Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (C)


Niccolo Cabeo, S. J. *** Not in Gale

(1586-1650).  Italian scientist, specializing in magnetism, natural philosophy, electricity, hydraulics and mechanics.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project, or

Cabeo was a Jesuit, having entered as a novice in 1602.  Cabeo is remembered partly because he was acquainted with Giovanni Battista Baliani, who experimented with falling weights, and wrote about Baliani's experiments. His interpretation that two different weights fall in the same length of time without regard to the medium became the indirect cause of other experiments conducted by Vincenzo Renieri.

Cabeo experimented with pendulums.  Cabeo taught theology and mathematics in Parma until 1622, and was then a preacher in various Italian cities. Ultimately he returned to the Jesuit college in Genoa where he taught mathematics.  He was employed by the Gonzaga on hydraulic projects. He differed with Castelli on the management of the Po at Ferrara.

Cabeo published two major works, Philosophia magnetica (1629) and In quatuor libros meteorologicorum Aristotelis commentaria (1646), an anti-Aristotelian work.


James Robert Cade, M.D. *** Not in Gale

Nephrologist.  Professor of medicine and physiology, College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Renal Transplantation, University of Florida.

Faculty webpage, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Renal Transplantation,

Dr. Cade joined the University of Florida in 1961. He is internationally known for inventing Gatorade®, the first sports drink that offered both fluid and electrolyte replacement. The University of Florida has received millions of dollars in royalties from the popular drink. These funds have been used to support research projects and endowments.  Research interest:  Dr. Cade conducts research in kidney and liver diseases, hypertension, lupus, and diabetes. His current focus is relative to autism, schizophrenia, serious mental illnesses and epilepsy research.  During recent research, Dr. Cade's team has published findings in the Journal of Autism showing a possible link between the inability to break down a specific milk protein and autism and schizophrenia.  Dr. Cade also works with athletes to help them improve their training and performance.,_Robert.html

Dr. J. Robert Cade is an internist and nephrologist trained at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, 1954. His research spans 35 years, with the last 15 years spent studying the effects of a gluten and casein-free diet in children with autism. is dedicated to the research of J. Robert Cade, MD and R Malcolm Privette, PA-C into the causes and treatment of autism.

Dr. J. Robert Cade and Mary S. Cade of Gainesville, Florida, established the J. Robert and Mary S. Cade Vanguard Award at Texas Lutheran University to provide funding for faculty projects or initiatives designed to enrich the cultural, spiritual or intellectual life at TLU.

"Where did Gatorade originate?"

"Milk Linked to Autism, Schizophrenia,"


John Caius / John Keys / John Kees

(1510-1573).  English physician and humanist. Caius (the Latin form of his name that he adopted, which has at least 10 alternative spellings) is best known for his 1552 book A Boke or Counseill against the Disease commonly called the Sweate, or Sweatyng Sicknesse, considered one of the first original descriptions of an epidemic. He was also noteworthy as a physician to three English monarchs, King Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and a founder of Gonville and Caius College (1557, master (1559-73) at Cambridge, England's first school for formal medical education. Caius was a notable man of letters, translating and lecturing and publishing on subjects ranging from British dogs to philosophy, to the origins of universities.

Educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge. Studied medicine under Vesalius at Padua; lecturer on anatomy, London (1544-64).

The Galileo Project,


Mary Whiton Calkins

(1863-1930).  U.S. psychologist who created a method of memorization called the right associated method. She was the founder of the psychology department at Wellesley College, Boston, Massachusetts, and the first female president of the American Psychological Association in 1905 and of the American Philosophical Association in 1918. Taught at Wellesley (1891-1930); her works included Der doppelte Standpunkt in der Psychologie (1905), The Persistent Problems of Philosophy (1907), The Good Man and the Good (1918).


Rudolf Jakob Camerarius / Rudolf Jakob Camerer

(1665-1721). German physician and botanist. Professor at Tubingen (from 1688); demonstrated sexuality in plants (reported 1694).  Camerarius attended the University of Tubingen, where he studied philosophy and medicine. He earned his B.A. in 1679, the M.A. in 1682, and his M.D. in 1687.  In 1688, he was appointed Professor Extraordinary of Medicine and Director of the Botanical Garden at Tubingen. From 1689-95, Camerarius served as Professor of Natural Philosophy. When his father died in 1695, he succeeded him to the title of Full Professor and First Professor of the University. When Camerarius died in 1721, his son succeeded him to the professorship.

The Galileo Project,


Giuseppe Campani

(1635-1715). Italian optician. Invented (1664) lens-grinding lathe to grind and polish spherical lenses; built numerous telescopes; made observations of Jupiter's moons and Saturn's rings; invented screw-barrel microscope.

The Galileo Project,


John Angus Campbell *** Not in Gale
Communications University of Memphis

Professor and Graduate Program Director Rhetoric; Rhetorical Criticism and Theory, in the Department of Communication at the University of Memphis.  Professor Campbell teaches rhetoric of science and speech. Ph. D., Rhetoric, University of Pittsburgh.

Associate Editor, Quarterly Journal of Speech. He has published numerous highly regarded technical articles and book chapters analyzing the rhetorical strategy of Darwin's Origin of Species.

Honors: He has twice won the Golden Anniversary Award from the National Communication Association (1971 and 1987) for his scholarly essays and was a recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award (1993) and the Dean's Recognition Award (1994) from the University of Washington. Most recently, he was named Communication Educator of the Year by the Tennessee State Communication Association (2001). In his research, he has specialized in the study of the rhetoric of science and is one of the founders of this increasingly important and growing academic subspecialty.

Review of Darwinism, Design and Public Education. Discovery Institute, January 8, 2004.

John Angus Campbell, University of  Memphis.  "THE EDUCATIONAL  DEBATE  OVER  DARWINISM,"

Margaret (Peg) McCree, The University of Memphis.  "John Campbell Nomination,"


Jonathan Wesley Campbell

(Born 1950).  NASA astrophysist, aerospace engineer. President, Redstone Aerospace Inc.; space scientist, supervisory aerospace engineer propulsion, executive. Assistant to Director, lead engineer space telescope fine guidance sensor, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, 1980; astrophysicist, aerospace engineer, Missile and Space Intelligence Center, Huntsville, Alabama, 1978-80; Instructor physics, Auburn University, 1972-74; coop. engineer, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1968-70.

Education: BS, Auburn University, 1972; MS, Auburn University, 1974; MS, University Alabama, 1988; Ph.D., University Alabama, 1992.

Member: AIAA, Air Force Association, Res. Officer Association, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Scabbard and Blade, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Gamma Tau, Sigma Pi Sigma. Consultant, Starflight Associates.

Honors: Decorated Legion of Merit; recipient Eagle Scout award, Presidential Certificate of Appreciation.

"Alexander City, Ala. native Dr. Jonathan W. Campbell - full-time NASA astrophysicist/part-time Methodist pastor," 07/30/03

"As a NASA astrophysicist and research scientist at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC), Dr. Jonathan Campbell explores the feasibility of using powerful lasers to deflect asteroids, meteoroids and other space debris that potentially could be harmful to Earth. He also ministers part-time at two Methodist churches in Jackson County, Alabama The NSSTC is a partnership with the Marshall Center, Alabama universities and industry."

Campbell: "Growing older, I realize that what is fundamentally important is not personal glory, climbing the career ladder, or other material considerations; rather that we can look back on our lives and see that we have done our best to use with compassion God's blessings to make a positive difference."


Giovanni Battista Canano / Giovanni Canani / Cannano *** Not in Gale

(1515-1579).  Italian anatomist, surgeon, instrument-inventor.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Canano's only published work was Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio, c. 1543, a small book but of outstanding importance for its originality. Based exclusively on direct observation of structures of the human body and of living animals, the Picturata dissectio contained the first anatomical drawings of the lumbricales and of the interossei of the hand, and the first description and drawing of the short palmar muscle and of the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, which Vesalius did not observe and which was unknown to Galen.

Another important contribution by Canano was the observation of the valves of the deep veins, and the assertion that they serve to prevent the reflux of the blood.  His book on muscles was intended as the first volume of a major work on the whole of anatomy, but Vesalius' De fabrica forestalled him.

Canano invented instruments for certain surgeries.

He received several visits from Andreas Vesalius in his home in 1540, and when he met Vesalius again in 1544 he told him about his observation of the valves of deep veins.

He was Prior of the Medical College of Ferrara.


Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor

The German mathematician Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (1845-1918), developed a number of ideas that profoundly influenced 20th-century mathematics. Among other accomplishments, he introduced the idea of a completed infinity, an innovation that earned him recognition as the founder and creator of set theory.  He was a Messianic Jew.



Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor


Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz *** Not in Gale

(1606-1682).  Spanish ecclesiastic, mathematician, astronomer, hysicist, natural philosopher, military engineer, navigation expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Juan Caramuel developed a system to determine longitude via lunar position.

Member: Accademia degli Investiganti (Naples); attended Accademia degli Investiganti, dedicated to the study of physical nature through experimentation, in Naples while Bishop of Campania.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz," or  In a work in 1670 he expounded the general principle of numbers to base n pointing out the benefits of some other bases than 10. Caramuel proposed a new method of trisecting an angle and developed a system of logarithms to base 109 where log 1010 = 0 and log 1 = 10. Among Caramuel's other scientific work was a system he developed to determine longitude using the position of the moon. (in German)


Pierre de Carcavi / Pierre de Carcavy *** Not in Gale

(c. 1600-1684).  French cartographer, mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In 1668, Colbert charged Carcavi, along with Huygens, Roberval, Auzout, Picard, and Gallois, to judge the feasibility of the method to determine longitude submitted to the Academy by a German noble.

Served the Duke of Liancourt, 1648-1663; Classified Colbert's library, 1663; Custodian of the Royal Library, 1663-1683.

Member of the Académie Royal des Sciences from 1666 until death in 1684.  He had many friends, including Huygens, Fermat, and Pascal, and carried on an extensive correspondence.


John Robert Cardinal

(Born 1943).  Chemist.  Researcher.  Pharmaceutical scientist. v.p. Great Valley Pharmaceutical, Malvern, Pennsylvania, 1993.  Previous positions: Research Assistant University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1967-1971; Assistant Professor University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 1972-79, Associate Professor, 1979-82, Adjunct Associate Professor, 1982-89; project leader Pfizer, Inc., Groton, Conn., 1982-83, Manager, 1983-88; Director Merck & Co., Inc., 1988-90, Senior Director, 1990-93; Visiting Professor Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1980. B.S., University Michigan, 1967; M.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1969, Ph.D., 1973.

Member: Board of Directors, Cottenwood Inc., Salt Lake City, 1979-81. Fellow Academy Pharmaceutical Sciences (vice-chairman basic pharmaceutics sect. 1985), American Association Pharmaceutical Scientists (chairman pharmaceutics drug delivery sect., 1988), American Association Advisory. Science; member American Chemical Society, N.Y. Academy of Sciences, Controlled Release Society (Board of governors, 1991-93), Sigma Xi, Rho Chi Society. Roman Catholic.

Holder several patents; Contributor of articles to professional journals.


Brian Joseph Cardott

(Born 1955). Coal geologist, organic petrologist. Organic petrologist, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, 1981; Assistant Manager, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1978-81; Research Assistant, Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, 1977-78.  BS, University Illinois, 1977; MS, Southern Illinois University, 1981.

Member: International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (Associate), Society for Organic Petrology (founding member, President 1995-96), American Association Petroleum Geologists (energy minerals div. mid-continent sect. councillor 1994-98, secretary 1998), Geological Society American (coal geology division member-at-large 1989-91).

Author: Source Rocks in the Southern Midcontinent, 1992, Guidebook for Selected Stops...Arbuckle Mountains, 1993, Hartshorne Coalbed Methane, 1998; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Oklahoma Geological Survey,


Harold Edwin Carley

Plant pathologist, researcher.  Quality Assurance Manager, Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, 1993; product developmentManager, Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, 1983; group leader, Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, Pennsylvania, 1972-82; Senior biologist, Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, Pennsylvania, 1969-72.  Education: BS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1964; MS, University ID, Moscow, 1966; Ph.D., University Minnesota, St. Paul, 1969.

Member: American Chemical Society, American Phytopathological Society, Sigma Xi.

Honors: Recipient Shevlin fellowship, Graduate school, University of Minnesota, Mpls., 1968; Caleb-Dorr award University Minnesota, St. Paul, 1967.

