (1797-1800), College de France (1800 ff.). With Gay-Lussac made balloon ascension (1804) to study upper atmosphere, terrestrial magnetism; with Arago studied optical properties of gases; with Felix Savart discovered (1820) Biot-Savart law describing strength of magnetic fields; investigated polarized light and became (1835) founder of saccharimetryby use of polariscope.


Vannoccio Biringuccio

(1480-c.1539). Italian metallurgist, mineralogist, mining engineer, chemist.  Metallurgist and armorer in Siena, Parma, Ferrara, Venice; director of papal arsenal (from 1438).   He deviated from and discounted the centuries-old idea of alchemy and transmutation, that a particular (and as yet undiscovered substance) would transform common metals into silver or gold. Biringuccio's theories and experiments laid the groundwork for what we know today as chemistry.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Biringuccio's reputation is derived from a single work, De la pirotechnia, published posthumously in 1540,  which describes techniques for mining ores and extracting metals from them.  This is the first printed comprehensive account of the fire-using arts, was a prime source on many practical aspects of inorganic chemistry. It discusses mineralogy as well as metallurgy.

"Vannoccio Biringuccio," (in German)


James Emmett Black, Jr.

(Born 1951).  Computer scientist, engineer. Associate scientist Lockheed Electronics Co., Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1975-77; Senior systems analyst Sperry Univac National Accounts, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, 1977-80; Senior systems engineer General Electric Co., Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 1980-85; computer scientist, General Electric Corp. Research & Development, 1985; also independent research and development in computer communications and advanced computer architectures, methodologies, AI techniques for natural language processing and hypermedia for systems engineering and requirements management. Education: A.S., Walker College, 1971; B.S.E.E., University Alabama, 1974, postgraduate, 1974-75; postgraduate University Houston, 1975-77.

Member: IEEE, Association Computing Machinery, IEEE Computer Society, Phi Theta Kappa, Alpha Phi Omega. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Paul Black, OBE, KSG *** Not in Gale

Physics, science educator.  Emeritus Professor of Science Education, King's College, London. Paul Black took his first degree in physics, and subsequently obtained his Ph.D. in Crystallography at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge in l954. Between 1956 and 1976 he was a faculty member in the Department of Physics in the University of Birmingham (England), but his interests gradually moved from research in physics to research and development on science education. He left Birmingham in 1976 to become Professor of Science Education and Director of the Centre for Science and Mathematics Education, at Chelsea College in London, and on merger of Chelsea College with King's College in 1985 became head of the King's Centre for Educational Studies, King's College London (KQC). He retired in 1995 but is still active in research and development work.

Honors: Honorary Life Member and former President of the Association for Science Education; (with J.M.Ogborn) Bragg Medal and Prize of the UK Institute of Physics (1973); Officer of the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) l983; Chair of the International Commission on Physics Education (1992-98); Vice-President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics(1996-8); Medal of the International Commission on Physics Education 2000; Fellow of King's College 1989; Honorary Doctor of the University, Surrey 1991; Honorary Doctor of the Universit,y Open University 2002; Honorary Doctor of Education, Kingston University 2003.

Author of Testing: Friend or Foe? The Theory and Practice of Assessment and Testing.

Faculty home webpage, King's College, London:


Elizabeth Blackwell

(1821-1910).  American physician, b. Counterslip, Bristol, England. To.U.S. (1832). M.D., Geneva Medical School of Western N.Y. (1849). First woman doctor of medicine in modern times. She later founded the first medical school for women, which resulted in both greater acceptance of female physicians and stricter standards for medical schools as a whole. Opened private dispensary in New York (1853), which became incorporated (1857) into New York Infirmary for Women and Children; Woman's Medical College established there (1868). Settled in England (1869); Professor of gynecology in London School of Medicine for Women (1875-1907).  By the time of her death in 1910, the number of female doctors in the United States had risen to over 7,000.

"Elizabeth Blackwell,"

"The Women of the Hall: Elizabeth Blackwell,"


Willem Janszoon Blaeu / Guilielmus Janssonius / Willems Jans Zoon / Guillaume Jansonius Caesii

(1571-1638). Dutch mathematician, cartographer, geographer, and astronomer. Founder of a publishing firm at Amsterdam, known especially for its terrestrial and celestial globes and maps; author of  Nova universi terrarum orbis mappa (Amsterdam,1605), Het Licht der Zeevaert (Amsterdam, 1608), Novus Atlas (Amsterdam, 1634-62). His sons Cornelis Blaeu (1610-c. 1645, 1650) and Jan/Joan Blaeu (1596-1673) continued the firm.

The Galileo Project,

In 1595-1596, Blaeu worked with Tycho at the latter's observatory on the island of Hveen, Denmark.  In 1596 or 1597, he returned to Amsterdam where he soon established himself as a merchant of maps and globes, and as a printer.  In 1633, the States General of Amsterdam appointed Blaeu map maker of the Republic, and later he became the official cartographer of the Dutch East India Company.  He made terrestrial and celestial globes, a Planetarium, and a tellurium. He also made an extraordinary and beautiful quadrant.  He undertook the measurement of a degree on the surface of the earth. The presses of his design became almost general throughout the low contries and were introduced to England.

"Printing." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004:  About 1620 Blaeu added a counterweight to the pressure bar in the printing press in order to make the platen rise automatically; this was the so-called Dutch press, a copy of which was to be the first press introduced into North America, by Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1639.

"The Blaeu Family,"


Jan Blaeu / Joan Blaeu

(1596-1673).  Geographer.  Cartographer.  Typographer.  Lawyer.  Son of Willem Janszoon Blaeu.

Leen Helmink.  "The Blaeus: Willem, Cornelis & Joan,"

In 1638, Joan was appointed his father's successor in the Hydrographic office of the V.O.C. (United East India Company).  His activity in the promotion of maritime cartography lacked the fervour of his industrious attitude towards geography. He aimed at the full description of heaven, earth and water which was unachievable, but his efforts culminated in the magnificent Atlas Magnus / Atlas Major (11 vols., 1650-62) and the town-books of the Netherlands and of Italy - works unsurpassed in history and in modern times, which gave eternal fame to the name of the Blaeus.
In 1667 Joan Blaeu's printing house was moved from the Bloemgracht to Gravenstraat. It was there that a fire ruined the business on February 23, 1672. One year later, Dr. Joan Blaeu died.

"The Blaeu Family,"

The business was carried on by his sons Joan II and Pieter. Many items were auctioned and in 1683 the globemaking part of the business was sold to J. van Keulen. The sons published a number of maps but the business never regained the influential position it had held in earlier years. Pieter died in 1706 and Joan II in 1712.

"The Printing House of the Family Blaeu: 17th Century Cartographic Printing from the Netherlands,"


Lytle Houston Blankenship

(Born 1927).  Wildlife research scientist, educator.  Certified wildlife biologist Michigan Dept. Conservation, Lansing, 1954-56; research biologist Minnesota Div. Game & Fish, St. Paul, 1956-61, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Tucson, 1961-69; research scientist Caesar Kleberg wildlife program Texas A&M University, Nairobi, Kenya, 1969-72; Professor, research scientist Texas Agricultural Experiment Sta., Uvalde, 1972; consultant World Bank in Kenya, Organization American States in Dominican Republic; Visiting Lecturer University. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1978; workshop consultant for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to India, 1981, 1982.

Trustee, Uvalde Community Christian School Wildlife Management Institute grantee, 1950-51; Michigan State University Fellow; People-to-People program Fellow, 1968. Education: B.S., Texas A&M University, 1950; M.S., University Minnesota, 1952; Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1956.

Member: The Wildlife Society (International affairs committee 1971-86, council 1979-, President 1986, Outstanding Service award Texas chapter), Wildlife Disease Association, East African Wildlife Society, Wildlife Society South Wildlife Society South Africa, Audubon Society. Baptist. Clubs: Uvalde Lions, Lions International (district Governor 1981-82), Uvalde County Aggie, Uvalde Band and Choir Booster (President 1974-75).

Contributor of numerous articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Francis Shellabear Blasdell

(Born 1927 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; American parents).  Biologist.  Zoologist.  Museum trainee Buffalo Mus. of Natural History, 1950-51; zool. technician Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., Rochester, N.Y., 1951-54; Partner, Chairman Board of Directors National Biological Labs., Inc., Vienna, Virginia, 1955-70; br.Manager Mogul-Ed division Mogul Corp., Merrifield, Virginia, 1970-72; cataloguer, division reptiles and amphibians Smithsonian Instn., Museum of Natural History, Washington, 1973. B.A. in Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, 1950.

Scouting coordinator, committeeman troop 152 National Capital Area Council Boy Scouts America, 1961; elder Presbyterian Church. Served with USNR, 1945-46.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Edward F. Blick*** Not in Gale

Engineering scientist.   Dr. Blick is Professor Emeritus of Aerospace, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at the University of Oklahoma and formerly Associate Dean of Engineering there. He received his Ph.D. in Engineering Science from Oklahoma University, and has published many important research papers in the fields of aerodynamics and biomechanics. He worked on the Mercury Project and F4 fighter and has written 150 scientific papers.

Dr. Blick is author of  Scientific Analysis of Genesis, 1991;  Special Creation Vs Evolution , 1995; co-author of the textbook Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer.

Edward F. Blick, Ph.D. Evolution And The Second Law Of Thermodynamics., Chapter 4 of SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF GENESIS, First Edition, 1991.


Nathaniel Bliss

(1700-1764). English astronomer. Savilian Professor of Geometry, University of Oxford (1742-64); Fellow of the Royal Society, 1742; assisted James Bradley and succeeded him as fourth Astronomer Royal (1762-64). Bliss graduated from Pembroke College, Oxford (B.A., 1720; M.A., 1723), and became rector of St. Ebbe's, Oxford, in 1736.


Nicolas-Francois Blondel *** Not in Gale

(1618-1686).  Engineer.  Educator.  Architect.

The Galileo Project,

As a famous military engineer and architect, Blondel wrote and published many works on engineering and architecture. In his Cours d'architecture (1675-1683), he formulated the rule of art, approved by the Royal Academy of Architecture and applied universally ever since.  He directed construction for the region and drew up plans for Rochefort and its fortifications, and for restoration of the Saintes bridge and the Roman arch.  He undertook numerous military engineering projects, many of them having to do with the fortification of naval facilities or coastal defence. He also wrote two books: La nouvelle manière de fortifier les places, and L'art de jeter les bombes.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences.  He was admitted to the Royal Academy of Sciences as a geometer in 1669. He was appointed professor at, and director of, the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1671.


John Bloom / John A. Bloom

(Born 1952).  Physicist.  Scholar.  Professor and director of the M.A. in Science and Religion program at Biola University in La Mirada, California. Postdoctoral Research Associate, Cornell University, 81-82; Fellow, Interdisciplinary Bibl Res Inst, Hatfield, Penn, 88- ; Lecturer physics, Ursinus College, 84-89, 92; consult, computer software and hardware, 86- present ; Assistant Professor, 93-95, Associate Professor, physics, 1995. Field of interest: Physics, Biblical Studies; Research: Cross cultural comparative study of creation accounts and of prophetic material; exegetical/historical problems in Israelite prehistory and history through the First Temple period; membrane biology; evolution; ancient technologies and science (medicine and mathematics); ancient document preservation via computer technology; use of computer image enhancement techniques in the study of ancient cuneiform and papyrus documents.  Biola University Grinnell College, BA, 74; Cornell University, MS, 77, Ph.D., 80; Biblical Theological Seminary, MA, 83, MDiv, 83; Dropsie College, MA, 86, Ph.D., 92.

Member: American Association Physics Teachers; American Society for Engineering Educ; American Science Affiliation; Biophysical Society; Evangelical Theological Society; Sigma Xi; Society of Biblical Literature.

Awards: Grinnell College Honors Scholar, 70-74; Chem Senior Honors Awd, 74; Honors scholar, 80-83; Honors prog, Bibl Theological Seminary, 82-83; Honors scholar, Dropsie College, 83-86; Elise Bohstedt Scholar, 86-91; John Templeton Foundation, Science and Religion Course Prog, 97; Provost Award for Excellence in Bibl Integration, Biola University, 98.

Author: Truth Via Prophecy, Why Isn't the Evidence Clearer, Ancient Near Eastern Temple Assemblies: A Survey, Prolegomena, Annenberg Research Inst, 92 (Ph.D. thesis); On Human Origins : A Survey, Christian Scholar's Review, 97.

John Bloom. "Christian Scholar's Review, On Human Origins: A Survey,",parentCatID./rc_detail.asp


Andrew Bruce Bocarsly
(Born 1954).  Dr. Andrew Bocarsly, Department of Chemistry, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is an inorganic chemist, specializing in solar energy conversion. He has taught at Princeton since 1980.

Professor Bocarsly has published over 150 papers in peer reviewed journals and co-authored three patents. Presently, he co-directs Princeton's Fuel Cell Laboratory with Professor J. Benziger. Research in this laboratory is focused on the chemistry and engineering associated with the development of high temperature (i.e. above the normal boiling point of water) proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Such cells have potential applications in mobile devices ranging from lab top computers to automobiles and transportation systems. Bocarsly's research interests are centered around next generation materials for fuel cell and electrochemical applications. Currently his research group focuses on enhanced performance membrane materials and improved electrocatalysts.

Professor Bocarsly serves as a consultant and contractor to various fuel cell related companies including United Technologies Fuel Cell and Millennium Cell. He has received the Sigma Xi (Princeton Section) Science Educator Award, the American Chemical Society-Exxon Solid State Chemistry award, and has served as the electrochemistry editor for Methods in Materials Research: A Current Protocols Publication


Hans Leo Bodlaender

(Born 1960).  Computer scientist researcher, Mathematician, Institute of Information and Computing Sciences, Universeit Utrecht.  Docent, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, 1987; postdoctoral Fellow, MIT, Cambridge, 1987; research Assistant Department of Computer Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, 1983-86. Theistic evolutionist.

Hans L. Bodlaender.  "My Religious Beliefs,"

Faculty page, Universeit Utrecht.

Hans L. Bodlaender.  "How can a seriously intelligent person who spend his (almost) entire life in pursuit of serious logical inquiry, simply turn it off to follow the tenets of a given religion? "

Author: Parallel algorithms for series parallel graphs, Parallel algorithms for series parallel graphs and graphs with treewidth two, Parallel algorithms for treewidth two, Treewidth: algorithmic techniques and results.


Hermann Boerhaave

(1668-1738). Dutch physician. Chemist.  Botanist.  Professor, Leiden (from 1708); credited with founding modern system of clinical instruction. He was the leading medical teacher of the early 18th century. His works on medicine and chemistry had widespread use as basic textbooks. Author of Institutiones medicae in usus annuae exercitationis domesticos digestae (1708) and Aphorismi de cognoscendis et curandis morbis (1709), encyclopedic medical books widely translated; Elementa chemiae (1724); etc.

The Galileo Project,

Samuel Johnson.  "Hermann Boerhaave." First printed in the January, February, March, and April (1739) issues of The Gentleman's Magazine. The edition used here is from The Works of Samuel Johnson, as printed by Pafraets Company (Troy, NY, 1903), volume 14, pages 154-184.

Boerhaave | Hermann | 1688-1738 | professor of medicine and botany, University of Leyden,

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Raymond G. Bohlin, Ph.D.  *** Not in Gale

Molecular biologist.  President, Probe Ministries. Dr. Bohlin was born and raised in Chicago, IL and is a graduate of the University of Illinois (B.S., zoology, 1971-1975), the University of North Texas (M.S., population genetics, 1977-1980), and the University of Texas at Dallas (M.S., Ph.D., molecular and cell biology, 1984-1991). He has been with Probe Ministries since 1975.

Author: (with Lane P. Lester) The Natural Limits to Biological Change; served as general editor of Creation, Evolution and Modern Science, and has published numerous journal articles. Dr. Bohlin was named a 1997-98 and 2000 Research Fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture.


Probe Ministries.

Ray Bohlin.  "Genetic Intervention: The Ethical Challenges Ahead,"

Ray Bohlin.  "The Case for Christ,"


Johannes Bohn *** Not in Gale

(1640-1718).  German physician.  Physiologist (some Iatrochemical theories).  Founder of forensic medicine, especially forensic autopsy.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,


Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai

(1775-1856). Hungarian mathematician. Professor, Evangelical-Reformed College of Marosvasarhely (1804-53); spent entire life attempting toprove Euclid's parallel-line postulate; wrote Tentamen Juventutem Studiosam in Elementa Matheseos Purae Introducendi (1832-33) in which fundamentals of geometry treated in new way.His son (1802-1860) concluded (1820) the parallel-line postulate could not be proved and then developed consistent non-Euclidean geometry outlined in Appendix Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram Exhibens (1823).


Bernhard Bolzano

Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano (1781-1848) was a Czechoslovakian theologian, philosopher, and mathematician who wrote and published pioneering works on infinite set series and the infinitesimal.


Rafael Bombelli *** Not in Gale

(1526-1572).  Italian mathematician.  Civil engineer.  Hydraulics expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Bombelli was the last of the algebraists of Renaissance Italy. His only published work, Algebra, gave a comprehensive account of the existing knowledge of the subject, enriching it with Bombelli's own contributions. The influence that his Algebra had in the Low Countries was great. Leibniz called him an "outstanding master of the analytical art."  Bombelli worked at reclaiming land and at least one other engineering task, but there is nothing to indicate that he furthered the sciences of hydraulics and engineering.

He spent the greater part of his working life as an engineer-architect in the service of his patron, Monsignor Alessandro Rufini, a favorite of Paul III who was later the Bishop of Melfi. By 1551 Bombelli had begun to work for Rufini in the reclamation of the Val di Chiana marshes; the work ended in 1560. In 1561 he took part in the attempt to repair the Ponte Santa Maria in Rome, an effort that failed.  He took part in the reclamation of the Val di Chiana marshes and in the attempt to repair the Ponte Santa Maria Bridge.


Federigo Bonaventura *** Not in Gale

(1555-1602).  Meteorologist.  Physician.  Natural philosopher.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Bonaventura's most important scientific writings deal with meteorology. Those writings attempted to determine the precise meaning of the ancient texts through philological techniques. He also wrote works on medical subjects (especially De natura partus octomestris, published in 1600) and political philosophy.


Giovan Bonomo / Giovan Bonomi *** Not in Gale

(1666-1696).  Italian physician.  Scientist.  Court official.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Bonomo's major work, done in collaboration with Cestoni in Livorno, Observazioni intorno a'pellicelli del corpo umano (1687), affirmed that scabies was caused by mites and provided the first clinical and experimental proof of the "live" infection.


Anselmus Boetius de Boodt *** Not in Gale

(c. 1550-1632).  Belgian mineralogist.  Alchemist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In his chief work, Gemmarum et lapidum historia, Boodt made the first attempt at a systematic description of minerals. He enumerated about 600 minerals that he knew from personal observation, and described their properties, imitations, and medical applications.


George Boole

The English mathematician George Boole (1815-1864) invented mathematical, or symbolic, logic and uncovered the algebraic structure of deductive logic, thereby reducing it to a branch of mathematics.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Lester Verlin Boone

(1931-1996).  Agronomist for Southern Illinois, University of Illinois, 1956-67, research and extension agronomist, Champaign-Urbana campus, 1967-96; state coordinator agronomy field research. Served with USAF, 1950-54. B.S., Southern Illinois University, 1956; M.S., University of Illinois, 1972.

Member: Field Consol. School Board Education, Texico, Illinois, 1964-67, Member American Society Agronomy, Soil Science Society America, International Society Soil Science, AAAS, Council Agricultural Science and Technology, American Registry Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops and Soils (Certified professional agronomist and soil scientist). Baptist.

Author: (with others) Producing Farm Crops, 1975, 2d edition, 1980; Contributor of numerous articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Pierre Borel *** Not in Gale

(c. 1620-1671).  Physician, botanist, chemist, pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

Borel is credited with the first description of brain concussions. Among his original contributions to medicine are the statement that cataract is a darkening of the crystalline lens and the recommendation of the use of concave mirrors in diagnostic examination of nose and throat.

He also wrote books on history of science.  His Horyus (1667) listed plants with known uses in medicine. He pioneered the use of concave mirrors in the examination of noses, throats, etc.

Calvinist.  He was evidently the regent of the Huguenot college of Castres. His death was entered in a Huguenot register.


Giovanni Alfonso Borelli

(1608-1679). Italian physicist and physiologist. Professor, Messina (1649-56, 1667-74), Pisa (1656-67). In Del movimento della cometa (1665), published under pseudonym Pier Maria Mutoli, first suggested parabolic path for celestial object; postulated attractive force in Theorica mediceorum planetarum (1666) on motion of Jupiter's satellites; founded iatrophysical school with attempt to explain movements of animal bodies on mechanical principles in De mota animalium (1680-81).

The Galileo Project, (in German)


Olaus Borrichius / Olaus Borch *** Not in Gale

(1626-1690).  Chemist.  Alchemist.  Physician.  Botanist.  Metallurgist.  Pharmacologist.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Borrichius won fame as a physician during 1654 plaguge epidemic.  In 1655, he became tutor to the sons of Joachim Gersdorf, the lord high steward (Rigshofmester).  He was royal physician to Frederik III and Christian V.  In 1660, Borrichius was appointed Professor ordinarius of philology and professor extraordinarius of botany and chemistry (these were supernumerary until 1664); held these posts for nearly 30 years. 

Author: Docimastice metallica, 1667, (translated into many languages), which expounded the method of analyzing the most important metals; Metalischer Probierkunst, 1680; De usu plantarum indigenarum in medicina, 1688, a popular textbook with detailed demonstrations of how to heal common illnesses with the help of domestic plants.


Dr Andrew G. Bosanquet / Andrew George Bosanquet, BSc Ph.D. CBiol MIBiol CChem FRSC

(Born 1951).  Medical researcher.  Director, Wolfson Centre, Royal United Hospital, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, England, Cancer Research, 1987; researcher, Royal United Hospital, Bath, England Cancer Research, 1978.  Education: BS, Bristol (England) University, 1973; Ph.D., Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1978; CBiol, MBiol, Institute Biology, 1990.

Member: Fellow Royal Society Chemistry; AACR, British Society Haematology, European Haematology Association, Institute Biology.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Dr. Andrew G. Bosanquet, Director, Bath Cancer Research,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Roger Joseph Boscovich, S.J./ Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich

(1711-1787). Croatian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Joined Jesuits (1725); taught in Rome (1740), Pavia (1764), Milan (1770); director ofoptics for French navy (1773-83). First in Italy to write inadvocacy of Newton's theories; developed methods for calculating orbits, rotation of celestial objects; improved geodetic surveys,led international project to measure meridian arcs.