Contributor of articles to professional journals; patentee in field.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Paul Carlson *** Not in Gale

(1928-1964).  A missionary doctor in Congo, ministering to hundreds until he was seized hostage, tortured, and martyred in a rebel Simba attack.

"Making a Mark around the World - Paul Carlson: A Sacrificial Martyr

Cover of Time Magazine, December 4, 1964:,16641,1101641204,00.html

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Russ Carlson / Russell W. Carlson *** Not in Gale
Molecular Biologist. Since 1988, Dr. Russell W. Carlson has been Professor of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Adjunct Professor of Microbiology, and Technical Director of the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.  Dr. Carlson received his B.A. degree (major: Chemistry; minor: Mathematics) from North Park College, Chicago, IL in 1968.  After serving four years in the U.S. Navy he received an M.S. in Biochemistry at the  University of Colorado, Boulder in 1974, and a Ph.D in Biochemistry from the University of Colorado in 1976..  He then completed two years of post-doctoral research under the direction of Dr. Peter Albersheim at the University of Colorado, after which, he joined Monsanto Agricultural Research Products Company in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1979 Dr. Carlson joined the Chemistry Department at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, IL where he served as Professor until 1988.  In 1996 Dr. Carlson was elected scientific councillor of the International Endotoxin Society, and he is the discoverer on two and co-discoverer on a third patent application. Dr. Carlson has over 93 publications.

Member: Fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design.

Honors and Awards: Merit Award for Outstanding Research, Eastern Illinois University, 1982 ; 1985 --Invited Convenor of a session on "Recognition in Rhizobium -legume Symbiosis", 6th International Conference on Nitrogen Fixation, Oregon State University 1985; Merit Award for Outstanding Research, Eastern Illinois University, 1986; Elected to the Organizing Committee for the 1994 International Endotoxin Society Meeting in Helsinki, Finland, 1993.

Russell W. Carlson, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Executive Technical Director - Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates, Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia.

Faculty webpage, Leadership University.

Biographical Information for Russell W Carlson

Russell W. Carlson, Professor of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology,University of Georgia. "My Decision,"

"I have learned that the Bible is reliable and true, and that it can be trusted as a guide for my life.  I have learned that God is real; that it is reasonable to believe and trust Him, and that He has been directing and guiding my life.  I have learned that, while it is important to know God's will for my life, it is even more important for me to be willing.  I have learned that by being willing, I was able to follow the interests and talents that God gave me which, for me, were to pursue my interest in science.  As a scientist, I have learned that faith in God and science are complementary and that knowing and trusting God through Jesus Christ has enhanced my understanding and appreciation of nature."


Richard L. Carpenter, Jr., Ph.D. *** Not in Gale
Research Meteorologist, Center for Computational Geosciences,University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.


"And the Author of love, truth, and beauty has shown me that He reveals those qualities not only through His creation, but also through His word, the Bible."


Emma Perry Carr

(1880-1972).  U.S. chemist, educator and researcher, internationally renowned for her work in absorption spectroscopy, far ultraviolet vacuum spectroscopy, and the structure of unsaturated hydrocarbons. It is a lasting tribute to this renowned woman of science that the chemistry building at Mount Holyoke College bears her name.


Alexis Carrel / Alexis (Marie Joseph Auguste Billiard) Carrel / Alexis Marie Joseph Auguste Billiard Carrel

(1873-1944).  American biologist.  Surgeon. With Charles Lindbergh, invented perfusion pump called artificial heart, 1936; Nobelist, 1912.

Earl Lawrence, Pell City, Alabama. "Alexis Carrel: Forgotten Hero in Medicine and Perfusion," Taken in part from a 'Thomas G. Wharton Memorial Lecture' The Proceedings of the American Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion, Volume 6. January 1985.


Dr. Tucker Carrington, Jr.  *** Not in Gale
Professor of Chemistry, University of Montreal, Canada. B. Sc. 1981 (University of Toronto),    Ph.D. 1985 ( University of California at Berkeley). Vibrational-rotational energy levels of polyatomic molecules. Investigation of intramolecular energy relaxation in polyatomic molecules. Treatment of large amplitude motions in spectroscopy and dynamics.

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Rachel Louise Carson

(1907-1964).  Marine biologist. University of Maryland, College Park, member of the zoology staff, 1931-36; U.S. Bureau of Fisheries (now the Fish and Wildlife Service), Washington, D.C., aquatic biologist, beginning, 1936, editor in chief, 1949-52; full-time writer, 1952-64. Instructor at Johns Hopkins University, summers, 1930-36.  Education: Pennsylvania College for Women, A.B., 1929; Johns Hopkins University, A.M., 1932; further graduate study at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA. Member: American Ornithologists' Union, National Institute of Arts and Letters, Royal Society of Literature (fellow), Audubon Society (director in Washington, D.C.), Society of Women Geographers. Presbyterian.

Honors: Eugene Saxton Memorial fellowship, 1949; George Westinghouse Science Writing Award, 1950; National Book Award, 1952, for The Sea Around Us; Guggenheim fellowship, 1951-52; John Burroughs Medal, 1952; Henry G. Bryant Gold Medal, 1952; Page-One Award, 1952; Frances K. Hutchinson Medal, 1952; Silver Jubilee Medal from Limited Editions Club, 1954; book award from National Council of Women in the U.S., 1956; achievement award from American Association of University Women, 1956; Schweitzer Medal from Animal Welfare Institute, 1962; Women's National Book Association Constance Lindsay Skinner Award, 1963; New England Outdoor Writers Association Award, 1963; Conservationist of the Year Award from National Wildlife Federation, 1963; achievement award from Einstein College of Medicine, 1963; Gold Medal from New York Zoological Society; special citations from the Garden Club of America, the Pennsylvania Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Izaak Walton League of America, 1963. D.Sc. from Oberlin College, 1952; D.Litt. from Pennsylvania College for Women, 1952, Drexel Institute of Technology, 1952, and Smith College, 1953.

Author: Under the Sea-Wind: A Naturalist's Picture of Ocean Life, illustrated by Howard French, Simon & Schuster, 1941, new edition, Oxford University Press, 1952, reprinted, New American Library, 1978; Food from the Sea: Fish and Shellfish of New England, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943; Food from Home Waters: Fishes of the Middle West, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1943; Fish and Shellfish of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1944; Fish and Shellfish of the Middle Atlantic Coast, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945; The Sea Around Us, illustrated by Katherine L. Howe, Oxford University Press, 1951, revised edition, Watts, 1966, reprinted, Oxford University Press, 1989; The Edge of the Sea, illustrated by Bob Hines, Houghton, 1955, reprinted, 1980, reprinted with a new introduction by Sue Hubbell, 1998; Silent Spring, illustrated by Lois Darling and Louis Darling, Houghton, 1962, limited edition, Limited Editions Club, 1980, 25th anniversary edition, Houghton, 1987; The Sense of Wonder, Harper, 1965, reprinted, Perennial Library, 1984; Life Under the Sea (selection from The Sea Around Us), Golden Press, 1968; The Rocky Coast, Macmillan, 1971; The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work (selections), edited by Paul Brooks, Houghton, 1972; Silent Spring Revisited, American Chemical Society, 1987; Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952-1964, edited by Martha Freeman, Beacon, 1995; Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson, edited and with an introduction by Linda Lear, Beacon Press (Boston), 1998.



"Who is Rachel Louise Carson? Biography of a woman who was instrumental in raising the awarness of the need to protect the environment,"


Verna Benner Carson, RN, Ph.D., C.S. *** Not in Gale

Psychiatric nursing specialist. Associate Professor of Nursing, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland.  Verna Benner Carson, Ph.D., is the national director of RESTORE Behavioral Health for Tender Loving Care at Staff Builders Home Health and Hospice. She was an Associate Professor of psychiatric nursing at the University of Maryland School of Nursing for twenty-one years. She is the author of four books, including Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice, 1989. She lives in Fallston, Maryland.

Course Manager: Verna Benner Carson, "Course Title: Spirituality in Nursing Practice,"

"I am absolutely upfront about my Christianity, but I stress to students that I value the gift of free will which God gives to each of us. We are free to choose Him or not. If God allows this, how can I demand something different? I try to be open and loving to students so I don't think they feel threatened even when their beliefs are different than mine."

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Lynn K. Carta, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Nematologist.  Research Plant Pathologist with the USDA. She is listed as a Reasons to Believe Science Scholar. or

Contact page, Agricultural Research Service,



George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver (1864-1943) started his life as a slave and ended it as a respected and world-renowned agricultural chemist.

Gale Group: "George Washington Carver,"

National Park Service.  George Washington Carver National Monument, About George Washington Carver,

"George Washington Carver, Jr.: Chemurgist,"

George Washington Carver Papers, 1893-(ongoing), Iowa State University.

GEORGE CARVER, M. S. in Agr., Director, EXPERIMENTAL STATION, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption," Seventh Edition, January 1940. Reprinted 1983 for Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site, George Washington Carver National Monument by Eastern National Park and Monument Association.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.

Carver: "I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting system, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in."


Giulio Casseri / Guilio Casserio *** Not in Gale

(c. 1552-1616).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, embryologist, physician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Casseri's achievemens are collected in three anatomical works: De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica (Ferrara, 1600- 1601), Pentaestheseion, hoc est de quinque sensibus liber (Venice, 1609), and Tabulae anatomicae LXXIIX, omnes nec ante hac visae (Venice,1627).

He left important illustrations of the formation of the foetus.


Gian Domenico Cassini [Cassini I]

(1625-1712).  Astronomer.  Optician, cartographer, engineer.  Hydraulics specialist.  Gian Domenico, later Jean-Dominique (1625-1712),b. Italy; professor at Bologna (1650-68).  He studied with the Jesuit priests and astronomers Giovanni Riccioli (1598-1671) and Francesco Grimaldi (1618-1663) before becoming an astronomy professor at the University of Bologna at the age of twenty-five.  He was invited to join French Royal Academy of Sciences (1668); naturalized French citizen (1673); first director of the Paris observatory. Observed comets, planetary surfaces; constructed tables of Jovian satellites; discovered four of Saturn's satellites (1671-84); observed a dark division in Saturn's ring; made earliest systematic observation of zodiacal light; determined parallax of sun, obliquity of ecliptic,and eccentricity of earth's orbit; in mathematics, discovered Cassinian oval. Cassini retired from the Paris Observatory after going blind in 1710, and was succeeded in his post by his son and later his grandson.

On October 17, 1997 an unmanned spacecraft blasted off from Kennedy Space Center, headed for Saturn. It arrived at Saturn in 2004, and carried out an ambitious program of observations of the planet and its moons. It will also release probes to study the atmosphere and surface of Titan. It was named "Cassini."

The Galileo Project,

An official expert during the negotiations between Bologna and Ferrara on the flooding of the Po. He composed several memoires on the flooding and how to avoid it.  Named by the Pope as superintendent of the fortifications "du fort d'Urbain" in 1663.  Deeply involved in French mapping endeavors.

Member of the Académie Royal des Sciences, participated in certain meetings of the Accademia del Cimento.

Lunar Crater Cassini named in his honor.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Giovanni Domenico Cassini,"


Jacques Cassini [Cassini II]

French astronomer, cartographer, physicist Jacques Cassini (1677-1756) succeeded his father Gian Domenico Cassini as director of Paris observatory (1712); known for work to determine figure of the earth; measured meridian of Paris (1718); published De la grandeur et de la figure de la terre (1722), celestial tables, etc.  Also dealt with electricity and optics.

The Galileo Project,

Jacques travelled with his father through Italy, Flanders, the Netherlands, and England making numerous geodesic measurements as well as several astronomical observations.  He presented a new method for the determination of longitudes by means of the eclipses of the stars and planets by the moon.  In 1713 he took the position supporting the hypothesis of the elongation of the terrestrial ellipsoid. In his work, De la grandeur et de la figure de la terre (1722), he presented information confirming his hypothesis. In 1733-34 he undertook the determination of the perpendicular to the meridian of Paris from Saint-Malo to Strasbourg in order to defend his views against those of Desaguliers, Maupertuis, and Poleni.

In astronomy Cassini's primary interests were the study of planets and their satellites, the observation and theory of comets, and the tides. Cassini fought continually to defend the work of his father and to reconcile the facts of observation with the theory of vortices. As an astronomer he improved instruments; especially important was a new micrometer.  (The improvements of instruments and the appearance of new methods were not used to their full extent by this timid Copernican and convinced Cartesian.)

He gave papers to the Academie on electricity, the recoil of firearms, barometers, and burning mirrors.

Jacques worked with his father (1700-1701) and himself later finished the measurement of the arc of the meridian through Paris.