Buris R. Boshell / Buris Raye Boshell

(1926-1995).  Physician, educator and author.

From "Buris Raye Boshell."

Boshell earned the bachelor of science degree in Agriculture, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1947. He received the doctor of medicine degree in 1953 from Harvard School of Medicine and interned at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, 1953-1954. He was a Junior Assistant Resident in Medicine, 1954-1955; Senior Assistant, 1955-1956; Chief Medical Resident Physician, 1958-1959, and a Research Fellow in Medicine at Harvard University.

He joined the faculty of the School of Medicine, University of Alabama in Birmingham, as an Assistant Professor of Medicine, 1959; Associate Professor of Medicine, 1962; Chief of Medical Services, Veterans Administration Hospital, Birmingham, 1962-1968; Assistant Director, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, 1963-1968, and in 1968 was appointed Director of the Third Year Student Program, Department of Medicine.

In 1963 he was appointed Chief of Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine; was named the Ruth Lawson Hanson Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, 1964, and was appointed Medical Director, Diabetes Research and Education Hospital, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama, 1973. The University of Perpetual Help, Philippines, conferred the honorary degree Doctor of Science on him in 1981.

Member: American Medical Association, Alabama Diabetes Association, Endocrine Society, Fellow American College of Physicians, Fellow American Institute of Chemists, American Diabetes Association, Southern Society of Clinical Investigation, the Newcomen Society of North America, American Federation for Clinical Research, American College of Clinical Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, and the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. Sigma Xi, Alpha Omega Alpha, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Kappa Alpha, and Gamma Sigma Delta.  Baptist.

Honor: Senior U.S. scientist award from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, for West Germany, 1975.

Author: The Diabetic at Work and Play (1971), the Diabetes Mellitus Case Studies (1976) The Diagnosis and Management of Endocrine Disorders in Primary Practice, Addison-Wesley, 1982.

He either authored or co-authored ninety scientific papers and forty scientific abstracts.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

"Charles Martin AU Announces Boshell Chair for Diabetes Research,"

Roy Summerford.  "AU CHAIR ENDOWED IN HONOR OF LATE DR. BURIS BOSHELL," Auburn University News, 12/12/95.  The Buris R. Boshell Scholarship in Medicine was established by a special appropriation of $100,000 by the Alabama State Legislature to the Diabetes Trust Fund. The appropriation was incorporated into the investment portfolio of the Diabetes Trust Fund as a perpetual endowment. The investment earnings from this endowment have been designated by the Board of Directors of the Trust Fund to provide awards annually in the amount of $12,000 in support of graduate studies in endocrinology and pathophysiology related to diabetes mellitus in the human.


Leonardo Botallo / Leonardo Botalli / Leonardo Botal *** Not in Gale

(c. 1519 / 1587 or 1588).  Italian-born anatomist, physician, surgeon.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

His name is associated with Botallo's duct and Botallo's foramen. Through his observation, he discovered or independently rediscovered that the blood's passage from the right to the left side of the heart in the fetus was by way of the foramen ovale cordis (Botallo's foramen). His discovery was published in De catarrho commentarius (Paris,1564). He also observed the arterial duct from the pulmonary artery to the aorta that also carries his name. Note that he was not the original discoverer of either of these features; he does appear to have been an independent discoverer of them. He also published other works in anatomy and medicine.

Botallo was the major advocate who effectively introduced blood letting as a medical treatment into France.

He published one of the pioneering works on the treatment of gunshot wounds, as well as other works on surgical practice.  He appears to have developed an instrument for trapanning the cranium.


Edward A. Boudreaux, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

(Born 1933).  Theoretical chemist.  Adjunct Professor of Chemistry at ICR, Professor Emeritus of Physical Chemistry, University of New Orleans (retired).  B.S. in chemistry from Loyola University;  M.S. and Ph.D. Chemistry from Tulane University. President Origins Resource Association.

Author or co-author of four technical books regarding inorganic chemistry; author of numerous peer-reviewed scientific papers.

Edward A. Bourdreaux, Ph.D. "Basic Chemistry: A Testament of Creation,", from Impact, No. 324 June 2000.
Origins Resource Association:

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Ismael Boulliau *** Not in Gale

(1605-1694).  Astronomer. Mathematician, Optics.

The Galileo Project,

Member: Participated in the Mersenne Circle and the Cabinet DuPuy, and was a member of the group that became the Académie, but was not himself a member of the Académie.  Foreign associate of the Royal Society (1667), and a corresponding member of the Accademia del Cimento.


Claude Bourdelin *** Not in Gale

(c. 1621-1699).  French chemist.  Pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

Bourdelin's importance lies in his having made clear to some of his contemporaries and to his successors that progress in chemical knowledge required use of less antiquated experimental methods and the elaboration of hypotheses as guidelines for research.  He spent more than 30 years on research in chemical analysis. He practiced medicine as an apothecary, a common arrangement in that age.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-1699.  He was a member apparently from the original organization of the Académie, working with DuClos on the analysis of Royal mineral water.


Louis Bourguet *** Not in Gale

(1678-1742).  French-born geologist, paleontologist, mineralogist, natural philosopher.

The Galileo Project,

Bourguet was one of the first to occupy himself with the study of animal fossils on which he published, Dissertations sur les pierres figurées (1715). He studied the generation of the fossils and their evolution. His research reveals him to be one of the precursors of scientific geology and paleontology. He wrote on the generation of crystals and on petrefaction. He published Traité de petrifications in 1742, a collection of which several items were by himself.

In geology he claimed the originality of the idea of salient and reentering angles. His theory appeared in a memoir on the theory of the earth (1729). Bourguet's goal was to provide a large-scale study of the theory of the earth. Although he never did accomplish his goal, Buffon adopted his idea. Buffon, unlike Bourguet, attributed the topographic formation of salient and reentering angles to the once present ocean currents in the valleys.

Bourguet read widely in archaeology, numismatics, and philology. He collected medals, antiquities, and rare books. His travels for the family business aided him in building his collections and put him into contact with many savants with whom he corresponded.

He was a universal savant who treated wide ranging issues in all of natural philosophy--and beyond.

He founded two journals and spent liberally in order to establish and maintain them. The Bibliotheque italique was designed to present the results of Italian scientists to the French. The Mercure suisse, later the Journal Helvetique, was devoted to literary, historical, and scientific subjects.

Member: Berlin Academy, Académie Royal des Sciences.  He became a member of the Berlin Academy in 1731, the Académie des Sciences in Paris, and the Etruscan Academy of Cortona. Among his correspondents were Leibniz, Buffon, Scheuchzer, Vallisnieri, Bonanini, Zannichelli, Conti, Haller, Reaumur, and others, and he had connections with a number of Italians scientists mentioned under patronage.  In 1740 he organized a loose association of Swiss scientists concerned with fossils.


Dr. Phillip Bowen / J. Phillip Bowen *** Not in Gale

Chemist. Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens. B.S., Piedmont College, 1979; Ph.D., Emory University, 1984.

Chemistry Faculty: J. Phillip Bowen, Ph.D.,

Contact page:


Sir Robert Lewis Fullarton Boyd, FRS, CBE

(1922-2004).  Physicist.  Regarded as the father of space science in the UK. As director of the Mullard space science laboratory from 1965 to 1983. Memberships: Royal Society (Fellow), Institution of Electrical Engineers (Fellow), Institute of Physics (Fellow), Royal Astronomical Society (vice-president, 1964-66). Created Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 1972.  Editor of astronomical texts to "Oxford Physics Series." Contributor of more than one hundred scientific papers to proceedings.

Obituary by A.M. Cruse.  "Sir Robert Boyd," The Guardian, February 11, 2004.,2763,1145510,00.html.

Testimony in God and the Scientists, edited by Mike Poole.  CPO, Worthing, 1997.  ISBN 1-901796-02-7.


David Ray Boylan, Ph.D.

(Born 1922).  (Retired 1992). Professor of Chemical Engineering, Dean of engineering school at Iowa State University.  Achievements include research in transient behavior and flow of fluids through porous media, unsteady state and fertilizer technolgy, developed fused-phosphate fertilizer processes, theoretical and experimental correlation of filtration, research in transient behavior and flow of fluids through porous media, unsteady state and fertilizer technology, developed fused-phosphate fertilizer processes, theoretical and experimental correlation of filtration. Consultant process engineering, 1992; Professor of chemical engineering, Iowa State University (College of Engineering), 1988-92; Dean, Iowa State University (College Engineering.), 1970-88; Director, Iowa State University (Engineering Research Institute), 1966; Associate Director, Iowa State University (Engineering Experimental Station), 1959; Professor of chemical engineering, Iowa State University, 1956; faculty, Iowa State University, Ames, 1948; plant manager, Arlin Chemical Co., Elizabeth, 1947-48; senior engineer, American Cyanamid Co., Elizabeth, N.J., 1947; project engineer, General Chemical Co., Camden, N.J., 1943-47; Instructor, University Kansas, 1942-43. His B.S. is from the University of Kansas, 1943, and his Ph.D. from Iowa State University, 1952.

Memberships: Fellow AAAS, American Institute Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Merit award 1987); National Society Professional Engineers (v.p.), Professional Engineers in Education (chairman), American Society Engineering. Education, Sigma Xi, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Sigma Tau, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Beta Pi.  Formerly on Board of Directors of the Creation Research Society and Board of Regents of Christian Heritage College.

David A. Kaufmann, Ph.D.  "Former Iowa State University Dean Retires From CRS Board,"


Robert Boyle

The English chemist, physicist, and natural philosopher Robert Boyle (1627-1691) was a leading advocate of "corpuscular philosophy." Boyle is considered by many as the father of modern chemisty. He offered the first accurate definitions of elements and chemical reactions, is credited with pioneering modern scientific method, and also formulated the law that bears his name which describes the relationship between pressure and volume in gases.  He believed that all scientific disciplines should be subjected to the rigors of scientific experimentation, and that science itself could be explained through mathematical laws.  He made important contributions to chemistry, pneumatics, and the theory of matter.

In addition to leaving much of his estate for the furtherance of various Christian endeavors, he provided in his will for the establishment of an annual series of sermons, in his words, "for proving the Christian Religion against notorious Infidels." These sermons, known as the Boyle Lectures, became by tradition one of the primary platforms for promoting the belief that in the study of nature could be found much of the evidence for religion.

From "Robert Boyle." Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998.

Robert Boyle, The Sceptical Chymist 1661.

The Robert Boyle Project, University of London.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. "Robert Boyle," or

Robert Doolan. "Robert Boyle (1627-91): The man who turned chemistry into a science," First published in
Creation Ex Nihilo 12(1):22-23, December 1989-February 1990.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


James Bradley

The English astronomer James Bradley (1693-1762), one of the most determined and meticulous astronomers, discovered the aberration of light (1728) and the nutation of the earth's axis (the oscillation of the earth's axis, caused by the changing direction of the gravitational pull of the moon on the equatorial bulge), 1728.  Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, 1721, succeeded Halley as Astronomer Royal, 1742.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Walter Lee Bradley

(Born 1943).   Mechanical engineer, educator, researcher, consultant.  Distinguished Professor engineering, Baylor University, Waco, Texas., 2002; from Associate to full Professor and Senior TEES Research Fellow in the department of mechanical engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, 1976-2000; from Assistant to Associate Professor Department metall. engineering, Colo. School of Mines, Golden, 1968-76. Visiting Professor Lawrence Livermore (California) Labs., summer 1973, Fed. University of Minas Gerias, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1974, Fed. Tech. University of Lausanne, Switzerland, summer 1991. Walter Bradley received his Ph.D. in materials science from the University of Texas at Austin. He has received over $3,000,000 in research grants and contracts resulting in the publication of 80+ technical articles. He has been honored for his technical contributions by being elected a Fellow of the American Society for Materials.