After 1740 he collaborated with his son, Cassini de Thury (Cassini III) on a map of France.

Members: Académie Royal des Sciences, Royal Society, Berlin Academy, Institute Bologna.

Member of the Académie (1694-1756)--Associate, 1699; Pensionnaire, 1712.

While on his travels with his father he met Newton, Flamsteed, and Halley and became a member of the Royal Society, c. 1698.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  Jacques Cassini.

Jacques Cassini was honored by naming asteroid (24102) Jacquescassini, which had been discovered by C.W. Juels at Fountain Hills observatory on November 9, 1999, and provisionally designated 1999 VD9.


César-François Cassini de Thury [Cassini III]

(1714-1784).  Franch astronomer, cartographer.  Son of Jacques Cassini and the grandson of Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Casar succeeded Jacques as director of the Paris observatory (1756); began topographical map of France (1744); specialized in geodesy (1748-1845).

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "César-François Cassini de Thury,"

Cassini's data supported the view that the Earth was flattened at the poles and he published his conclusions in 1744 in La méridienne de l'Observatoire royal de Paris véifiée dans toute l'étendue du royaume.  His life-long work was to survey France and produce an accurate map of the country. He began with a preliminary survey in 1740 when he reported that he had set up 400 triangles on eighteen accurately measured bases and would use these to produce his first map of France.

Cassini published Geometric description of the world (1775) and Geometric description of France (1783). When Cassini died of smallpox in 1784 only two of the 182 sheets of his map of France were still to be completed. The project was finished off by Cassini's son Dominique Cassini who had been helping his father with the project for the previous ten years.

Taton gives this summary of Cassini's achievements:

While he was a good geodesist and a talented cartographer, Cassini III was only a second-rate astronomer; and the name of this third representative of the Cassini dynasty at the Paris Observatory will remain associated with the first map of France produced according to modern principles.


Jean-Dominique Comte de Cassini [Cassini IV]

(1748-1845).  French astronomer.  Son of César-François Cassini de Thury, the grandson of Jacques Cassini and the great-grandson of Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Jean-Dominique Cassini succeeded his father as Director of the Paris Observatory (1784-93); completed Cesar's map of France (published 1793); and created count by Napoleon.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Jean-Dominique Comte de Cassini,"


Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus

 (480/485/490-ca. 575/580/585). The Roman statesman and author Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator [surname, not rank] introduced the tradition of preserving and copying classical literature in Christian monasteries, and his writings provide information about the period of Ostrogothic rule of Italy.  He exerted great influence on the preservation of works of classical literature in Christian monasteries from the 6th century through the Middle Ages.

James J. O'Donnell.  Cassiodorus webpage:

James J. O'Donnell. Cassiodorus: Table of Contents,  Online biography.

Cassiodorus.  Variae.


Benedetto Castelli *** Not in Gale

(1577-1643).  Italian astronomery physicist, mathematician, specialist in hydraulics and optics, instrument inventor.  Catholic, a Benedictine.

The Galileo Project,

Castelli suggested to Galileo the method of observing sunspots, really a device.  He apparently first suggested a device to measure rainfall.  Papal consultant on hydraulics, 1626. Castelli's entire career was devoted primarily to this practical activity.

Connections: Knew Galileo very well. Taught Borelli, Cavalieri, and Toricelli.

His chief work is Della misura dell'acqua corrente (Rome, 1628; 3rd ed., 1660), translated into English by Salusbury (London, 1661), and into French by Saporta (1664), reprinted (Bologna, 1823) in Cardinali's collection d'autori italiani che trattano del moto dell'acqua. Another work is Risposta alle oppositioni del Sig. Lodvico, &c., contro al trattato del Sig. Galileo, Delle cose che stanno sopra acqua (Bologna, 1655). According to Poggendorf, the invention of the helioscope is ascribed to him.


Alexis Caswell

Alexis Caswell (1799-1877), college president and scientist, was a twin son of Samuel and Polly (Seaver) Caswell.  His standing as a scientist is also shown by his election as Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1850, and by the government's choice of him as one of fifty incorporators of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863. His most important publication was, perhaps, the account of his own meteorological observations at Providence, R. I., from December 1831 to May 1860, in Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. XII (1860).

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, Past Presidents.

Walter Cochran Bronson. Dictionary of American Biography.  "[Caswell] was untroubled by the supposed conflict between science and religion; 'the legitimate results of all true science, and all discovery,' he wrote in 1841, 'will be to fix the truths of Christianity upon a broader and deeper foundation.'"


Pietro Antonio Cataldi

(1548-1626).  Italian number theorist, algebraist, and astronomer.  Pietro Antonio Cataldi published 30 mathematical works in the course of his life. The most important of these treatises, published in 1613, delineated some of the earliest work on continued fractions, including its definition, common form, and symbolism using standard notation. Cataldi also used continued fractions to discover numerical square roots. Cataldi's mathematical accomplishments were not limited to continued fractions: he published treatises concerning algebra, perfect numbers and arithmetic, and served as an editor of other mathematical books. An influential teacher as well as a mathematician, Cataldi taught at higher learning institutions in Perugia and Bologna for most of his career.

Author: Trattato del modo brevissimo di trouare la radice delli numeri, 1613.

From "Pietro Antonio Cataldi." Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Pietro Antonio Cataldi,"


David Catchpoole, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Plant physiologist. Writer and speaker for Creation Ministries International in Brisbane, Australia, and writer for Creation magazine. Dr. Catchpoole earned his B.Ag.Sc.(Hons) from the University of Adelaide, South Australia, and his Ph.D. from the University of New England, Australia. Catchpoole has worked as a plant physiologist and science educator (including six lectures a year at James Cook University), specializing in tropical agriculture and horticulture. Until his mid-20s, David was an ardent evolutionistic atheist, but a personal crisis while working in Indonesia brought him to embrace Christianity.

David Catchpoole.  "The Koran vs Genesis," and


Augustin Louis Cauchy

The French mathematician Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) provided the foundation for the modern period of rigor in analysis. He launched the theory of functions of a complex variable and was its authoritative pioneer developer. or

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Francesco Bonaventura Cavalieri

(1598-1647). Italian mathematician, geometer, theologian. At early age entered order of Jesuati; Professor at Bologna (1629). Originated the method of indivisibles, a precursor of integral calculus, which he published as Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota (1635) and by means of which was able to solve problems proposed by Kepler; improved method in Exercitationes geometricae sex (1647); also wrote on trigonometry, conics, etc.

Italian mathematician who was a student of Galileo. In 1635, he stated Cavalieri's Principle, which states that if two solids have the same height, and if their cross sections taken parallel to and at equal distances from their bases are always equal, then the solids have the same volume. This was a stepping stone towards calculus.

Author: Directorium generale uranometricum, 1632; Geometria indivisibilbus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota, 1635; Ckompendio delle regole dei triangoli con le loro dimostrationi,1639; Centuria di varii problemi,1639; Nuova pratica astrologica,1639; Tavola prima logaritimica. Tavola seconda logaritimica. Annotationi nell'opera, e correttioni de gli errori piu notabili,(date unknown); Trigonometria plana, et sphaerica, linearis et logarithmica,1643; Tratato della ruoaato planetaria perpetua,1646; Exercitationes geometricae sex,1647.

The Galileo Project,

From A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th edition, 1908) by W. W. Rouse Ball. Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598 - 1647),

CAVALIERI Bonaventura (1598-1647).  (in Spanish)


Edith Cavell

(1865-1915).   English nurse. First matron of Berkendael Institute in Brussels (1907), which became Red Cross hospital (1914); assisted about 200 English, French, and Belgian soldiers to escape to Dutch border (Nov.1914-July 1915); arrested by Germans, admitted her successful efforts; condemned to death by court-martial; shot along with a Belgian, Phillippe Baucq, who had furnished guides.

The Edith Cavell Website:

Peter Clowes for Military History Magazine.  "Nurse Edith Cavell,"

Institut Médical Edith Cavell, Les cliniques Edith Cavell, de la Basilique et Lambermont,


Juan de Celaya  *** Not in Gale

(c. 1490-1558).  Scholastic philosopher.  Spaniard.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Celaya stayed in Paris, teaching, until 1524. During these years he maintained a prolific output in logic and natural philosophy; his commentary on the Physics is especially important for its discussion of motion.

Celaya returned to Spain about 1524. He became the Rector and professor of theology at the University of Valencia. He appears to have stayed in that position until the end of his life.


Federico Cesi *** Not in Gale

(1585-1630).  Italian botanist, pharmacologist, specialist in scientific organization.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Cesi will always be remembered primarily for his Accademia dei Lincei, which is often cited as the first modern scientific society.  He made the principal function of the Accademia the preparation of a precis of the Spanish physician, Francisco Hernandez's Nova plantarum et mineralium mexicanorum historia (a work referred to under various titles, in one of which the word thesaurus is central) for publication. A preliminary version of this was published in 1628; the complete version appeared only in 1651, more than twenty years after Cesi's death. It contained Cesi's own Phytosophicae tabulae, a pioneer effort at a classification of plants.

Using a microscope (which he received from Galileo), Cesi discovered the spores of cryptogams.  The final table (of the Phytosophicae tabulae) concerned the medicinal uses of plants. Cesi was a leading simpler of the age, and his herb garden was known as one of the best in Italy.

Cesi organized the Accademia dei Lincei originally in 1603, although its significant years came later when he had long since passed beyond adolescence. The Accademia is remembered primarily because Cesi enrolled Galileo in it, and Galileo referred to himself in his major works as the Academician. In addition to Galileo's Letters on Sunspots and Il Saggiatore, the Accademia published some minor works by Porta and others.


Giacinto Cestoni / Diacinto Cestoni *** Not in Gale

(1637-1718).  Italian natural historian, entomologist, microscopist, pharmacologist, zoologist, physician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Cestoni was a natural historian devoted to detailed observation--e.g., of the metamorphic cycle of the flea. He was interested in the generation of insects. In connection with his observations in entomology, he discovered (or discovered in connection with the Livornese physician Bonono) the acarid etiology of mange. Cestoni used the microscope systematically. He did experimental work on pharmacology, and his observations in natural history included things like shell fish and chameleons.

The estimation of Cestoni seems to be constantly rising, and some historians are even touting him as the most important Italian scientist (perhaps they mean in the field of the life sciences) in Italy during his age.

Cestoni was in Rome in the service of a pharmacist, 1650-56; working for a pharmacist in Livorno, 1656-60.

He traveled partly outside of Italy much of this time, although he was back in Livorno with the pharmacist part of this time. For about four months he worked for a pharmacist in Geneva, 1660-66.  He settled as a pharmacist in Livorno where he spent the rest of his life.  Cestoni is called a skillful surgeon as well as a pharmacist, and the epigraph on his tomb called him a physician.


Ludolph van Ceulen *** Not in Gale

(1540-1610). Dutch mathematician. Professor of fortification at Leiden (1600-10); known for computations of the value of pi (sometimes known as Ludolph's number), which he finally carried to 35 decimal places.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.   "Ludolph Van Ceulen," (in German)


Giovanni Ceva

(c. 1647-1734).  Italian geometer and engineer.  Giovanni Ceva was an authority on his era's geometric problems with an vast interest in pure geometry. He proved theorems on transversals and developed what is now known as Ceva's theorem, which concerns when lines from the vertices of a triangle to the opposite sides intersect at a common point. In Ceva's most important work, De lineis rectis, he combined his background in mechanics and geometry to attack the problems of geometric systems. Ceva also demonstrated applications of geometry statics and wrote an early treatise on mathematical economics.

Author: De lineis rectris, 1678; Opuscula mathematica, 1682; Geometrica motus, 1692; De Re Numeraria, 1711.

Brother of Tomasso Ceva.

"Giovanni Ceva." Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Giovanni Ceva,"

Alex Bogomolny.  "Cut The Knot!  An interactive column using Java applets," A Matter of Appreciation.  October 1999.  Any analysis of Ceva's Theorem.


Tomasso Ceva *** Not in Gale

(1648-c. 1737).  Italian mathematician, natural philosopher.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Ceva entered the Society of Jesus in 1663. He spent the whole of his adult life within the order.

At an early age he became professor of mathematics and rhetoric at Brera College in Milan (a Jesuit college), and he taught there for more than forty years.

Ceva's Opuscula mathematica (1699), summarizing all of his mathematical work, dealt with gravity, arithmetic, geometric- harmonic means, the cyloid, division of angles, and higher order conic sections and curves.

Ceva's contribution to mathematics was, however, modest.  His first scientific work, De natura gravium (1669), dealt with physical subjects--such as gravity and free fall--in a philosophical way.  However, he was later the author of Philosophia novo-antiqua (1704), which tried to yoke experimental philosophy to Scholasticism, anti-Copernicanism, and anti-Cartesianism. (Recall that he was a Jesuit.) Ramat calls the Philosophia one of the last efforts of Scholasticism against the new philosophy.  Ceva was a fairly important literary and theological figure, and much more into these fields than into science.

Ceva designed an instrument to divide a right angle into a specified number of equal parts.  He also prepared stage effects, such as artificial fire, for official pageants in the early 18th century.


Art Chadwick/ Arthur Vorce Chadwick, Ph.D.  *** Not in Gale

(Born 1943).  Molecular biologist.  Department Chair, Department of Biology and Department of Geology, Southwestern Adventist University, Keene, Texas.  BA (Biology) LaSierra University, Ph.D. (Molecular Biology) University of Miami. 

Research interests: Taphonomy of late Cretaceous Dinosaur bone beds, Sedimentology of the Tapeats sandstone in the Grand Canyon, Methodology for mapping excavation sites using GIS, Global paleocurrent patterns.
Member: Geological Society of America, Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

Faculty webpage, Southwestern Adventist University, Keene, Texas,

Arthur V. Chadwick, Ph.D. "Abiogenic Origin of Life: A Theory in Crisis,"

Art Chadwick, Ph.D. Southwestern Adventist University, Department of Biology. Personal webpage:


Eugene F. Chaffin *** Not in Gale

Physicist.  Dr. Chaffin is currently Professor of Physics at Bob Jones University (since 1999).  He has a B.S. (1970) and M.S. in Physics (1972) and a Ph.D. in Theoretical Nuclear Physics from Oklahoma State University (1974). Dr. Chaffin did post-doctoral studies at the Institute for Applied Nuclear Physics in Karlsruhe, Germany (1975-1976). This involved two years of research on the theory of nuclear fission. Dr. Chaffin taught Physics for four years at the Naval Nuclear Power School (1977-1981). He was responsible for training Naval personnel for duty operating and maintaining nuclear reactors on board U.S. Navy submarines and surface ships. Dr. Chaffin served on the faculty at Bluefield College, Virginia, 1981-1999.  He was the editor of the Creation Research Society Quarterly from 1993-1999, and is currently the physics editor.  His research interests include theoretical studies of possible variations in physical "constants," and he is a member of the RATE (Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth) group, a group of six physicists and geologists who are committed to a young earth viewpoint and are seeking better models to explain radioisotope data and the age of the earth.

Natural Science Faculty webpage, Bob Jones University,


Thomas Chalmers

The Scottish church reformer and theologian Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847) was a central figure in the 1843 secession of the Free Church from the Presbyterian Establishment. Chalmers attempted to broaden evangelicalism by reconciling its zeal with secular ethics, science, and philosophy and with concern for social and economic issues.

Thomas Chalmers,1780-1847. Discourses on the Christian revelation, viewed in connection with the modern astronomy. To which are added, Discourses illustrative of the connection between theology & general science. By Thomas Chalmers. New York, R. Carter & brothers, 1855

Thomas Chalmers: Biography.


William Ralph Champion

(Born February 17, 1938).  Computer science educator.  Education:  Programming instructor, Academy Computer Technology, Houston, 1969-70, Coastal Carolina Community College, Jacksonville, N.C., 1970-73; business programmer Belo Corp., Dallas, 1973-74; Senior instructor Texas Institute Dallas, 1974-80; Associate Professor computer science DeVry Institute Technology, Irving, Texas, 1980; Adjunct teacher Tarrant County Community College, Hurst, Texas, 1982-84; pascal tutoring, Dallas, 1980-81. Education: A.B., University of Alabama, 1960.

Member Data Processing Management Association, Association Systems Management. Baptist.

Honor: Recipient Teaching Excellence award Delta Chi, 1983.

Author: Pascal for Business, 1984, Data Structures (turbo Pascal), 1986, C Primer, 1987.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Walter Charleton *** Not in Gale

(1619-1707) Physician.  Natural philosopher and historian, physiologist, anatomist.  President of the Royal College of Physicians.

The Galileo Project,

Charleton's most important work was in general natural philosophy. He entered the world of learning as a disciple of van Helmont (Spiritus gongonicus, a Helmontian theory of the formation of stones in the human body, and A Ternary of Paradoxes, mostly a translation from Helmont, both in 1650. Then three works in the atomist tradition: The Darkness of Atheism, 1652; Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charletoniana, 1654; The Immortality of the Human Soul [sic], 1657; The Natural History of Nutrition, Life and Voluntary Motion, 1659, was one of the first books in English on physiology; Onomasticon zoicon, 1668, was a work more or less in taxonomy.  He also published some anatomical lectures and Onomasticon contained anatomies of two animals that he had dissected.

Member: Royal Society, 1660-1707.  Royal College of Physicians, 1650-1707; President, 1689-91. Charleton was a Candidate in 1650, an Honorary Fellow in 1664 (a status that allowed him to pay dues and to practice), and ordinary Fellow in 1676.

Walter Charleton.  Walter Charleton: Immortality of the Human Soul (1657)


Nai Y. Chen

(1926).  Born in China, Nai Y. Chen is a chemist, chemical engineer, researcher, technical consultant and energy conservation advocate. He received his B.Sc. degree in chemistry from the University of Shanghai, China in 1947, his M.S. degree in chemical engineering from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in 1954, and his Sc.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1959. His career, retrospectively, includes the following posts: Senior scientist, Research advisor, Mobil R&D Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1986; Senior scientist, Manager, Mobil R&D Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1980-86; Senior scientist, acting Manager, Mobil R&D Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1979-80; Senior scientist, Mobil R&D Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1960-79; Research Assistant, MIT, Cambridge, 1954-60; Research Assistant, Louisiana State University, 1952-54; Deputy section head, Taiwan Sugar Corp., 1947-52.
He retired in 1994 after almost 34 years as a scientist with Mobil Research & Development Corp. He is credited with the first commercial catalytic process using a natural zeolite. His discovery of the unique properties of ZSM-5 in the late 1960s helped to pioneer shape-selective catalysis. He is the author and co-author of 10 books, including Shape Selective Catalysis in Industrial Application, 1989;  and numerous articles.  He holds more than 126 U.S. patents in catalysis and petroleum, refining and petrochemicals.

Member: Member NAE (life), American Institute Chemical Engineers, N.American Catalysis Society (annual award Philadelphia club 1985, annual award N.Y. club 1991), Chinese American Chemical Society (Board of Directors 1991), Sigma Xi.  Baptist.

Honors: He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1990. Recipient Achievement award Chinese Institute of Engineers, 1990; inducted into Engineering Hall of Distinction, Louisiana State University, 1983.

Nai Y. Chen.  "An environmentally friendly oil industry,"

Thomas F., Jr Degnan, Nai Y. Chen.  Handbook of Experimental Catalysis, March, 2004.


George Cheyne *** Not in Gale

(c. 1673-1743).  English physician, mathematician, natural philosopher.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Cheyne's first book was A New Theory of Fevers, 1701; in the tradition of iatromechanics.  In 1703 Fluxionum methodus inversa, a pedestrian work on the calculus; he did not further pursue mathematics.  Philosophical Principles of Natural Religion, 1705, and in 1715 the other half as it were, Philosophical Principles of Revealed Religion. Both of these drew heavily on Newtonian natural philosophy. All of his later medical books contained discussions of natural philosophy, a mechanistic philosophy influenced by Newtonian concepts of force, and in his old age with a vitalistic principle added.

In his years in Bath Cheyne became one of England's most widely read medical writers, propounding a life of pious moderation (in contrast to his own early behavior, which left him weighing about 450 pounds.)

During his first years in London Cheyne supported himself as a tutor (in mathematics) to William Ker, the younger brother of the Duke of Roxburgh.  Medical pactice, 1702-43, initally in London, after 1720 in Bath. Cheyne had many eminent patients, including Samuel Richardson, Alexander Pope, John Wesley, Samuel Johnson, David Hume, and members of the squirarchy and aristocracy such as Richard Tennison, Sir Joseph Jekyll, and the Countess of Huntingdon.

Membership: Royal Society, Fellow in 1702.  Informal Connections: At least a peripheral member of a prominent circle of medical and scientific writers that included David Gregory, Edmund Halley, Richard Mead and John Arbuthnot.  Friendship with Samuel Richardson.  Correspondence with the Countess of Huntingdon.


Joshua Childrey *** Not in Gale

(1623-1670).  Natural historian from England.  Meteorologist.  Instrument-maker.

The Galileo Project,

Childrey's first books were on astrology: Imago astrologica, 1652, and Syzygiasticon instauratum, 1653.

In attempting to elaborate an experimental astrology, he confirmed an old idea that there was a 35 year cycle in the weather. He made numberous observations on the weather and the tides.  His most important book was Britannia baconia, 1660, in natural history.  Childrey made and improved telescopes.


K. K. Chin

Speech recognition specialist.  Born in Ipoh, Malaysia.  Currently reading for MPhil. in Computer Speech and Language Processing in Department of Engineering Machine Intelligence Laboratory (Formerly Speech, Vision and Robotics Group) at Darwin College at the University of Cambridge. Earned bachelor degree in Computer System Engineering at the Department of Computer Science of University of Warwick. Final year project: Speech Recognition Using Neural Network (Develop a speech recognition tools under Unix and X-window environment).

Member: AISDEL, the Artificial Intelligence System Development Laboratory.

Employed by SIRIM, the Standard and Industry Research Insitute of Malaysia.

Thesis, "MPhil. in Computer Speech and Language Processing. Cambridge University Engineering Department,"

K. K. Chin's Home Page.

Detail about K. K. Chin.  "I am a Christian. I beleive in Jesus' redemption work on the cross and salvation through faith by the grace of God."
Unknown. "The transformation of an atheist,"  Testimony. "Many of my questions stumped my Christian friends. When they could not give me answers, they brought me to see people who could or lent me books on the subject. It took several years of soul-searching, intellectual struggle and serious study of the Bible, but finally I was able to overcome the many seemingly insurmountable hurdles that stood in the way of faith. From a staunch atheist, I was transformed into a believer willing to give my life for God's service. Looking back, I could see that the breakthrough had to be both intellectual and emotional."


Donald Ernest Chittick, Ph.D.

(Born 1932).  Physical chemist. Consultant. Director of research and development, Alpha Tech, Inc., Newberg, Oregon, 1982 - present.  Instructor to Associated Professor, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, 1958-68; Assistant Professor, 1959-65, Associate Professor of chemistry, 1965-68; Professor of chemistry, George Fox College, Newberg, Oregon, 1968-79; chairman of department of science and mathematics, George Fox College, 1974-79; Director research and Development, Pyrenco Inc., Prossor, Washington, 1979-82; Consultant, Chittick and Assocs., Newberg, 1982.  BS, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, 1954; Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 1960. He also holds patents on alternate fuels and in 'programmed instruction.' He has traveled and lectured in many countries. He and his family also run a ministry entitled 'Creation Compass.'

Donald Chittick told Contemporary Authors: "I am an inventor and hold patents in the area of biomass gasification and programmed instruction. My present work is involved with research and development work in converting waste materials into useable fuels and energy. I have developed one of the world's smallest conversion devices for changing agricultural wastes into gaseous fuel suitable for running small engines to generate electricity or pump water."

Member: American Chemical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Creation Research Society, New York Academy of Sciences.

Author: The Controversy: Roots of the Creation-Evolution Conflict, 1985, The Puzzle of Ancient Man, 1997.

Carl Wieland, AiG-Australia, "Interview with Physical Chemist, Dr. Don Chittick, Ph.D."  First published in
Creation Ex Nihilo
15(4):46-48, September-November 1993.


Creation Compass.


David K. Y. Chiu *** Not in Gale
Biocomputing specialist.  Professor in the Department of Computing and Information Science and a Graduate Faculty in the Biophysics Interdepartmental Group in the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Before joining the University of Guelph, he has done consulting work with  NCR Canada Ltd.  and VIRTEC Vision, Intelligence, Robotics Technology Canada Ltd. on unconstrained character recognition.