Co-author: Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing Current Theories, 1984, (chapters) In-Situ Fracture Observation in SEM of Delamination in Composite Materials, (chapter) Rubber Toughening Plastics.

Dr. Walter L. Bradley Virtual Office,

Dr. Walter L. Bradley.  "My Quest for Success,"  Testimony.

Walter Bradley. "Scientific Evidence For the Existence of God,"  "I have discovered many additional areas in which alternative evidences for the existence of God can be found, persuading me of two things: (1) God's fingerprints are ubiquitous in his creation, giving "clear evidence of his eternal power and divine nature through the things that have been created" (Romans 1:19-20); and (2) almost anyone who works in a field of science could potentially develop a presentation of this type in their area of expertise."

Walter Bradley. "Is There Scientific Evidence for the Existence of God? How the Recent Discoveries Support a Designed Universe,"


Thomas Bradwardine *** Not in Gale

(c.1295-1349). Archbishop of Canterbury, one of the first people to write
down an equation for a physical process

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Sir William Henry Bragg

The English physicist, mathematician and teacher Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) was the founder of the science of crystal-structure determination by x-ray diffraction methods. He received the Nobel Prize in physics jointly with his son, William Lawrence Bragg, in 1915. The mathematical equation derived from their discovery, called Bragg's Law, is now used to study the molecular structure of complex substances.

"Biography of W.H. Bragg,"

Dame Kathleen Lonsdale.  "Bragg, Sir William,"


Tycho Brahe

(1546-1601). Danish astronomer. Established with royal aid Uraniborg observatory on island of Hven (now Ven) in The Sound (1576); in Bohemia under patronage of Rudolph II (1599), where he had Kepler as assistant (1600). Amassed records of most accurate astronomical observations made to date in Europe. Proved nova (1572) was a star. Rejected Copernican system and held that the five planets revolved about the sun, which in turn revolved about the earth. His observations published by Kepler in the Rudolphine Tables.  Author of De nova stella (1573), Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (1598) describing his life, discoveries, etc., and Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata (1602-03,edited by Kepler). Crater Tycho Brahe on Mars named in his honor.

The Galileo Project,

"The Noble Dane: Iamges of Tycho Brahe,"

"Tycho Brahe,"

"Tycho Brahe,"

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Tycho Brahe,"


Benjamin Bramer *** Not in Gale

(1588-1652).  German mathematician, military engineer, architect, instrument-maker.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. "Benjamin Bramer,"

Bramer directed constructions of fortifications and castles within the district of Hesse-Kassel north of Bavaria. He was appointed master builder to the court in Marburg in 1612. In 1629 he directed the construction of fortifications of Marburg castle and fortifications of the town. He also directed the construction of a fortress at Rheinfels (1625) and fortifications in Kassel (1630-1634). In 1635 Bramer was appointed master builder of the fortress of Ziegenhain.

His first publication was on the calculation of sines. He also published on the vacuum, holding similar views to Galileo. He followed Alberti (1435), Dürer (1525) and Bürgi (1604) when in 1630 he constructed a device that enabled one to draw accurate geometric perspective. The instrument had been described in a 1617 publication. Bramer designed several other mathematical instruments.

The Galileo Project,


Margaret Brand *** Not in Gale

(Born 1919).  Opthamologist specializing in the treatment of leprosy, wife of the late Paul Brand.  (See below.)

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Malcolm Ross Braid

(Born June 7, 1947 in Baltimore, Maryland, United States).  Biologist, biology educator.  Professor, University Montevallo, 1989-present; Chairman, University Montevallo, 1990-91; Associate Professor, University Montevallo, 1982-88; Assistant Professor, University Montevallo, Alabama, 1977-82; Research biologist Ecology section, Edgewood (Maryland) Arsenal, 1972; biological sciences Assistant Neurophysiology section, Edgewood (Maryland) Arsenal, 1970-72. Liaison Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium, Dauphin Island, Alabama, 1990-present.  Education: BS, University Montevallo, 1969; MS, Auburn University, 1974; Ph.D., Auburn University, 1977.

University Montevallo Research grantee, 1985, 87, 93, 95, 97, USDA Forest Service grantee 1993-99, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service grantee 1994.

Member: Alabama Academy of Sciences, Beta Beta Beta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Sigma Xi.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Paul Brand *** Not in Gale

(1914-2003). Paul Brand was born in 1914 in the mountains of India, where his parents were missionaries. He went to London, England, for his education and had his medical and surgical training at London University. In 1946 Paul and his wife, Margaret, who is also a doctor, went to India, where Paul taught surgery at the Christian Medical College and Hospital in Vellore. Dr. Brand became the first surgeon in the world to use reconstructive surgery to correct the deformities from leprosy in the hands and feet. His pioneering work led to many honors. He was elected Huntarian Professor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1952.  In 1961 he was honored by Queen Elizabeth with appointment as "Commander of the Order of the British Empire." He was also the recipient of the Distinguished Service Award from the Department of Health and Human Services, United States Public Health Service.

From Philip Yancey.  "God's Astounding Laws of Nature."  Philip Yancey interviewed Brand for the December 1, 1978, issue of Christianity Today after Brand was awarded the prestigious Albert Lasker Medical Award and made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

"Dr. Paul Brand was known in medical circles for two major accomplishments. First, he pioneered the startling idea that the loss of fingers and toes in leprosy was due entirely to injury and infection and was thus preventable.  Leprosy attacks chiefly the nervous system, and resultant tissue abuse occurs because the patient loses the warnings of pain-not because of inherent decay brought on by the disease. The theory, radically new when Brand first proposed it as a missionary surgeon in India, has gained worldwide acceptance.

Second, he was hailed as a skilled and inventive hand surgeon, and most major textbooks on hand surgery contain chapters by him. Brand was the first to apply tendon transfer techniques to the specific problems of leprosy patients, whose hands often harden into rigid 'claw-hands.'"

Ms Janet Walmsley. "THE LEPROSY MISSION, A Legend has passed into history; Dr Paul Wilson Brand - 1914-2003. Obituary, An Extraordinary, Gifted Orthopaedic Surgeon who Straightened Crooked Hands and Unravelled the Riddle of Leprosy,"

Charles Colson.  "Remembering Dr. Paul Brand 8/11/2003," "Today," [Brand] observes, "we can see from the victims of AIDS that people cannot survive without those immune cells from the thymus and bone marrow. A lot of biologists still cling to the idea of evolution by chance, but now it is scientists from mathematics, information theory, and computers that are forcing us to recognize that chance alone cannot possibly account for the code of DNA and the wonders of life. All of science points toward a Creator."


Dr Paul Wilson Brand - 1914-2003, An Extraordinary, Gifted Orthopaedic Surgeon who Straightened Crooked Hands and Unravelled the Riddle of Leprosy,

Paul Brand.  "God's Good Earth,"

Paul Brand's Information Page.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Dan Brandenstein / Daniel Charles Brandenstein, Captain , USN

(Born 1972).  NASA astronaut. Retired Naval officer.  Daniel Brandenstein participated in four space shuttle missions and logged nearly 33 hours in space over 14 years. In his most significant mission, Brandenstein commanded the maiden voyage of the space shuttle Endeavor, which featured a dramatic, three-person spacewalk that rescued an errant, 4-ton communications satellite. He also served 192 missions in Vietnam as a U.S. Navy pilot. After retiring from active flights, he oversaw the astronaut office of the Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Previous positions: Vice President, Lockheed Martin Space Ops., 1999; Executive Vice President, Kistler Aerospace Corp., Kirkland, Washington, 1996-99; Director Program development, Loral Space Info. Systems, Houston, 1993-96; Chief astronaut office, NASA Johnson Space Center, 1987-93; astronaut, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1978-93; aviator, U.S. Navy, Whidbey Island, Washington, 1974-78; test pilot, U.S. Navy, Patuxent River, Maryland, 1971-74; aviator, U.S. Navy, Whidbey Island, Washington, 1967-71; student aviator, U.S. Navy, Pensacola, Florida, 1965-67; Retired, U.S. Navy, 1993; advanced through grades to Captain, U.S. Navy, 1984; Commanding officer, U.S. Navy, 1965.

Education: BS, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, 1965; postgraduate, U.S. Naval Text Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, 1971.

Member: AIAA (Haley Space Flight award 1993), Society Experimental Text Pilots (Ivan C. Kinchloe award 1992), U.S. Naval Institute, Association Space Explorers.

Honors: SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award, 1992; AIAA Haley Space Flight Award, 1993; United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, inducted 2003; Two NASA Defense Superior Service Medals the Legion of Merit; Distinguished Flying Cross; Defense Meritorious Service Medal; 17 Air Medals; Two Navy Commendation Medals with Combat V; Meritorious Unit Commendation; Two NASA Distinguished Service Medals; Two NASA Outstanding Leadership Medals; Four NASA Space Flight Medals; National Defense Service Medal; Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal; Vietnam Service Medal; Sea Service Deployment Ribbon; Legion of Honor (France); Medal of King Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia); Republic of Vietnam Air Gallantry Cross with Silver Star; Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation; Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal; Distinguished Alumnus, University of Wisconsin-River Falls; Honorary Doctor of Engineering, Milwaukee School of Engineering; Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Wisconsin-River Falls; Federation Aeronautique International Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal; American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Award.

 "Astronaut Bio: Daniel C. Brandenstein," Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Website, (July 23, 2003).

Former NASA chief supports Panama youth outreach

 "Astronaut Enjoys Space-Age Questions," Dayton Daily News, July 8, 2003, (July 23, 2003).

"Brandenstein a Veteran of 4 Shuttle Flights," Baytown Sun, June 21, 2003, (July 14, 2003).

Brandenstein Biography, National Space Society website, (July 14, 2003).


Gustavus Brander *** Not in Gale

Gustavus Brander (1720-1787), English naturalist, who came of a Swedish family, was born in London in. 1720, and was brought up as a merchant, in which capacity he achieved success and became a director of the Bank of England. His leisure time was occupied in scientific pursuits, and at his country residence at Christchurch in Hampshire he became interested in the fossils so abundant in the clays of Hordwell and Barton. A set of these was presented by him to the British Museum, and they were described by D. C. Solander in the beautifully illustrated work entitled Fossilia Hantoniensia collecta, et in Musaeo Britan1rico deposita a Gustavo Brander (London, 1766). Brander was elected F.R.S. in 1754, and he was also a trustee of the British Museum. He died on the 21st of January 1787.



Edouard Eugène Désiré Branly

(1844-1940). French physicist. Inventor (1890) of coherer, primitive form of radio detector that made wireless telegraphy possible. Preceded Guglielmo Marconi in performing experiments resulting in the invention of wireless telegraphy and radio.


Dr. Phil Brannen *** Not in Gale

Botanist.  Assistant Professor, Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Georgia, Athens.  Research interests: Developing and promoting systems approaches to disease management for fruits. Use of weather-monitoring equipment and satellite systems to access disease epidemics in peach and apple. Comparison of existing fungicide technologies with new chemistries and biological control. Plant Protection & Pest Management, Georgia Southern University, 1981; B.S. Plant Protection & Pest Management, University of Georgia, 1983; M.S. Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, 1986; Ph.D. Plant Pathology, Auburn University, 1996.