He is associated with the PAMI Laboratory and an adjunct Professor in Systems Design Engineering in the University of Waterloo. He was a recipient of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) Fellowship of Japan and a visiting researcher to  Electrotechnical Laboratory (currently National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) in 1992. He was  awarded the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) Fund to give lectures in Beijing and Guangzhou in 1992. He was a visiting Professor to University of Montreal in 1995, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 1999, University of Sao Paulo in 2001 and Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2002.  David K. Y. Chiu received the B.A. from the University of Waterloo, Canada, BSc from University of Guelph, M.Sc. degree in Computing and Information Science from Queen's University and the Ph.D. degree in Systems Design Engineering from the University of Waterloo in Canada.

He has been involved in the program committees of AI'2003, FLAIRS Uncertain Reasoning Track, 2002, 2003, International Conference on Computing & Information, International Conference on Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and Image Processing (CVPRIP'2002), International Conference on Computational Biology and Genome Informatics (CBGI'2000, CBGI'2001), global technical committee of Third International DCDCIS Conference of Engineering Applications and Computer Algorithms (DCDIS'2003). He will be chairing CBGI in 2003. He was one of the keynote speakers of InBio Brazilian Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Bioinformatics in 2001.

In addition, he has served as reviewer to international journals of Pattern Recognition, Pattern Recognition LettersInternational Journal of Fuzzy Systems, Asia-Pacific Engineering Journal, Computer Applications to the Biosciences (currently the Bioinformatics Journal), IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Journal of Information Science and International Conference on Neural Information Processing. Recently, he participates in the reviewing of a special issue on bioinformatics in Information Sciences Journal. He is a member of the International Advisory Board of Knowledge Engineering & Discovery Research Institute at the Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. He has involved as a member of the editorial board of Journal of Korean Data and Information Science Society, and the international editorial advisory board of The Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Africa.

His research interests are in the general area of pattern analysis (including neural networks), knowledge discovery and their applications to image analysis, spatial and image databases, medical diagnosis and bioinformatics.


Faculty webpage, Pattern Learning Research Group.

Pattern Learning Research Group.


Alfred Yi Cho

(Born in China 1937, naturalized U.S. citizen 1962).  Electrical engineer. Award-winning specialist in microwave and optoelectronics, he contributed significantly to the fields of electronics and quantum physics through his work in the development of molecular beam epitaxy. 75 patents related to crystal growth and electronic and photonic devices.

Research Assistant, University Illinois, Urbana, 1965-1968; Fellow, Bell Labs., Lucent Techs. (formerly AT&T Bell Labs.), 1992; semicondr. Research lab. v.p. Bell Labs., Lucent Techs. (formerly AT&T Bell Labs.), Murray Hill, 1990-2002; Director Materials Processing Research Laboratory, AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, 1987-1990; dept. head, Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, 1984-1987; Member tech. staff, Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, 1968-1984; Member tech. staff, TRW-Space Tech. Labs., Redondo Beach, California, 1962-1965; Research physicist, Ion Physics Corp., Burlington, Mass., 1961-1962.  Education: BSEE, University of Illinois, 1960; MS, University of Illinois, 1961; Ph.D., University Illinois, 1968; D, University of Illinois, 1999; DSc, City University of Hong Kong, 2000; DSc, Hong Kong Baptist University, 2001.

Member: Fellow: IEEE (Morris N. Liebman award 1982, IEEE Medal of Honor 1994, Third Millennium medal 2000), American Physics Society (International prize for new materials 1982); member: Third World Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Art and Sciences, American Philos. Society, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), Materials Research Society (Von Hippel award 1994), Electrochemical Society (electronic division award 1977, Solid State Science and Technology medal 1987), American Vacuum Society (Gaede-Langmuir award 1988), Sigma Tau, Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi.

Honors: Named to, N.J. Inventors Hall of Fame, 1997; recipient Electrical. and Computer Engineering Distinguished Alumnus award, University of Illinois, 1985, Distinguished Achievement award, Chinese Institute Engineers, USA, 1985, International Gallium Arsenide Symposium award, 1986, Heinrich Welker Gold medal, 1986, The College Engineering Alumni Honor award, University of Illinois, 1988, World Materials Congress award, ASM International, 1988, Achievement award, Industrial Research Institute, Inc., 1988, Thomas Alva Edison Science award, N.J. Governor, 1990, International Crystal Growth award, American Association for Crystal Growth, 1990, Asian American Corp. Achievement award, 1992, Chinese American Engineers and Scientists Association Southern Achievement award, 1993, National Medal of Science, NSF, 1993, Elliott Cresson medal, The Franklin Institute, 1995, Computer and Communications prize, Japan, 1995, W.E. Lamb medal for laser science and quantum optics, 2000.

Author: Progress in Solid State Chemistry. Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Volume 10, edited by G. Somorjai and J. McCaldin. Pergamon, 1975, p. 157; Technology of Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Molecular Beam Epitaxy, edited by H. C. Parker and M. B. Dowsett. Plenum, New York, 1985.

Contributor of over 590 articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Bell, T.E.  "Alfred Yi Cho [biography]," Spectrum, IEEE, Volume: 31,   Issue: 10, Oct. 1994,
Page(s): 70-73.


Doo-Sup Choi

(Born September 27, 1964 in Seoul, South Korea).  Molecular biologist.  Associate Investigator, Ernest Gallo Clinic & Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 2004 - present. Associate Research Scientist, Robert Messing Lab, Ernest Gallo Clinic & Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2002-2003; Assistant Research Molecular Biologist, Robert Messing Lab, Ernest Gallo Clinic & Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 1999-2001; Senior scientist Gallo Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 1998; postdoctoral researcher department of biopharmaceutical  science, Dr. Wolfgang Sadée Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, 1997-98; Research Associate, Cheil Foods & Chems., Seoul, 1991-92.  Education: B.S. in Biochemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, 1988; M.S. in Biochemistry / Molecular Biology (PI, Yu Sam Kim), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Thesis: Cloning of a Gene Encoding a Subunit of Malonyl-CoA Synthetase in Pseudomonas Fluorescens., 1990; Ph.D. in Cellular and Molecular Biology (PI, Luc Maroteaux; Director, Pierre Chambon), CNRS / Inserm (IGBMC), Université L. Pasteur, Strasbourg, France. Thesis: Physiological Role of the Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptors., 1997.

Member: Fellow: Center of International des Etudiants et Stagiares; Member: International Behavioral & Neural Genetics Society, Society for Neuroscience, Serotonin Club, Alcohol and Drug Advisory Board in Marin County.
Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Clement Kin-Man Choy

(Born 1947).  Research scientist. Research Fellow, Clorox Technical Center, Clorox Services Co., Pleasanton, California, 1997; Research Associate, Clorox Technical Center, 1994-97; Technical Manager Asia Pacific region, Clorox International Co., Hong Kong, 1993-94; Senior Research Associate, Clorox, Pleasanton, California, 1989-93; project leader, Clorox, Pleasanton, California, 1982-89; Senior scientist, Clorox, Pleasanton, California, 1981-82; scientist, Clorox, Pleasanton, California, 1980-81; Technical staff, Procter and Gamble, Cincinatti, OH, 1976-80; Assistant Director, General MedicalLabs, Warrensville, Ohio, 1974-76; technician, University Hospitals, Cleveland, 1974-76.Education: diploma, Hong Kong Baptist College, 1970; MS, Cleveland State University, 1972; Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University, 1976.

Member: American Chemical Society, American Society Oil Chemists (member-at-large, surfactant division, Executive Board 2001), American Association Clinical Chemists, Consumer Specialty  Products Association (chair science committee 1998-present, Executive Board cleaning products division 1999).  


Sir Robert Christison *** Not in Gale

(1797-1882).  Scottish toxicologist and physician.  His fame as a toxicologist and medical jurist, together with his work on the pathology of the kidneys and on fevers, secured him a large private practice, and he succeeded to a fair share of the honors that commonly attend the successful physician, being appointed physician to Queen Victoria in 1848 and receiving a baronetcy in 1871. Among the books which he published were a treatise on Granular Degeneration of the Kidneys (1839), and a Commentary on the Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain (1842).


Jacob Christmann *** Not in Gale

(1554-1613).  Cerman astronomer, mathematician.  Instrument-maker.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Christmann developed an instrument which involved a telescope to take the altitude of stars.

Appointed professor of Hebrew at Heidelberg,18 June 1584; From 1591 on taught Aristotelian logic.

1602, made rector of university.  In 1608, Frederick IV appointed him professor of Arabic.


Pak Lim Chu, BE (Hons.), ME, Ph.D. (UNSW) FTSE, FOSA, FIEAust

(Born 1940).  Electrical engineer.  Emeritus Professor, University of New South Wales Engineering, Professor (Chair) of Electronic Engineering, Director of Optoelectronics Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong.  Professor Pak L. Chu was born in China and received his high school education in Hong Kong. He received the degrees, B.E.(1963, Hons.), ME (1967) and Ph.D. (1971) from the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
After graduation, he spent a year with AWA Pty. Ltd in Sydney working on microwave antenna research and development. A year later he returned to the School of Electrical Engineering, University of New South Wales, as a tutor and then moved up the rank through Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor and finally Professor and Head of the Optical Communications Group. He resigned from the university and took the position as the Director of Optoelectronics Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong. His research interests are in optical communication, optical fibre technology, optical waveguide technology, electromagnetic theory, plasma oscillations, and wave propagation in nonlinear media. He has published more than 370 papers in journals and conferences in these areas.
He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA), a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers Australia, Institute Radio and Electronics Engineers Australia, and the Australian Optical Society.
He was a consultant to various organizations in Australia such as Thomson-Marconi-Sonars Pty Ltd, Siemens Ltd, Defence Department of Australia, Telecom Research Laboratories Australia, Law firms etc.

Faculty webpage, City University of Hong Kong,

Researcher profile.

Optoelectronics Research Centre (RCO),

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


John Michael Cimbala *** Not in Gale

(Born 1957).  Mechanical Engineer.  Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. John M. Cimbala received his B.S. degree in Aerospace Engineering in 1979 from The Pennsylvania State University. From there he went to The California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he obtained his M.S. degree in 1980 and his Ph.D. degree in 1984, both in Aeronautics, and both under the direction of Professor Anatol Roshko. His Ph.D. thesis was entitled, "Large Structure in the Far Wakes of Two-Dimensional Bluff Bodies."  In July of 1984, Dr. Cimbala returned to Penn State as Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering. In July of 1990, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and was granted tenure. In July of 1997, he was promoted to Professor of Mechanical Engineering. During the academic year 1993-94, Professor Cimbala took a sabbatical leave from the University, and worked at NASA Langley Research Center, where he advanced his knowledge of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and turbulence modeling.

Honors: Recipient of the George W. Atherton Award for Excellence in Teaching, Pennsylvania State University, 1997.

Home Page for Professor John M. Cimbala of the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering of The Pennsylvania State University. or

Professional Information about John M. Cimbala,

Personal Information about John M. Cimbala,

John Cimbala is a Christian, and has written a short testimony about how and why he became a Christian. He also has put together a List of useful Christian web sites. He is active in his local church, and is currently President of the Penn State Christian Faculty/Staff Fellowship . He also recently served on the Board of Directors of Mt. Nittany Christian School in State College, Pennsylvania, and created the school's web site. John Cimbala has given lectures at several churches and to several campus and youth ministries on topics related to the Bible and science, particularly the creation/evolution controversy .

John M. Cimbala, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, My Christian Testimony  "In this article, I briefly discuss how I became a Christian, and why I believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God."

John M. Cimbala.  "Does the Second Law of Thermodynamics Prove the Existence of God?"

John M. Cimbala.  Penn State Christian Faculty/Staff Fellowship Speakers Directory, "The ABCs of Creation/Evolution,"

John Cimbala, Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, Penn State University, "The Real Issue: A  'Closet Christian' Steps Out,"  A Christian professor explains how he was motivated to begin sharing his faith with students and colleagues.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


York H. Clamann

(Born September 24, 1942 in Berlin, Germany).  Biologist, educator.  Consultant, Pearson Education Corp., 1997; Adjunct Professor, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, 1997; Adjunct Professor, Abilene Christian University, 1996-97; curriculum Director, St. John's Episcopal School, Abilene, 1995-96; science supervisor, Abiline (Texas) Independent School District, 1976-94; student Teacher supervisor, Texas A&M University, College Station, 1974-76; clin. chemist, U.S. Army, Houston, 1968-71; biology Teacher, Northeast Independent School District, San Antonio, 1964-67. Director, Morgan Jones Planetarium, Abilene, 1980-95; Director, science fair Abilene Independent School District, 1978-91.  Education: BA, St. Mary's University, 1964; MA, Incarnate Word College, 1966; Ph.D., Texas A&M University, 1976.

Member: Fellow International Planetarium Society; AAAS, Science Teachers Association Texas, PTA.  Citizens advisory board Abilene Jr. League, 1979; regional Director CPR, American Heart. Association, 1990-96; Director Holy Family Sabbath Choir, 1994; precinct election judge Taylor County, Abilene, 1988. Served in U.S. Army, 1968-71.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Mark T. Clark / Mark Thomas Clark

(Born 1955).  Political scientist.  Defense policy analyst.  Professor and Chair, Political Science Department, and Director, National Security Studies Program California State University, San Bernardino, CA.  Mark T. Clark was appointed to the position at Cal State beginning in the fall 1990 term. Clark is an Adjunct Fellow at the Claremont Institute for the Study of Statesmanship and Political Philosophy, has served as a consultant to TRW and the U.S. government on National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, has been a Visiting Scholar at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, and served in the U.S. Marine Corps, 1973-1977. Christian apologist, Reasons to Believe, Glendora, California, 1991 to present.  B.A.; History, Classical Civilizations, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, June 1984. M.A.; School of International Relations, University of Southern California, December 1986; Ph.D.: School of International Relations, University of Southern California, May 1989. Dissertation: "The Soviet Political Campaign Against the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative."

Member: Committee on Present Danger, Security and Intelligence Foundation, Air Force Association, Phi Alpha Theta.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Curriculum vita:

Mark T Clark and Kathy Ross. "What is Apologetics?"

Mark T. Clark.  "The Paradox of War and Pacifism," From Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 47, (December 1995): 220-232.

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.  "Although interpretations of data and theology may differ, the facts of reality - natural and even political reality - and the words of the Bible never do.  The reason is simple.  Since the one and only God who created the universe (the creation of which science has been confirming since Einstein)) also gave us the words of the Bible, and cannot lie, then it follows that both the facts of nature and the words of the Bible must fit together.  The difficulty arises with interpretations of one or the other or both."


Reginald Wayne Clark

(Born 1938).  Physicist. Office, Foodco Corporation, San Diego, CA. Previous posts: Served to 1st Lieutenant USAF, 1962-65.  Research scientist University of Texas-Cornell University, 1972; staff member Los Alamos Science Laboratory, New Mexico, 1973; Senior Experimental physicist Maxwell Labs., Inc., San Diego, 1973-78; Manager radiation physics dept., 1978-84; v.p., research and engineering Lucidyne, Inc., San Diego, 1983-84, v.p., General Manager, 1984.  Education: B.S., University of Texas at Austin, 1962; M.S., 1968, Ph.D., 1971.

Member: American Physics Society, N.Y. Academy of Science, Phi Eta Sigma, Eta Kappa Nu. Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Robert E. D. Clark / Robert Edward David Clark

(1906-1984). Instructor and researcher at Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1928-39, Gordonstown School, Scotland, 1939-40, and Bournemouth School, 1940-45; Paternoster Press, scientific editor, 1945-48; Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology, Cambridge, England, Lecturer in chemistry, 1948-71. Education: Attended St. Lawrence College, Kent, England; St. John's College, Cambridge University, B.A., 1928, M.A., Ph.D., 1932.

ASA Book Reviews,

Author: Conscious and Unconscious Sin, Williams & Norgate, 1934; The Universe and God, Hodder & Stoughton, 1939; (With B. C. Saunders) Order and Chaos in the World of Atoms, English Universities Press, 1942, reprinted as Atoms and Molecules Simply Explained, Dover, 1964; Scientific Rationalism and Christian Faith, Tyndale Press, 1945; Creation, Tyndale Press, 1946; The Atomic Bomb: What of the Future?, Paternoster, 1947; The Universe: Plan or Accident?, Paternoster, 1949, 3rd edition, Muhlenberg Press, 1961; Darwin: Before and After, Paternoster Press, 1950, new edition, 1958, reprinted, Folcroft, 1977; Christian Belief and Science: A Reconciliation and a Partnership, English Universities Press, 1960; (Contributor) W. C. Johnson, editor, Organic Reagents for Metals, Volume II, Hopkin & Williams, 1964; Semi-Micro Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Pergamon, 1965; The Christian Stake in Science, Paternoster, 1967; (Contributor) R. H. Vee, editor, Creation: Nature's Designs and Designer, Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1971; Science and Christianity: A Partnership, Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1972; Does the Bible Teach Pacifism?, Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1976; God Beyond Nature, Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1978.

Contributor to The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, Zondervan, 1974. Editor, Science and Religion, 1948-50 and Faith and Thought: Journal of the Victoria Institute of Philosophical Society of Great Britain, 1971-1984; former editor, Transactions of Victoria Institute.

Robert E. D. Clark wrote Contemporary Authors: "I am motivated entirely by my Christian faith. When young I was very backward (a serious illness, frequent moving, World War I bombing and shelling, a school fire). At 11 or 12 I could see little point in learning to read, since grown-ups read such rubbish. Then, word by word, sentence by sentence, I struggled through the Bible: I found it thrilling and motivating. Academically I soon shot to the top. Science fascinated me. Chemistry, because it made manipulation of unseen atoms possible, as in Christianity, you live in a world of faith as if seeing the invisible. The properties of atoms were so obviously planned to make life on a planet possible. In physics the entropy law pointed backwards to a beginning, a creation by a thoughtful Creator. In biology it seemed obvious enough (and still is to me) that Darwin did not kill the design argument.

"Now, more than half a century later, I see no reason to change these youthful views. Indeed, new discoveries have confirmed them repeatedly. Science, as I see it, is a precious gift of God; its abuse a hideous crime which is causing some to reject the gift.

"Of the many writers who have influenced me I owe the most to Robert Govett (1813-1901), an Oxford don and, later, a non-conformist minister. Though not a scientist, his superb reasoning, utter honesty, unconventionality and research-mindedness in interpreting the Bible made science come easily to me. Even today, despite his enormous output, few theologians have heard of him and large libraries have only a fraction of his writings--fortunately for me my dear mother collected and treasured his books. Without them, would I have felt that the Bible made sense? Would I ever have passed a single examination? I do not know.

"In World War I the death roll of university men had been appalling. Good teachers were not available. I can think of no one on our mediocre school staff who whetted my appetite for learning--an appetite that is still insatiable. It was nurtured in my Christian faith."


William Fairlie Clarke, FRCS *** Not in Gale

(1833-1884).   English Assistant-Surgeon to Charing Cross Hospital.  Author: Manual of the Practice of Surgery.  Affiliated with Medical Missionary Association.


Ben Clausen / Benjamin L. Clausen *** Not in Gale

Nuclear Physicist.  Geophysicist. Research scientist, Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, CA.  Adjunct Professor, Department of Natural Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA and Department of Physics, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA.  Previously Research Associate (post-doctoral position), 1987-1989, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia; Research Assistant, 1984-1987, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Contract teacher for physics/mathematics, 1981-1983, Physics & Mathematics Departments, Loma Linda University, Riverside, CA; High school math and science teacher, 1978-1980,  Sandia View Academy, Corrales, NM; Volunteer high school math and science teacher, 1974-1975, Solusi College, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Africa; Technical Assistant for seismic data processing, 1974,  Amoco Oil Company, Houston, TX.

Education: University of Colorado, Boulder, CO - Ph.D., Nuclear Physics - 1987,Thesis: Pion Scattering to 8- Stretched States in 60Ni - [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory thesis LA-11213-T (March 1988)]; Loma Linda University, Riverside, CA - MS, Geology - 1983, Thesis: Stratigraphy and Structure of the Miocene "Esmeralda" Formation in Stewart Valley, Mineral County, Nevada; Union College, Lincoln, NE - BA, Math/Physics - 1978.

Faculty Travel Grant, Associated Western Universities (USDOE), 1990; University Fellowship, University of Colorado, 1983; Research Grant, Geoscience Research Institute, 1982; President's Award, Loma Linda University, 1982; Research Grant, Geological Society of America, 1981; University Fellowship, Loma Linda University, 1980

Member: American Geophysical Union, 1982 - present; American Physical Society, 1983 - present;  Geological Society of America, 2002 - present.


"BEN CLAUSEN, Professional Information,"

"BEN CLAUSEN - Home Page,"


Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Debbie Clausen / Debra Clausen, RN, MSN, FNP-C *** Not in Gale

Wife of Ben Clausen:  "She grew up in Texas, is a registered nurse, spent a year working at a hospital in Zambia, enjoyed a summer as Girl Scout camp nurse in the Colorado Rockies, finished a nurse practitioner masters degree at Azusa Pacific University, and is currently working as Director of the Diabetes Treatment Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center."

From "BEN CLAUSEN, Professional Information,"


Christopher Clavius, S.J. / Christoph Clavius

(1537-1612). Bavarian astronomer and mathematician. Entered Jesuit order (1555); Professor, Collegio Romano (1565-1612); contributed to algebraic notation; developed proposal adopted (1582) as Gregorian calendar reform. Author of extended commentary on Euclid's Elements (1574), Algebra (1608), etc.

The Galileo Project,

"Christopher Clavius, S. J. and his Gregorian Calendar,"


Gerald Bryan Cleaver

(Born 1963). Physicist, researcher.  Assistant Professor of Physics, Baylor University, 2001.  Visiting Assistant Professor, Texas A&M University, 2000-2001; postdoctoral researcher, Texas A&M University, 1998-2000; postdoctoral researcher, University Pennsylvania, 1996-98; postdoctoral researcher, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1993-96. Dr. Cleaver earned his M.S. in Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1988; Mathematics, Valparaiso University,1985; B.S. Physics, Valparaiso University, 1985; Ph.D. in Physics at California Institute of Technology (1993) and three post-doctoral fellowships. His area of expertise is string theory within the larger field of cosmology, the study of the structure and dynamics of the universe.

Member: Fellow Mensa Society, Prometheus Society; International Society for Philophican Enquiry, American Physics Society, Mathematics Association of America, American Association of Physics Teachers, American Science Affiliation, Triple-9 Society, Alpha Phi Omega, Sigma Pi Sigma.

Contributor articles to professional journals.

Faculty webpage, Baylor University Department of Physics:

Faculty webpage,

Home page:

Curriculum vitae:


Dr. Henry H. Cobb, III *** Not in Gale

Pharmacy Practicioner.  Associate Clinical Professor, University of Georgia, Athens.  M.S., University of Georgia. "My job is rewarding, exciting, varied and involves teaching portions of courses in each year of the curriculum. These courses include: pathophysiology (lung and colon cancer and the diseases of the eye) in the first year, in the second year disease management and the accompanying pharmacy practice laboratories, in the third year the OTC course (cough, colds, asthma, the eye and ear) and pharmacokinetics (non-linear), and in the fourth year hospital pharmacy rotations."
Member: Alpha Iota

Rx Profile: Henry H. Cobb, III, Associate Clinical Professor, Interview: What three words that describe you? "Joyful Christian, humble grandfather, thankful husband!"


Sir John Douglas Cockcroft / John D. Cockcroft

(1897-1967). British physicist. Professor, Cambridge (1939-46); Director of Great Britain's Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell(1946-58); president, Manchester College of Science and Technology (1961-67). With Ernest T.S. Walton developed Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage generator for use as particle accelerator (1932); used it to split lithium and other atoms; with Walton awarded Nobel prize for physics (1951). Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, fellow of St. John's College, 1928-46, Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy, 1939-46; British Ministry of Supply, chief superintendent of Air Defence, Research and Development Establishment, 1941-44; National Research Council of Canada, director of Atomic Energy Division in Montreal, Quebec, 1944-45, director of Chalk River Laboratory in Chalk River, Ontario, 1945-46; British Ministry of Supply, director of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, 1946-58; United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, member for scientific research, 1954-59, part-time member, 1959-67; Cambridge University, master of Churchill College, 1959-67. Member of scientific advisory committee, British Broadcasting Corp., 1948-52, and governing board of National Institute for Research in Nuclear Science, 1957-65. Member of court, University of London, 1959-66; chancellor of Australian National University, Canberra, 1961-67; president of Manchester College of Science and Technology, 1961-67.

Education: University of Manchester, B.Sc., 1919, M.Sc., 1922; St. John's College, Cambridge, B.A., 1924, Ph.D., 1928.

Member: Royal Society (London; fellow), British Association (president, 1962), Institute of Physics and Physical Society (fellow; president, 1961-62), Institution of Electrical Engineers, Royal Swedish Academy (foreign member), Royal Danish Academy (foreign member), Australian Academy of Sciences (foreign member), American Academy of Arts and Sciences (honorary foreign member); honorary member of various engineering institutes in England; Savile Club and Athenaeum Club (both London).