Phil Brannen.  Plant Pathology Faculty,


Susan Power Bratton

(Born 1948). Biologist.  U.S. National Park Service, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN, research biologist, 1974-81; University of Georgia, Athens, research biologist for U.S. National Park Service, 1981-91; Messiah College, Grantham, PA, professor of biology, 1991-92; University of North Texas, Denton, Associate Professor of religion, 1992-present.  Education: Columbia University, A.B. (cum laude), 1970; Cornell University, Ph.D., 1975; Fuller Theological Seminary, M.A., 1987. In December 1997, she completed a second Ph.D. in interdisciplinary arts and humanities at the University of Texas at Dallas. Her dissertation is entitled "The Natural Aryan and the Unnatural Jew: Environmental Racism in Nazi and Weimar Film."

Member:  International Society for Environmental Ethics, Ecological Society of America, Society for Conservation Biology, Southern Appalachian Botanical Club, Torrey Botanical Club.

Author: Six Billion and More: Human Population Regulation and Christian Ethics, Westminster/John Knox, 1992.

Susan P. Bratton, "Christianity and Reflexive Modernity: Population, Environmental Risk and Societal Change,"

Susan P. Bratton, Environmental Studies, Associate Professor, Faculty webpage,

Susan Power Bratton told Contemporary Authors: "My major purpose is to tie Christian thought and practice to environmental issues, hopefully to produce a mutually beneficial relationship."


Fedor Aleksandrovich Bredikhin *** Not in Gale

Bredikhin, Fedor Aleksandrovich (1831-1904) Russian astronomer. He was born on November 26 (December 8), 1831. Educated at home and at the Richelieu College in Odessa, he entered the University of Moscow in 1851. There he devoted himself to the study of astronomy and after his graduation he continued to study at the University while working at the observatory. In 1857 he was appointed Assistant Professor of astronomy at the University of Moscow and in 1865 he became a full professor there. In 1867 he went abroad, spending over a year in Italy. From 1873 to 1876 he was the dean of the physical-mathematical faculty at the University of Moscow Observatory. He edited eleven volumes of the Annals of the Moscow Observatory. His principal work was the investigation of the form of comets in connection with his theory of meteors. He founded the first Russian School of Astronomy at the University of Moscow. In 1890 he accepted the post of director of the Pulkovo Observatory. In 1895 he found it was necessary for him to relinquish this job for reasons of ill-health. in addition to belonging to the Moscow Mathematical Society and the Russian Astronomical Society, he held membership in numerous scientific societies abroad. He is well-known for his research on comets. Two of his monographs on this subject are: O khvos-takh komet (On the Tail of Comets, 1862); and Vozmuschchenia komet, mezavisyashcie ob planetnykh prityazheny (Comet Perturbations Which are not Caused by Attractions by the Planets; doctoral dissertation, 1863). He died in St. Petersburg on May 1 (14), 1904.



David Brewster

In addition to the kaleidoscope, David Brewster (1781-1868) perfected the stereoscope, an ingenious device that was the first "three-dimensional" viewing apparatus. Brewster also persuaded the British government to adopt a new lighthouse technology developed by Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788-1827) in France, utilizing lightweight, flat lenses. Brewster helped found the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1821 and was knighted in 1862, at the age of 51.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Edward Joseph Breyere

(Born April 25, 1927).  Geneticist, educator, immunogenetics researcher.  Director research Sibley Meml. Hospital, Washington, 1961-79; Associate Professor American University, Washington, 1961-68, Professor biology, 1968.  Education: B.S., University of Maryland, 1951, M.S., 1954, Ph.D., 1957. Postdoctoral fellow National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, 1957-61;

Honors: Recipient Research award American University, 1977; National Cancer Institute fellow University of Maryland, College Park, 1955-57.

Member: American Association Cancer Research, AAAS, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi. Democrat. Roman Catholic.

Contributor of numerous articles on cancer research to professional publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Calvin Blackman Bridges

(1889-1938).  American geneticist.  Orphaned at three years old and unable to graduate from high school until he was 20, Calvin Blackman Bridges nonetheless became an original researcher whose work led to the formulation of many of the concepts of modern genetics, including proof of the part played by chromosomes in conveying hereditary characteristics. Described by his friends as a gentle, absent-minded, and even naive individual, Bridges combined tireless laboratory research, breeding some 800 generations of the small tropical fruit fly Drosphila, with brilliant theoretical insights.

"Calvin B. Bridges." Notable Scientists: From 1900 to the Present. Gale Group, 2001.


James Wilfrid Bridges / James Wilfrid Jim Bridges

(Born 1938).  Pathologist, toxicologist, educator, consultant. Province chancellor (designate) International Relations, University Surrey, England, 2000; head European Institute Health and Medical Sciences, University Surrey, England, 1992-2000; Dean of Science, University Surrey, England, 1988-92; Professor, Director of Robens Institute, University Surrey, England, 1978-88; Reader, University Surrey, England, 1968-78; Lecturer, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London, 1962-68; Research Assistant, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London, 1960-62.
Education: BSc, University of London, 1960; Ph.D., University of London, 1963; DSc, University of London, 1992.

Member: Fellow Royal Society Chemistry, Institute of Biology; Royal College Pathologists, British Toxicology Society (past President).  Chairman, science committee toxicology, ecotoxicology and environmental, European Economics Commission, Brussels, 1997, member science steering group, 1997, Chairman, veterinary residries committee (U.K.), 2001; member HSE watch committee, England, 1986; member veterinary products committee, London, 1981-97; founder European Drug Metaobolism workshop.
Co-author (with Olga Bridges): Losing Hope; Contributor of more than 300 articles to science and professional journals.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Henry Briggs

(1561-1630). English mathematician. Professor of geometry, Gresham College, London (1596-1620), Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University (1619-31). Proposed decimal system of common (or Briggsian) logarithms now universally used; calculated and published logarithmic tables. His works included Arithmetica Logarithmica (1624) and Trigonometria Britannica (1633, completed by Henry Gellibrand).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Henry Briggs,"

Briggs | Henry | 1883-1935 | Hood Professor of Mining at the University of Edinburgh and Professor of Mining at Heriot-Watt College


Albert Perry Brigham

(1855-1932).  American geographer.  Professor.  Graduate of Colgate University, 1879; M. A. Harvard, 1892. After nine years in the Baptist ministry (1882-91) he became professor of geology at Colgate, where he taught for 30 years. A founder of human geography, Brigham helped to shape the development of geographic thought in the United States by recognizing and expounding upon the influence of the earth on man. He published many articles and textbooks including Geographic Influences in American History (1903), a book that widely influenced history students and scholars.



Timothie Bright *** Not in Gale

(1551-1615).  Timothie Bright, the physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, wrote the  Treatise on Melancholy, the first book in the English language on the subject of mental illness. Some of the phrases Bright used in his descriptions of disordered behavior appeared later in the plays of William Shakespeare.


In 1588 Bright authored the first practical system of shorthand published in the English language. Dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I, Bright's system had no alphabet and consisted of more than 500 arbitrary characters that had to be memorized.


Magnus von Bromell / Magnus Bromelius *** Not in Gale

(1679-1731).  Swedish anatomist, surgeon.  Anatomist.  Mining engineer.  Paleontologist.  Botanist.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Bromell's Lithographiae suecanae specimen secundum, 1727, is a study of fossils in Sweden.  Olov Celsium asserted that after Rudbeck Bromell was Sweden's most celebrated botanist.

In 1697, at the age of 17, Bromell left for Leiden, when he stayed for three years. He studied surgery and anatomy under Bidloo, botany and therapy under Hotton. He went on botanical excursions with Hermannis and accompanied Dekker on hospital rounds. He attended Lemort's lectures on chemistry and pharmacy during a year. He also studied physics. He visited Leeuwenhoek to learn how to use the microscope. (Bromell is said to have been very eager to learn.) I assume a B.A. or equivalent.  Bromell left the Netherlands for London and Oxford, where he visited libraries and colleges. He returned to Leiden in September 1700 to attend Boerhaave's lectures. He disputed twice under Bidloo (first, "De phlyctenis" and two weeks later, "De non existensia spirituum").  In the fall of 1702 he went to Paris where he got more training in anatomy and surgery from Petit and Duverney and got a chance to practice dissection for himself.  He became friends with Tournefort who gave him free lectures. Bromell also received several rareties from Tournefort's herbarium.  He also studied anatomy under Littie and surgery under Mery.  After a year he went to Rheims where he received his doctorate in medicine in 1703.  After this he left France for Amsterdam where he attended the lectures of Fredrik Ruysch.

In 1713, he became a medical assistant at the University of Uppsala, where he also taught natural history and botany. He started dissecting again and studied humans as well as animals, birds, fish, and reptiles. In 1716 he was elected professor of medicine in Uppsala, but was soon called to Stockholm by the King, or to be more explicit ordered by the King, to be as professor of anatomy.

1720 named assessor of the chemical laboratory of the Board of Mines and in 1724 superintendent of the laboratory and president of the Lappis Mines.

Introduced to the Collegium Medicum in 1705, and elected head of it in 1724.


Detlev Wulf Bronk

(1897-1975).  American biologist.  Founded biophysics; pioneered use of electro-microscopy to monitor human nerve network. Professor, Swarthmore (1926-29), University of Pennsylvania (1929-49), head of Institute of Neurology there (1936-40, 1942-49); president of Johns Hopkins University (1949-53), Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, now Rockefeller University (1953-68). Chairman, National Research Council (1946-50); president, National Academy of Sciences (1950-62).

A plaque in front of the Detlev Wulf Bronk Laboratory on the campus of the Rockefeller University in New York City: "He was a rare individual, a scientist, educator, and humanist."

Biographical Memoirs V.50 (1979)
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Nat'l Academies Press, Biographical Memoirs (1979), Detlev Wulf ...


Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. / Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr. *** Not in Gale

(1931-present).  Computer engineer.  Old-Earth advocate.  Coined the term "computer architecture."

"Frederick P. Brooks (1931-) 2001 Fellow Award Recipient, For his contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering,"

"Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. is Kenan Professor of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill (1975-present). He grew up in North Carolina, graduated summa cum laude in physics from Duke (1953), and took his SM (1955) and Ph.D. (1956) in computer science at Harvard under Howard Aiken.

He joined IBM in 1957 and served as one of the architects of the IBM Stretch and Harvest computers. From 1961-1965 he was corporate project manager for the IBM System/360, developing both the hardware and software. For this achievement, he shared the National Medal of Technology with Bob Evans and Erich Bloch.

Brooks joined UNC in 1964, where he founded the Department of Computer Science and served as chairman for its first 20 years. His research has included computer architecture, software engineering, and interactive 3-D computer graphics, or 'virtual reality.' His best-known book is The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering (1975, 1995); his latest work is Blaauw and Brooks, Computer Architecture: Concepts and Evolution (1997).

Brooks has served on the National Science Board and the Defense Science Board. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) and of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Brooks and his wife are faculty advisors for a graduate-student chapter of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship."