Honors: Commander, Order of the British Empire, 1944; knighted, 1948; Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, 1950; Nobel Prize for physics (with Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton), 1951; Knight Commander of the Bath, 1953; Knight Commander, Military Order of Christ (Portugal), 1955; Order of Merit, 1957; Grand Cross, Order of Alfonso X (Spain), 1958; Atoms for Peace Award (United States), 1961. Medal of Freedom with golden palms (United States), 1947; J. A. Ewing Medal of Institution of Civil Engineering, 1948; Royal Medal of Royal Society, 1954; Feraday Medal of Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1955; Kelvin Medal (joint engineering institutions award), 1956; Churchill Gold Medal of Society of Engineers, 1958; Niels Bohr Medal (Denmark), 1958; Wilhelm Exner Medal (Austria), 1961. More than twenty honorary degrees from universities and colleges in England, Ireland, Scotland, Australia, Canada, United States, and the Netherlands, including Oxford University, University of Dublin, Temple University, University of St. Andrews, Dalhousie University, Cambridge University, and University of Western Australia.

Papers on nuclear physics published in Proceedings of Royal Society, and technical papers in Journal of Institute of Electrical Engineers.*

Biography of J.D. Cockcroft,

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft,


Professor John Cogdell / John Richard Cogdell *** Not in Gale

(Born 1936).  Electronic and Computer engineer. Texas Registration No. 50298.  Radio astronomer.  Associate Professor (1972-present), Assistant Professor (1966-1972), Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin. The University of Texas at Austin, Electrical Engineering, BSEE, 1958; The University of Texas at Austin, Electrical Engineering, MSEE, 1959; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering, Ph.D., 1963. MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Student employee, 1959-1963, Staff Engineer, 1963-1965.

Dr. Cogdell's background emphasizes electromagnetics, with applications in antenna theory and practice and in radio astronomy. He has spent the past 25 years working as an undergraduate advisor and teacher. Specifically, he has worked to improve ECE course offerings to nonmajors, and wrote two books in the process. His Foundations of Electrical Engineering is into its second edition, and even more recently he has published Foundations of Electric Circuits, Foundations of Electronics, and Foundations of Electric Power. Currently, he is working on a new method for teaching probability, statistics, and random processes. This method used Mathematica as a base for interactive learning.  As a result of his work as a writer and course designer, Dr. Cogdell has developed a strong interest in technical writing and the pedagogy of engineering education.  A more complete resume is available.

Faculty webpage, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering,

Honors: Distinguished Advisor Award, The University of Texas Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 1968-1969, 1969-1970, 1971-1972, 1977-1978,  1978-1979; Student Engineering Council Outstanding Teacher Award, 1973-1974; Engineering Foundation Faculty Award, 1993; Award of Excellence from Halliburton Foundation, Inc., 1993.

Member: American Scientific Affiliation, American Society for Engineering Education, Eta Kappa Nu,
Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi


Volcher Coiter *** Not in Gale

(1534-1576).  Dutch-born anatomist, embryologist, physician, physiologist.

The Galileo Project,

Coiter was the first to raise comparative anatomy to independent status in biology. His research covered almost the entire vertebrate series.  His studies on the development of the chick were epochal. Based on observations made on 20 successive days, they presented the first systematic statement since the three- period description provided by Aristotle.


Sid Cole *** Not in Gale

Physical Chemist. Research Associate at the Sanitarium Health Food Company, Australia.  Former Director of the Australasian Food Research Laboratories.  B.S. and M.S. in chemistry from Melbourne University; Ph.D. in ligand binding by metalloporphyrins from Newcastle University.

Australian Institute of Food Science Fellow.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Francis S. Collins / Francis Sellers Collins

American geneticist, medical research scientist, Federal agency administrator.  Theistic evolutionist.  Born April 14, 1950, in Staunton, Virginia, Francis S. Collins is a medical geneticist who is leading the international effort to map the location and function of every gene in the human body. Head of the publicly-funded National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in Washington, DC. The National Center for Human Genome Research--which is now known as the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)--was established in 1989 to serve as the world headquarters of the Human Genome Project, a monumental effort to map the location, function, and exact sequence of the constituent chemical parts of the estimated 100,000 genes in the human body. Given that this involves about three billion bits of information, the project is expected to take up to fifteen years to complete. Its ultimate goal is to make it possible for doctors to "cure" some of the diseases caused by flawed genes as well as reverse, correct, or prevent changes in cells that lead to cancer.

"Francis S. Collins." Contemporary Heroes and Heroines, Book III. Edited by Terrie M. Rooney. Gale Research, 1998.

Education: B.S., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1970; M.S., Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1972; Ph.D., Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1974.

Member: IOM, NAS, AMA (Scientific Achievement award 2001).

Honors: Co-recipient Gairdner Foundation International award for work on cystic fibrosis, 1990.  Honorary degrees include D.Sc., Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 1990; L.H.D., Mary Baldwin College, 1991; D.Sc., Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1992; D.Sc., Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1993; D.Sc., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  See curriculum vitae for full list.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Full biography:

Curriculum vitae:

Francis S. Collins.  "Faith and the Human Genome,"

Francis Collins.

Collins: "I actually do not believe that there are any collisions between what I believe as a Christian, and what I know and have learned about as a scientist. I think there's a broad perception that that's the case, and that's what scares many scientists away from a serious consideration of faith. But, unless one chooses to make an absolutely literal interpretation of the book of Genesis and the story of creation -- which I believe is not a choice that people made even before science came along in the last century to cast some doubt upon the timing of the creation events -- other than that I am not aware of any reasons why one cannot be a completely dedicated person of faith who believes that God inspired the writings in the Bible, and also be a rigorous, intellectually completely honest scientist, who does not accept things about the natural world until they're proven."

Bob Abernethy. Interview with Dr. Francis Collins.

Collins: "I think there's a common assumption that you cannot both be a rigorous, show-me-the-data scientist and a person who believes in a personal God. I would like to say that from my perspective that assumption is incorrect; that, in fact, these two areas are entirely compatible and not only can exist within the same person, but can exist in a very synthetic way, and not in a compartmentalized way. I have no reason to see a discordance between what I know as a scientist who spends all day studying the genome of humans and what I believe as somebody who pays a lot of attention to what the Bible has taught me about God and about Jesus Christ. Those are entirely compatible views.

"Science is the way -- a powerful way, indeed -- to study the natural world. Science is not particularly effective -- in fact, it's rather ineffective -- in making commentary about the supernatural world. Both worlds, for me, are quite real and quite important. They are investigated in different ways. They coexist. They illuminate each other. And it is a great joy to be in a position of being able to bring both of those points of view to bear in any given day of the week. The notion that you have to sort of choose one or the other is a terrible myth that has been put forward, and which many people have bought into without really having a chance to examine the evidence. I came to my faith not, actually, in a circumstance where it was drummed into me as a child, which people tend to assume of any scientist who still has a personal faith in God; but actually by a series of compelling, logical arguments, many of them put forward by C. S. Lewis, that got me to the precipice of saying, 'Faith is actually plausible.' You still have to make that step. You will still have to decide for yourself whether to believe. But you can get very close to that by intellect alone."


Robin Collins *** Not in Gale

Physicist.  Cosmologist.  Robin Collins teaches at Messiah College in Grantham, Pennsylvania where he is an Associate Professor of Philosophy (May 1999-Present). Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Messiah College (1994- May 1999); Postdoctoral Fellow, Program in History and Philosophy of Science, Northwestern University (1993-94).  B.A., Mathematics, Washington State University, 1984; Ph.D Program in Physics, University of Texas at Austin,1984-86; Ph.D, Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 1993.

Winner of a Pew Evangelical Scholars Fellowship, 1999-2000; Fellow, Discovery Institute, 1997 -2004; Fellow, Center for Philosophy of Religion, Notre Dame, Spring 2003

Author of around twenty articles/book chapters published, many discussing cosmology and fundamental physics providing evidence for design. He is currently completing a book on the argument for design from physics and cosmology tentatively entitled The Well-Tempered Universe: God, Cosmic Fine-Tuning, and the Laws of Nature.

 "Welcome to Robin Collins' Home Page,"

Curriculum Vita:

Discovery Institute profile,

Interviewed in The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God, by Lee Strobel.  Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2004.  ISBN 0-310-24144-8, (hardbound), ISBN 0-310-24050-6 (paperback).


Realdo Colombo / Matteo Realdo Colombo

(c. 1516-1559).  Realdo Colombo was one of the first anatomists in the Western world to describe pulmonary circulation, observing that blood travels between the right and left ventricles of the heart by way of the lungs. Previously, it was believed that blood traveled through a hidden passage (or passages) connecting the ventricles.  Although two other Europeans wrote about this phenomenon around the same time, it was Colombo's book, The 15 Books Written Concerning Anatomy, that directly influenced seventeenth-century anatomist William Harvey's concept of the heart as a pump circulating blood throughout the body.

The Galileo Project,  He studied medicine at the University of Padua with Vesalius, became his assistant, and in 1544 his successor as lecturer on surgery and anatomy.

Italian anatomist who discovered pulmonary circulation, the process of blood circulating from the heart to the lungs and back.  This showed that Galen's teachings were wrong, and was of help to William Harvey in his work on the heart and circulation. Colombo was a pupil of Andreas Vesalius and became his successor at the University of Padua.


Federico Commandino *** Not in Gale

(1506-1575).  Italian mathematician.  Physician. Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Commandino was the most important figure in the translation (mostly from Greek into Latin) and publication of the classics in mathematics (for example, Euclid and Archimedes). He also translated Euclid into Italian. He added his own essay, On the Calibration of Sundials, to Ptolemy's Planisphere, which was edited by him and published in 1562. His only other original work, dealing with the center of gravity of solid bodies, was published in 1565 at Bologna.

At the request of the anatomist Eustachio (note this, not at the request of a military figure) Commandino improved on the reduction compass apparently invented by Fabricio Mordente, developing it into the polimetric proportional compass, the forerunner of Galilio's compass.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.   "Frederico Commandino,"


Arthur Holly Compton

(1892-1962).  U.S. physicist remembered for discovering the Compton effect, a phenomenon in which electromagnetic waves such as X-rays undergo an increase in wavelength after having been scattered by electrons. For this achievement he shared the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics with the British physicist C.T.R. Wilson. Compton was also a principal contributor to the development of the atomic bomb.

 Founder and Director, Metallurgical Project at the University of Chicago, developed first nuclear reactor (1942-45); chancellor (1945-54), professor (1953-61), Washington University. Today light quanta are generally referred to as photons, a term coined by Compton in 1928.

Author: The Intensity of X-Ray Reflection, and the Distribution of the Electrons in Atoms, Press of the New Era Printing Company (Lancaster, PA), 1917; X-Rays and Electrons, Van Nostrand (New York, NY), 1926;

(With S. K. Allison) X-Rays in Theory and Experiment, Van Nostrand, 1935; The Freedom of Man, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1935; The Human Meaning of Science, University of North Carolina Press (Chapel Hill, NC), 1947.  The Cosmos of Arthur Holly Compton, edited by Marjorie Johnston (1968), contains Compton's "Personal Reminiscences," a selection of his writings on scientific and nonscientific subjects, and a bibliography of his scientific writings. Compton discusses his role in the development of the atomic bomb in Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1956.

Biography of A.H. Compton.

Compton, Arthur Holly (1892 - 1962).

St. Louis Walk of Fame - Arthur Holly Compton. or

Raymond J. Seeger.  "Compton, Christian Humanist," From JASA 37 (March 1985): 54-55.


Guy Consolmagno, S.J.

(Born 1952).  Astronomer, planetary scientist, author, lecturer, and researcher. Harvard College Observatory, postdoctoral fellow and lecturer, 1978-80; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, postdoctoral fellow and lecturer, 1980-83; U.S. Peace Corps, Kenya, Africa, teacher of physics and astronomy, 1983-85; Lafayette College, Easton, PA, Assistant Professor of physics, 1985-89; entered Society of Jesus (Jesuit) order, 1989, took vows as Jesuit brother, 1991; Vatican Observatory, Castel Gandolfo, Italy, researcher, 1993-present, curator of meteorite collection, 2000-present. Loyola College, Baltimore, MD, visiting professor of physics and astronomy; Loyola University, Chicago, IL, visiting professor of physics and astronomy; Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting scientist.

 Education: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, B.S., 1974, M.S. (earth and planetary sciences), 1975; University of Arizona, Ph.D. (planetary science), 1978; Loyola University, Chicago, IL, studied philosophy and theology; University of Chicago, studied physics.