Honors: National Medal of Technology, 1985; A.M. Turing Award, Association for Computing Machinery, 1999; Bower Award and Prize in Science ($250,000), Franklin Institute, 1995; Allen Newell Award, Association for Computing Machinery, 1994; John von Neumann Medal, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993; Harry Goode Memorial Award, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1989; McDowell Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Computer Art, IEEE Computer Group, 1970; Distinguished Service Award, Association for Computing Machinery, 1987; Honorary Doctor of Technical Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, 1991; Distinguished Fellow, British Computer Society, 1994; Royal Academy of Engineering, (U.K.) Foreign Member, 1994; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Foreign Member, 1991; National Academy of Science, Member, 2001; National Academy of Engineering, Member, 1976; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellow, 1976; Guggenheim Fellowship for studies on computer architecture and the human factors of computer systems, 1975, at Cambridge University, England; Computer Pioneer Award, IEEE Computer Society, 1982; Association for Computing Machinery, Fellow (initial inductee), 1994; The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Fellow, 1968; Fellow Award, The Computer Museum History Center, 2001; Thomas Jefferson Award, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986; Order of the Golden Fleece, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Computer Sciences Man-of-the-Year Award, Data Processing Management Association, 1970

CyberEdge Journal Annual Sutherland Award, April 1997.

Patents: U.S. 2,981,020 "Alphabetical Read-Out Device" U.S. 3,048,332 "Program Interruption System" with D.W. Sweeney; also French, German, British patents on same. Broad coverage of mask-controlled interruption, vectored interruption, etc.

Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Kenan Professor of Computer Science, Department of Computer Science, Sitterson Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27599-3175,

Frederick P. Brooks Jr., faculty webpage,

Curriculum Vitae:

Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.: "A little reflection shows us that the power to make things, in imitation of our Maker, is a gift for our sake, not his. As he scornfully reminded the people of Israel, he doesn't need our creative powers: 'The cattle on a thousand hills are mine; if I were hungry, would I ask you?' [Psalms 50:12].

 "What comes out of a human imagination can be achingly beautiful or painfully ugly, deeply true or deeply false, wonderfully good or horribly evil. As Jesus said, what comes out depends upon the condition of the heart itself." From "Computer Scientist as Toolsmith II"

"Fred Brooks is the first recipient of the ACM Allen Newell Award-an honor to be presented annually to an individual whose career contributions have bridged computer science and other disciplines. Brooks was honored for a breadth of career contributions within computer science and engineering and his interdisciplinary contributions to visualization methods for biochemistry.  Here, we present his acceptance lecture delivered at SIGGRAPH 94."

Wilhelm Schickard Museum of Computing History at Concordia UniversityWisconsin.

"Science seminar to feature Brooks,"


Neil Broom / Neil D. Broom
Biophysicist.  Associate Professor, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland (1989 - present).  Since 1975 he has been a Research Fellow at the Health Research Council of New Zealand involved in bioprosthetic heart valve development, joint tissue biomechanics and arthritis research, and spinal biomechanics. Present research: Joint tissue biomechanics; Cartilage/bone and spinal tissue studies. BE (Met) Honors, Melbourne, Ph.D. Auckland.

Member: American Scientific Affiliation; Fellow, International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design.

Associate Editor, The International Journal of Connective Tissue Research.

Author: How Blind is the Watchmaker?

About 77 refereed papers in international journals including Journal of Connective Tissue Research, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Clinical Orthopaedics, Medical Engineering and Physics, Biomaterials, SPINE, and Journal of Anatomy; 40 conference proceedings.

Faculty webpage, University of Auckland,

Neil D. Broom.  "In the Beginning: Navigating a safe passage through the stormy creation/evolution debate,"


William Brouncker

(1620-1684).  English geometer.  Viscount William Brouncker is noted as the first English mathematician to use continued fractions to express pi and the quadrature of a rectangular hyperbola. Brouncker was 16 years old when he began his studies at Oxford University in London. He showed an aptitude for mathematics, languages, and medicine, as well as an ability and fondness for music; at the age of 27, he was granted the degree Doctor of Physick.

Charles II appreciated and rewarded loyalty. When Brouncker proposed a special institute to promote scientific discussion, the Royal Society of London was chartered in 1662. When the king nominated Brouncker as the Society's first president, there was no opposition--and Brouncker was reconfirmed annually as its president until he chose to resign the office in 1677.

"William Brouncker." Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "William Brouncker,"


John Brown

(1735-1788).  Scottish physician.

"Significant Scots: John Brown,"

In his Elementa Medicinae, first published in 1780, Scottish physician John Brown challenged prevailing medical thought, most notably in his opposition to bloodletting in many cases of fever. His "Brunonian" system was controversial into the nineteenth century, but mainstream medical practice eventually incorporated its key elements. Benjamin Rush was interested in Brown's theories, and Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of the English translation of the Elementa Medicinae (dnb, 3:14-17; George W. Corner, ed., The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush: His "Travels Through Life" together with his Commonplace Book for 1789-1813 [Princeton, 1948], 44, 87-8, 364-5; Sowerby, No. 897).

An edition of his works, with notice of his life by his son, William Cullen Brown, appeared in 1804. (in Finnish).


Robert Henry Brown, Ph.D.

(Born 1915).  Physicist.  Retired Professor physics, Loma Linda (California) University, 1980-88; Professor geophysics, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, 1973-80; director, GeoScience Research Institute, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1973-80; President, Professor, Union College, Lincoln, 1970-73; Vice President, Walla Walla College, 1961-70; Professor physics, Walla Walla College, 1954-70; member faculty, Walla Walla College, 1947-70; Instructor physics, University of Washington, 1948-49; Head Science department, Canadian Union College, Lacombe, Alberta, 1945-47; research engineer, Sylvania Electronic Products Co., 1942-45; Assistant Instructor physics, University of Nebraska, 1940-42.BA, Union College, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1940; MS, University of Nebraska, 1942; Ph.D., University of Washington, 1950.

Author: Origin By Design (with Harold G. Coffin), 1983.

Robert H. Brown, Geoscience Research Institute.  "THE UPPER LIMIT OF C-14 AGE?"

Robert H. Brown.  "Science Through the Eyes of Biblical Writers,"  From AToday: Magazine Archives: Sep/Oct 1994.


Walt Brown / Walter T. Brown

(Born 1937).  Mechanical Engineer. Air Force Colonel.  Brown received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he was a National Science Foundation Fellow. He has taught college courses in physics, mathematics, and computer science. Brown is a retired full colonel (Air Force), West Point graduate, and former Army ranger and paratrooper. Assignments during his 21 years in the military included: Director of Benet Research, Development, and Engineering Laboratories in Albany, New York; tenured Associate Professor at the U.S. Air Force Academy; and Chief of Science and Technology Studies at the Air War College. For much of his life, Walt Brown was an evolutionist, but after many years of study, he became convinced of the scientific validity of creation and a global flood. Since retiring from the military in 1980, Dr. Brown has been the Director of the Center for Scientific Creation and has worked full time in research, writing, and speaking on origins.

Author: In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood (Phoenix, Arizona: Center for Scientific Creation, 2001), available online at

Endorsed by: Dr. Stanley A. Mumma, Professor of Architectural Engineering, Penn State University.

George Mulfinger and Julia Mulfinger Orozco.  The preceding link is one chapter from Christian Men of Science, Ambassador Emerald International, 2001,, reproduced with permission. Other chapter biographies in this book include Johannes Kepler, Robert Boyle, Michael Faraday, Lord Kelvin, Samuel F. B. Morse, James Clerk Maxwell, and Henry Morris. These easily readable accounts contain human-interest events, struggles, failures, and accomplishments.

Walt Brown's website,


Warner Timothy Brown, Jr.

(Born 1930).  Microbiologist, educator. Research microbiologist Columbia, N.Y.C., 1956; medical microbiologist NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 1957-58; research biologist Walter Reed Army Institute, Washington, 1958-65; microbiologist U.S. Naval Applied Science Lab., Brooklyn, 1965-68; Teacher Wyandanch (N.Y.) High School, 1968-69, Woodlands High School, Hartsdale, N.Y., 1969; Adjunct instructor biology Pace University, 1979.  Education: B.S., Virginia State College, 1951; M.S., Howard University, 1957, postgraduate, 1963-64; postgraduate Queens College, 1969, Wilkes College, 1971.

Elder, Presbyterian Church, 1968, clerk of session, 1981-86, Chairman finance committee, 1968-71. Served to 1st lt. AUS, 1951-53; to major, 1958-64. NSF grantee, 1971, 78.

Member American Society of Microbiology, National Science Teacher Association, AAAS, N.Y. Academy of Science, Alpha Phi Alpha.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Sir Thomas Browne

(1605-1682).  The works of the English author Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682) are in large part inquiries into religion, morality, science, and human error. A doctor and scholar, he is chiefly famed for Religio medici, which is marked by his masterly prose style.

Author: Religio Medici, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial,1658, The Garden of Cyrus,1658; Letter to a friend, 1656, pub. post. 1690; Christian Morals, 1670's pub. post. 1716; Musaeum Clausum Tract 13 of 13 Miscellaneous Tracts first pub. post. 1684.

The San Antonio College Litweb Sir Thomas Browne.


John Butler. "Sir Thomas Browne(1605-1682),"

Sir Thomas Browne page, University of Chicago.  Links to his works.

Library of Sir Thomas Browne.


William Brownrigg *** Not in Gale

(1711-1800).  British chemist, first to describe platinum & use of pneumatic trough for collection of gases.  Co-winner in 1776 of The Copley Medal, a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London.


Brownrigg studied medicine at the University of Leyden before setting up practice in the Lake District. He became interested in gas-related problems in the mines, and arranged to have flammable substances pumped directly into his house for experiments. However, the work that first brought him to national attention was his treatise on salt. Salt was widely used as a preservative for meat and fish but supplies were often unpredictable and hard to secure. … However, Brownrigg argued that England did have enough sun to evaporate seawater into the finest salt, and conducted experiments in Hampshire to prove his case. His paper was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and he was elected a Fellow shortly afterwards.


Jan Brozek /Broscius / Brocki / Broski / Broszcz / Brzoski / Zbroek *** Not in Gale

(1585-1652).  Polish mathematician.  Astronomer.  Cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

Brozek was the author of more than 30 publications. The ones concerning Copernicus, and particular those dealing with mathematics, won him the reputation of being the greatest Polish mathematician of his time. In the second group were his pure mathematical works and opuscules, the most important being Arithmetica integrorum (1620), in which logarithms were introduced in schools; Aristoteles et Euclides defensus contra Petrum Ramum ( 1638), a dissertation containing original research on the star-shaped polygons.


Ann Bruce *** Not in Gale

Animal breeding specialist.  Scientific Administrator of the Roslin Institute, and Research Assistant, Edinburgh University Research Centre for the Social Sciences.  BSc in Agriculture at the University of London, Wye College, and an MSc in Animal Breeding at Edinburgh University.  Member of The Society, Religion and Technology Project, Church of Scotland, Edinburgh.  Married to Donald Bruce (See below).

Co-author: Engineering Genesis, 1998.


Donald M. Bruce *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Director of the Society, Religion and Technology Project of the Church of Scotland (SRTP) in Edinburgh since 1992.  He has a BSc and Ph.D. in chemistry from Leicester University, a diploma in theology from Oxford University (1992) and a Ph.D. in theology from Edinburgh University (2003).  Dr. Bruce worked for 15 years in nuclear energy research and safety assessment for BNFL Sellafield, UKAEA Harwell and HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate.  He has also worked on energy policy for the Chief Scientist's Group of the then UK Department of Energy.  He has been a member of the Bioethics working group of the Conference of European Churches since 1993.  He is an official observer to the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO and a member of the International Association of Bioethics, the European Society for Agriculture and Food Ethics, the Society for Risk Analysis, the Society for Philosophy and Technology, Christians in Science and the Science Religion Forum. Dr Bruce represents the Church of Scotland on the Commission on Justice, Peace, Social and Moral Issues for Action of Churches Together in Scotland, and the Environmental Issues Network of Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (CTBI). He is one of the enabling team of the European Christian Environmental Network, of which he is also webmaster. He is on the steering committee of the Eco-Congregation Programme of the UK Government's Going for Green initiative. He and his wife Ann live in Edinburgh, and they are joint editors of Engineering Genesis (Earthscan, 1998) on the ethics of genetic engineering in non-human species.

John Ray Initiative,

Society, Religion and Technology Project.


Otto Brunfels *** Not in Gale

(c. 1489-1534).  German botanist, physician, pharmacologist.  Catholic, then Lutheran ("Lutheraner mit

wiedertäuferischem Einschlag")

The Galileo Project,

Brunfels compiled practical pharmacological texts to be used by physicians and apothecaries, including the city ordinance for apothecaries in Bern. He translated older works and wrote on herbal pharmacology.


John Allen Bryant, FRSE, FIBiol

(Born 1944).  Professor of Biological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter.  Previous positions: Research Fellow UEA 1969-70, Lecturer University of Nottingham 1970-74, Reader University College Cardiff 1982-85 (Lecturer 1974-77, Senior Lecturer 1977-82), Professor of biological sciences University of Exeter 1985-present (Head of biology 1986-91); Chairman Biotechnology South West; Society for Experimental Biology: member Council 1981-87 and 1992-, Honorary sec 1983-87, member Cell Biology Committee 1988-97, vice-President 2001-03, President 2003-present; member: Plant Science and Microbiology Committee SERC 1986-89, Board of Directors, East African Institute for Scientific Research and Development, 1991-99, Professional and Educn Committee Biochemical Society 1994-97; member Editorial Board: Journal of Experimental Botany, Plant Biosystems, Science and Christian Belief; Chairman Christians in Science 2001-present, member Annals of Botany Co; CBiol 1984, FIBiol 1986 (MIBiol 1970), FRSA 1989. 

Education: Whitgift School Croydon, Queens' College Cambridge (BA, MA, Ph.D.).

Society Experimental Biology (council 1981-87, 92, honorary secretary 1983-87, Vice President 2001), BioChemical Society (committee 1993-96), International Society Plant Molecular Biology, Christians in Science (chair 2001).

Editor, co-editor, or author of 12 books; contributor 75 research and technical articles to professional journals.

Faculty webpage:

Professor John Bryant, University of Exeter.  "Teaching Ethics to Bioscience Students: One Dilemma After Another,"

Professor John Bryant.  "The Human Genome Project,"


Richard H. Bube

(Born 1927) Radio Corporation of America Laboratories, Princeton, N.J., member of research staff, 1948-62; Stanford University, Stanford, California, Associate Professor, 1962-64, Professor of materials science and electrical engineering, 1964-present, chairman of materials science and engineering, 1975-present.

Richard H. Bube.  "We Believe in Creation," Department of Materials Science & Engineering
Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.  [From Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 23:121-122 (1971) and also in the special issue Origins and Change: Selected Readings from the Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, pp. iii-iv (1978)] ©1996 by the American Scientific Affiliation,

Richard H. Bube.  "Tension in Theology: Creation vs. Redemption," Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. This is one of three keynote addresses on the theme, "Choices We Face," presented at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the American Scientific Affiliation at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

From the Journal of American Scientific Affiliation 32 (December 1980):1-4

American Institute of Physics articles,

Bube: "The written word fascinates me, and I can barely stand to have an idea without writing it down. A main concern of my writing is directed toward the integration of an authentic scientific view of life and an authentic Christian view of life based on the historic Christian faith. This means not only recognizing that the scientific method has its limitations in dealing with life's significant questions and still is a valid and reliable procedure for understanding God's work in the created universe, but also working out in one's person the implications of scientific knowledge and Christian faith in all of the areas of life. We live in a day when the religious tend to reject science, and when the scientific no longer see the relevance of authentic Christian faith. I would serve, with whatever skill I have, to tear down that false dichotomy and thereby to attempt to live out what it means to be a disciple of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ here and now." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


William Buckland

(1784-1856)  Geologist. Throughout history, there are many accounts of the clash between science and religion. Throughout his career, William Buckland attempted to reconcile these issues-to show how science and theology complimented, rather than contradicted, each other.

John R. Armstrong, "William Buckland in Retrospect" PSCF 42.1:34-38 (3/1990)

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


John David Buckwalter

(Born February 10, 1951 in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, United States).  Biologist.  Educator.  Professor biology, SUNY, Alfred, 1982; Teacher science, Andover (N.Y.) H.S., 1980-82; Teacher science, Bible Academy, Nazareth, Ethiopia, 1976-79; Graduate Teaching Assistant, SUNY, Geneseo, 1975-76. Consultant Penn-York Energy Corp., Wellsville, N.Y., 1987-88.

Education: BS, Houghton College, 1973; MA, SUNY, Geneseo, 1980. Certification: Certified Teacher biology and chemistry 7-12, N.Y.

Member: American Science Affiliation, Empire State Association of Two Year College Biologists.

Honors: Recipient Outstanding award Outstanding Young Men America, 1986, Excellance award National Institute for Staff and Orgnl. Devel., 1993; named Teacher of Year SUNY Alfred Alumni Association, 1991.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


J. Budziszewski / Jay Dalton Budziszewski (pronounced "Boo-jee-shef-skee")
(Born 1952).  Political Scientist.  Professor in Philosophy and Political Theory at the University of Texas, Austin.  University of South Florida, B.A., 1975; University of Florida, M.A., 1977; Yale University, Ph.D. in Political Science, 1981. Although his research focuses on Natural Law, he has written widely on topics at the intersection of politics, ethics, philosophy, and theology.

Member: North American Society for Social Philosophy, American Political Science Association, Southern Political Science Association, Conference Group on Political Economy.

He is the author of six scholarly books, as well as a work of popular apologetics. For his 1997 book, Written on the Heart: The Case for Natural Law, he received a 1998 Christianity Today book award. His latest book What We Can't Not Know: A Guide is published by Spence Publishing. Dr. Budziszewski has published numerous articles in First Things, the American Journal of Jurisprudence, and the Journal of Politics.

ABOUT J. BUDZISZEWSKI. "Aletheia Forum,"


J. Budziszewski, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Government and Philosophy, University of Texas at Austin.  "The Real Issue: Escape from Nihilism: A Christian scholar chronicles his journey from faith to nonreason, and back,"


Joost Buergi *** Not in Gale

(1552-1632).  Swiss-born mathematician, astronomer, instrument-maker, watchmaker.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

As a mathematician Buergi developed the 'prosthaphairesis,' and possibly thought of and developed logarithms.  He constructed clocks, and astronomical and practical geometry instruments (notably the proportional compass and a triangulation instrument useful in surveying).


Neal Dollison Buffaloe

(Born November 15, 1924 in Leachville, Arkansas, United States).  Theistic evolutionist.  Biologist.  Professor emeritus, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, 1987; Professor, biology, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, 1957-87; instructor, biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 1954-56; instructor, biology, David Lipscomb University, Nashville, 1949-54.Education: BS, David Lipscomb University, 1949; MS, Vanderbilt University, 1952; Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1957.

Member: Fellow AAAS; Arkansas Academy of Science (President 1960).

Author: Principles of Biology, 1962, 67, Animal and Plant Diversity, 1968, Concepts of Biology, 1972, Microbiology, 1976, 81; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Alumni and Friends / Alums make gift in honor of former professor 04/21/2004


Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon / Comte de Georges-Louis Leclerc Buffon / Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon / Georges-Louis Leclerc Buffon

(1707-1788). French naturalist. Theistic evolutionist, pre-Darwin.  Director of Jardin du Roi (now Jardin des Plantes) and of royal museum (1739). Admitted to French Academy (1753), his inaugural address being the celebrated Discours sur le style.  Author (with others) of Histoire naturelle (44 vols., 1749-1804), completed by B. G. E. de Lacepede.  Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon published works in all fields of natural history, as well as in mathematics and astronomy. His seminal work, Histoire naturelle (Natural History), was based upon an extensive cataloging project of the French-royal collections in natural history. Far more than a mere museum catalog, Buffon's book was an attempt to provide a scientific account for nature as a whole while at the same time presenting a comprehensive overview of anthropology, geology, and natural history. Buffon is considered by many historians of science to be one of the founders of the academic discipline of natural history. or


Rodger Keith Bufford

(Born 1944).  Licensed psychologist, educator.  Research interests include: 1) research in empirical psychology of religion emphasizing spiritual well-being and spiritual maturity, spiritual/religious interventions in psychotherapy, and spiritual outcomes of psychotherapy; 2) theoretical understanding of the relationship of psychology and Christian faith (sometimes referred to as "integration"). A licensed psychologist, Bufford practices part time at Western Psychological and Counseling Services Center. Private practice, 1973; Director integration, George Fox College, 1997; Professor, Director Research and integration, George Fox College, 1995-97; Professor, Chairman Graduate School Clinical Psychology, George Fox College, 1990-95; Professor, Chairman, Western Baptist Seminary., Portland, 1986-90; Associate Professor, Chairman dept. psychology, Western Baptist Seminary., Portland, Oregon, 1982-86; psychologist, Atlanta Counseling Center, 1980-82; Associate Professor, Psychological Studies Institute, Atlanta, 1977-81; Assistant Professor, Chairman dept. psychology, Huntington (Indiana) College, 1976-77; Assistant Professor psychology, American University, Washington, 1971-76; psychologist, Adolph Meyer Zone Center, Decatur, Illinois, 1969-70. Career-Related: allied health care professional Portland Adventist Medical Center, 1982, Cedar Hills Hospital, 1984-93, Woodland Park Hospital, 1988-97; Director Mental Health Association, Huntington, Indiana, 1976-77; Academic Advisory Board Family Research Council of America. Education: BA, King's College, 1966; MA, University Illinois, 1970; Ph.D., University Illinois, 1971.

Member: APA, Western Psychological Association (editor newsletter 1996), Christian Association Psychological Studies, American Science Affiliation, Oregon Psycholical Association.  Baptist.

Honor: Distinguished Member Award by the Christian Association for Psychological Studies-Western Region in 1999.

Author: The Human Reflex: Behavioral Psychology in Biblical Perspective, 1981, Counseling and the Demonic, 1988; Contributing editor Journal of Psychology and Theology, 1982-present, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 1982-87, Marriage and Family, 1999; Contributor of chapters to texts and numerous articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Rodger K. Bufford. Graduate School of Clinical Psychology, George Fox University, Newberg, OR.  "The Scientist as Christian or Atheist," From PSCF 46 No. 4, (December 1996): 258-260.

George Fox University, Doctor of Psychology.  (scroll down)

"Demon Possession: What is it?,"


Michael Bumbulis, Ph.D *** Not in Gale
Bumbulis holds an M.S. degree in Zoology from Ohio State University and a Ph.D in Genetics from Case Western Reserve University. He is an Associate Professor of Biology at Baldwin-Wallace College. He teaches Genetics (Bio211), Molecular Biology (Bio336) and Human Anatomy (Bio203). He also teaches Cell Biology (Bio405), Human Biology (Bio101) and coordinates the Senior Seminar (Bio463).

Home page:

Michael Bumbulis, Ph.D. "Christianity and the Birth of Science,"


Dr. Rebecca Bunce / O. Rebecca Bunce *** Not in Gale

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Scientist. Associate Professor (1982 - present), Assistant Professor (1977 - 1982), Instructor (1972 - 1977), Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens. B.S., Food Science, Food Sciences, 1966; M.S., Food Science, 1966, Ph.D., Food Science, 1971, all at Food Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens. Dr. Bunce's research interests are and have been mechanisms of mammary tumor promotion and tumor biology.

Faculty webpage,{F928830E-CC8F-4BD7-B37C-1F9EDF6EF010}


Paolo del Buono *** Not in Gale

(1625-1659).  Italian physicist.  Civil engineer.  Hydraulics expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Buono was a pupil of Galileo near the end of Galileo's life. He studied in Pisa under Famiano Michelini, and received his doctorate degree in 1649.

His contributions include an instrument to demonstrate the incompressibility of water and the proposition that water enclosed in glass vials generates air in amounts dependent on the temperature of the environment. His letter to Prince Leopold that Middleton prints, the whole of our first hand knowledge of Buono's scientific capacity, outlines an impressive program of pneumatic experimentation, including an experiment like that which led to Boyle's law.

He is said to have made an instrument to demonstrate the incompressibility of water and an inclined barometer.

He worked on a pumping mechanism to drain mines.


Stuart Burgess, BSc, Ph.D., CEng, MIMechE *** Not in Gale
Mechanical engineer.  Reader (second highest academic rank in British Commonwealth universities)  in Engineering Design in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol. He has also lectured in Engineering Design at Cambridge University where he was a Bye-Fellow of Selwyn College. He has published over 50 papers and patents in the area of engineering design and is a recipient of the Worshipful Company of Turners Engineering Design Gold Medal [1993]. He is a member of Buckingham Chapel in Bristol and has a Diploma in Theology from the London Reformed Baptist Seminary.

Research interests: Efficiency modelling of structures and mechanisms; design and nature; structural efficiency of trees; insect flight mechanisms; roller chain wear and efficiency modelling; car transport efficiency.


Faculty webpage, University of Bristol:

Stuart Burgess.  "Critical characteristics and the irreducible knee joint," and First published in TJ 13(2):112-117,1999.

Stuart Burgess.  "In the Lion's Den,"  Stuart Burgess recalls witnessing to the Bristol Philosophy Circle in a pub and their reactions. " Many nodded in agreement when I argued that blind evolution does not work, but there was deathly silence when I said that I believed in a Creator God. At the end I stated my belief in a day of judgement and that the only way of salvation is through Jesus Christ."


Derek Burke / Derek Clissold Burke, CBE, DL

(Born 1930).  Retired academic administrator.  Formerly Vice-Chancellor,University of East Anglia, Norwich,1987-1995, Professor of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, 1969-1982.

Specialist advisor to the House of Commons, Science and Technology Select Committee, 1995-2003, and chairman of the UK Government Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes. Governor, Institute for Food Research, Norwich, 1995-2002; EU-US Consultative Forum on Biotech., Brussels, 2000-01. Science Director, Allelix Inc., Toronto, Can., 1983-87; from Lecturer to Senior Lecturer, University Aberdeen, 1960-69; research scientist, National Institute for Medical Research, 1955-60; Research Fellow in chemistry, Yale University, 1953-55. Education: BSc, University Birmingham, England, 1950; Ph.D., University Birmingham, England, 1953; LLD, University Aberdeen, Scotland, 1985; DSc, University East Anglia, England, 1995.

Author: Creation and Evolution (1985), Strategic Church Leadership (with Robin Gill, 1996), Cybernauts Awake! (1999); numerous scientific and popular articles on interferon and viruses and on plant genetic engineering.

Member: Editorial Board Journal of General Virology 1969-92, editor-in-chief Journal of General Virology 1978-82; member European Life Sciences Group, Brussels, 2000-2004.

Author: (book) Christians and Bioethics, 2000; editor, author: (book) Cybernauts Awake, 1999.

Professor Derek Burke CBE, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of East Anglia "Assessing Risk: Science or Art,"



Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell

Also known as: Jocelyn Susan Bell Burnell, Jocelyn Bell Burnell, Susan Jocelyn Bell, S. Jocelyn Bell Burnell, (Susan) Jocelyn Bell Burnell

The radio astronomer Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell (born 1943) discovered the first pulsar (stars that release regular bursts of radio waves) in 1967 while working under Antony Hewish at Cambridge University. Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1974 for this discovery and Bell Burnell was not included in the citation. Jocelyn was appointed Professor of Physics at the Open University in 1997 (when she was appointed, the number of female professors of physics in the United Kingdom doubled). She was recently a visiting Professor at Princeton University in the USA and now is Dean of Science at Bath University.  Jocelyn studied at The Mount School in York, whose other pupils have included Judi Dench, Margaret Drabble and A.S. Byatt. Recipient Michelson award Franklin Institute, 1973, Oppenheimer Memorial prize Center for Theoretical Studies, 1978, Rennie Taylor award American Tentative Society, 1978, honorary fellowship New Hall, Cambridge, 1996, CBE, 1999, Edinburgh medal, 1999.

Author: Broken for Life, 1989; editor: Next Generation Infrared Space Observatory, 1992; contributor of articles to professional journals.,_Jocelyn_Bell@841234567.html

NASA profile. "I think the thing that surprises people most is that I am religious. I'm an elder in my church, which is the Quakers, or The Religious Society of Friends. A lot of people think that scientists aren't religious. It's not true."


W. Neal Burnette / Walter Neal Burnette

(Born August 14, 1944 in New York, New York, United States).  Molecular biologist, researcher. President, CEO, Molecular Pharmaceutics Corp., Westlake Village, California, 1993; Research scientist, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, 1981-92; Research scientist, Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, 1979-81; Research scientist, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center., Seattle, 1977-79; postdoctoral fellow, Albert Einstein College Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., 1975-77.Achievements include development of Western blotting, recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, genetic toxoids for pertussis and cholera.  Education: BA, Texas Christian University, 1968; Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1975.

Member: AAAS, FASEB, American Society Microbiology, Association Military Surgeons U.S., Society Armed Forces Medical Laboratory Science.

Assoc. editor Journal Vaccine Research, 1990; Contributor of articles to Journal Molecular Biology Science, Proc. National Academy Science USA.


Lawrence Anthony Burns

(Born 1940).  Ecologist. Research Assistant University N.C., Chapel Hill, 1968-71, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1973-76; research aquatic biologist, region 4, EPA, Naples, Florida, 1971-73, ecologist, Environmental Research Lab., EPA, Athens, Georgia, 1977.  Education: B.A., NYU, 1968; Ph.D., University N.C., 1978.

Honors: N.Y. State Regents fellow, 1968-71; recipient Civil Service Silver medal EPA, 1973.

Member AAAS, American Institute Biological Sciences, American Society Limnology and Oceanography, Ecological Society of America, International Society Ecol. Modelling, Society Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Amnesty International (group coordinator 1981-84). Presbyterian.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ecosystems Research Division. Biographical information.


Glenn W. Burton / Glenn Willard Burton

(Born May 5, 1910, Clatonia, Nebraska).  Plant geneticist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), known for his contributions to forage and turf development, production, and utilization.  USDA principal geneticist at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, since 1936.  Dr. Burton began his productive research career with a single variety of Bermuda grass, a grass that was considered a worrisome weed by Southern farmers and cattlemen. He created new genetic forms and desirable characteristics in the grass, resulting in Coastal Bermuda and many other nutritious hybrid grasses. These grasses cover thousands of fields across America, China, Africa and scores of lands where cattle, goats and sheep graze. His grasses grace the lawns of million of homes, golf courses and athletic fields. His work with pearl millet has enabled countries such as India to double and even triple their output of grain, saving the lives of millions. He is one of the most honored scientists of recent times. In 1983, he received the national Medal of Science Award presented by President Ronald Reagan.

Glenn W. Burton.  Georgia Agricultural Hall of Fame,

University Foundation Professor, University of Georgia, 1957; Chairman division agronomy, USDA and University of Georgia at Tifton Experimental Station, 1950-1964; principal geneticist, USDA and University of Georgia at Tifton Experimental Station, 1952; with, USDA and University of Georgia at Tifton Experimental Station, 1936.Education: BS, University of Nebraska, 1932; DSc, University of Nebraska, 1962; MS, Rutgers University, 1933; Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1936; DSc, Rutgers University, 1955.

Member: Fellow, American Society Agronomy (v.p. 1961, President 1962, Stevenson award 1949, John Scott award 1957); member: National Academy of Science, American Society Range Mgmt., American Genetic Association, Gamma Sigma, Alpha Zeta, Sigma Xi.

Honors: Recipient 1st Annual Agricultural award, So. Seedsman Association, 1950, Sears-Roebuck School award, 1953, 1960, Superior Service award, USDA, 1955, 1st Ford Almanac Crops and Soils School award, 1962, Distinguished Service award, 1980, President's award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service, 1981, National Medal of Science, 1983, named Man of Year, So. Agriculture Progressive Farmer, 1954, named to Hall of Fame, USDA ARS, 1987, numerous other awards and citations.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Jacques Buot *** Not in Gale

(c. 1675-date of death unknown).  French astronomer, physicist, geometer.

The Galileo Project,

Buot invented an astronomical instrument, the équerre azimutale.

Original member of the Académie des Sciences, evidently appointed as an astronomer.


 Johannes Buteo *** Not in Gale

(c. 1492- c. 1564,1572).  French mathematician.  Monk of the order of St. Antoine de Viennois.

The Galileo Project,

Buteo's fame rests only on his books, published after he was sixty years old. His most important book, the Logistica, deals with arithmetic and algebra.  In other books he discussed mechanical, arithmetical, and geometrical problems, criticizing errors of many his contemporaries, particularly in terminological questions.

Archimedes Project Page Viewer.


Larry Butler / Larry Gene Butler

(1933-1997).  Biochemistry educator, researcher. Achievements include patents on hydrophobic bonding of proteins and enzymes to a specially derivatized form of cellulose; on the synthesis of phosphonate monoesters and their utilization as substrates for phosphodiesterase enzymes; discovery of first germination stimulant of the parasitic weed Striga from host plant, of several compounds from sorghum that protect the plant against pests, of proline rich salivary proteins as a natural defense against dietary tannins, of proline content as the key to affinity of proteins for tannin; development of chemical treatments for overcoming the antinutritional effects of sorghum tannins. Professor, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1973; Associate Professor, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1968-73; Assistant Professor, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1966-68; postdoctoral researcher, University of Arizona, Tucson, 1965-66; Assistant Professor biological sciences, L.A. Baptist College, Newhall, Calif., 1964-65.  Education: BS, Oklahoma State University, 1960; postgraduate, University of Minnesota, 1960-63; Ph.D., UCLA, 1964.

Member: American Chemical Society, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, International Society for Chemical Ecology, Crop Sci. Society of America, Phytochemical Society of America, International Allelopathy Society.

Honors: Recipient Outstanding Achievement in Sorghum Utilization award, National grain Sorghum Producers Association, 1991, Career Development award NIH, 1970-75.

Contbributor of over 200 articles to professional journals; over 50 book chpts.; patentee chemicals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]