Honors: MacLean Chair for visiting Jesuit scholars, St. Joseph's University, Philadelphia, PA, 2000; asteroid named in his honor in recognition of his work in asteroid and meteorite studies (4597 Consolmagno,

 also known as "Little Guy"), International Astronomical Union, 2000.

Author: (With Dan M. Davis) Turn Left at Orion: A Hundred Night Sky Objects to See in a Small Telescope and How to Find Them, illustrations by Karen Kotash Sepp and Anne Drogin, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1989, revised 3rd edition, 2000; (With Martha W. Schaefer) Worlds Apart: A Textbook in Planetary Sciences, Prentice Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ), 1994; The Way to the Dwelling of Light, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, (Rome, Italy), 1998; Brother Astronomer: Adventures of a Vatican Scientist, McGraw-Hill (New York, NY), 2000.

Author of several dozen scientific publications.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Br. Guy Consolmagno, SJ, Vatican Observatory. "Astronomy, God, and the Search for Elegance,"

(Talk given at the H. R. MacMillan Space Center, Vancouver, May 15, 2003)


Reverend Daniel Conybeare

(1787-1857). English geologist and paleontologist. Vicar in Devonshire (1836-44); Dean of Llandaff (1844-57). First to describe Icthyosaurus (1821). Author of On the Origin of a Remarkable Class of Organic Impressions Occurring in Nodules of Flint (1814) and classic Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales (1822, with William Phillips), on Carboniferous stratigraphy of Britain.


Josiah Parsons Cooke

(1827-1894). American chemist, b. Boston. Professor, Harvard (1850-94); investigated atomic weights of elements.  He exerted a wholesome influence on American education, secondary and collegiate, by his determined and energetic championship of the study of science. As an investigator he was singularly clear in thought, undismayed by experimental difficulties, ingenious in devising apparatus and methods, and keen in his enthusiasm for research.

Josiah P. Cooke, Jr,  Religion and chemistry; or, Proofs of God's plan in the atmosphere and its elements. Ten lectures delivered at the Brooklyn institute, Brooklyn, N.Y., on the Graham foundation. New York,C. Scribner, 1865.


Julian Lowell Coolidge

(1873-1954).  Mathematician. He attended Exeter Academy and graduated summa cum laude in 1895 from Harvard College, where he also received a medal for running the mile in the record time of 4 minutes, 30 4/5 seconds. He then went for two years to Oxford, where he stroked the second Balliol crew and in 1897 took the first B.Sc. degree ever awarded by that university. Returning to the United States, he taught for two years at the Groton School, founded in 1884 by his cousin Endicott Peabody, before becoming an instructor in mathematics at Harvard in 1899, where he taught for the next 41 years.  In 1902 Coolidge took a two-year leave of absence for graduate study in mathematics at the universities of Paris, Greifswald, Turin, and Bonn; he received the Ph.D. from Bonn in 1904 with a dissertation on non-Euclidean line geometry. Returning to Harvard he became Assistant Professor in 1908 and professor in 1918. His faculty colleagues wrote after his death: "Half-truths and slack performance were anathema to him. Many learned from him, some of them the hard way, that there can be no compromise between right and wrong. Yet he had withal a truly Christian tolerance; of him it can be said that he never forgot a kindness, nor ever remembered an injury."

The Clarendon Press at Oxford published his Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry in 1909 and, over the next forty years, seven other substantial books: A Treatise on the Circle and Sphere (1916), The Geometry of the Complex Domain (1924), Introduction to Mathematical Probability (1925), A Treatise on Algebraic Plane Curves (1931), A History of Geometrical Methods (1940), A History of the Conic Sections and Quadric Surfaces (1945), and The Mathematics of Great Amateurs (1949). Coolidge wrote more than seventy articles, the last of which was in press at the time of his death.

Excerpted from Walter Muir Whitehill.

 "Julian Lowell Coolidge."Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 5: 1951-1955. American Council of Learned Societies, 1977.

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.  "Julian Lowell Coolidge,"

Julian Lowell Coolidge, Ph.D. The Development of Harvard University, 1869-1929, Since the inauguration of President Eliot, 1869-1929 Chapter XV. Mathematics, 1870-1929; Edited by Samuel Eliot Morison, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1930.


 Nicolaus Copernicus / Nicholas Copernicus / original name Mikolaj Kopernik

(1473 - 1543). A Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system. He was born in Torun in the Polish province of Royal Prussia. He was also a church canon, governor and administrator, a jurist, astrologer and a doctor. His theory about the Sun as the center of the solar system, turning over the traditional geocentric theory (that wanted the Earth to be its central star), is considered one of the most important discoveries ever, and is the fundamental starting point of modern astronomy. His theory affected many other aspects of human life.

From Nicolaus Copernicus

He attended various European universities, and became a Canon in the Catholic church in 1497. His new system was actually first presented in the Vatican gardens in 1533 before Pope Clement VII who approved, and Copernicus was urged to publish around this time. Copernicus was never under any threat of religious persecution - and was urged to publish both by Catholic Bishop Guise, Cardinal Schonberg, and the Protestant Professor George Rheticus. Copernicus referred sometimes to God in his works, and did not see his system as in conflict with the Bible.

The Galileo Project,

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.  "Nicolaus Copernicus,"

"Astronomy Rocks! Nicolaus Copernicus,"

"The Scientists: Nicolas Copernicus,"


France Anne-Dominic Córdova

(Born 1947).  Astronomer, astrophysicist, administrator.

 Achievements include analysis of ultra-soft x-ray emission from active galactic nuclei; observations and modeling of the winds from accretion disks; studies of the interstellar medium using ultraviolet spectroscopy of nearby hot binary stars; observations and modeling of extended x-ray emitting regions in close binary systems; understanding the accretion geometry of magnetic binaries with accreting white dwarfs; coordinating radio and x-ray observations of x-ray binaries in an effort to find a unified model for correlated behavior; search for evidence of galactic magnetic monopoles by identifying a class of ultrasoft x-ray emitters; studying the multispectial emission from neutron stars; making observations of an x-ray emitting pulsar and its associated supernova remnant in the radio and infrared; conceiving space instruments and data systems for imaging detectors (U.S. principal investigator for opticalUV Telescope to fly 1999 on ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror mission); making multifrequency observations of high-energy sources. vice chancellor for Research, University California, Santa Barbara, 1996.  . From 1993 to 1996, Córdova worked as the chief scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the youngest person ever to hold that post.   Previously, she was Professor, head dept. astronomy and astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1989-93; dep. group leader space astronomy and astrophysics group, Los Alamos National Lab., 1989; staff scientist earth and space science division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1979-89. Member, National Committee on Medal of Science, 1991-94; member adv. Committee for astronomical sciences NSF, 1990-93, external adv. Committee Particle Astrophysics Center, 1989-93; Board directors, Association Universities for Research in Astronomy, 1989-93; member Space Telescope Institute Council, 1990-93; member Committee space astronomy and astrophysics Space Science Board, 1987-90, International users Committee Roentgen X-ray Obs., 1985-90, extreme ultraviolet explorer guest observer working group NASA, 1988-92, Committee Space Science and Applications Group, NASA, 1991-93; member Hubble Telescope Adv. Camera Team, 1993; chair Hubble Fellow Selection Committee, 1992.  Education: BA, Stanford University, 1969; Ph.D., California Institute Tech., 1979.

Member: International Astron. Union (U.S. National com. 1990-93), American Astron. Society (v.p. 1993-96, chair high energy astrophysics division,1990, vice chair 1989), Sigma Xi.

Honors: Named One of America's 100 Brightest Scientists under 40, Science Digest, 1986; numerous grants NASA, 1979-present, recipient group achievement award, NASA, 1991.
Author: The Women of Santo Domingo, 1969; guest editor Mademoiselle mag., 1969; editor: Multiwavelength Astrophysics, 1988, The Spectroscopic Survey Telescope, 1990; Contributor to over 100 articles, abstracts and revs. to Astrophysics Journal, Nature, Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Advanced Space Research, Astron. Astrophysics, Mon. National Royal Astron. Society, chapters to books.

Córdova, France A, Chancellor.

Kris Lovekin   (April 2002).  "Astrophysicist to lead UCR; France A. Córdova had been chief scientist for NASA,"


Euricius Cordus *** Not in Gale

(1486-1535).  German Botanist.  Catholic, then Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,


Valerius Cordus *** Not in Gale

(1515-1544).  German botanist and pharmacologist.  Lutheran.  Worked with apothecaries.

The Galileo Project,

Wrote first official Dispensatorium north of the Alps.


Vincenzo Maria Coronelli *** Not in Gale

(1650-1718).  Italian geographer, cartographer, engineer.  Hydraulics specialist.  Inventor.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Coronelli's work includes more than 100 large and small globes that have survived, several hundred maps, printed separately and as parts of atlases, an incredible number of geographic and cartographic publications, and seven volumes of a projected forty-five volume encyclopedia (Biblioteca universale).

It is partly for his globes that Coronelli is remembered: their accuracy, the wealth of information displayed, and their artistic excellence distinquish their maker as one of the leading geographers and cartographers of the baroque period. In the early 80's he made two famous globes, one celestial and one terrestrial, for Louis XIV--four meters in diameter. He later made a globe three meters in diameter for Innocent XII, and for the Duke of Parma he made globes of about four feet in diameter. He made a host of smaller ones, down to one inch.

He also published on geography, with special attention to Venetian conquests (not then known to be temporary) from the Turks. His Atlante veneto, 1690f, included 1,200 maps. His maps incorporated the latest discoveries.

At the end of his life he published a work on hydrostatics, Effete naturali delle acque.

He was known as a civil engineer in Venice, and was invited to Vienna and consulted by the emperor on flood control measures in 1717.  In 1699 Innocent XII called him to Rome to sound the harbor of Anzio.  He was the inventor of a number of military machines (canons, mortars, etc.).

Founded the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti in Venice in 1684. It was the first geographical society. The academy had an immense success, enrolling some 200 members from all of Europe by 1693. Its only function was to promote the works of Coronelli.


J. Daniel Couger / James Daniel Couger

(1929-1998).  Information scientist.

Association for Information Systems. "J. Daniel Couger,"

"Dan Couger was one of the important developers of the academic field of information systems and also an important contributor to information systems practice. His publications provided essential source material for the field. His research aided the development of IS personnel. He was a participant in the most significant IS model curriculum efforts. His influence was global.
Dan earned his bachelor's degree in journalism from Philips University in Enid, Oklahoma, in 1951. After two years in the Air Force and a short stint as an industrial engineer with a government contractor, he went to work in 1954 for Hallmark, where he was unsuccessful in his attempt to get 'Mr. Hall,' the company's founder, to buy a computer for the company. Dan earned a Master's degree in Economics from the University of Kansas and a Doctorate in Business Administration from the University of Colorado in 1964.
He joined the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, in 1965. Dan was one of the founding professors for IS at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, and a pioneer in teaching students how to combine computer technology with business strategy. He was honored by his university with the rank of distinguished professor. In 1998, Scott Oki, a former student, endowed the J. Daniel Couger Professorship of Information Systems. Dan was elected a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, one of a very small number who have been so recognized. Among other awards was the Outstanding Teacher Award by the DPMA.
During the critical years at the beginning of the field, Dan published the Computing Newsletter for Collegiate Schools of Business, supported initially by IBM. It was the best source of information on current developments affecting teaching of computing and information systems in schools of business.
Dan was involved in major model curricula efforts for information systems. He was a member of the committee that produced the 1972 ACM graduate program. He was the author of the 1973 ACM undergraduate model curriculum report. He was a member of the 1983 revision of the ACM Information Systems curriculum. He continued this involvement through the 1997 report, "IS'97 Model Curriculum and Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Systems," by ACM, AIS, and AITP.
He wrote 18 books, had hundreds of articles published in professional journals, and lectured in more than 60 countries. Several of his books are noteworthy contributions to the field. Two of the books filled a need in the field by describing systems analysis and techniques and methodologies: System Analysis Techniques (with R. W. Knapp, Wiley, New York, 1974) and Advanced System Development/Feasibility Techniques (with M. A. Colter and R. W. Knapp, Wiley, New York, 1982). He published the results of pathbreaking research on IS personnel (Motivating and Managing Computer Personnel, with R. Zawacki, Wiley, New York, 1980; Maintenance Programming: Improved Productivity through Motivation, with M. A. Colter, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985). At his death, he was actively engaged in research on creativity with special emphasis on creativity of information systems personnel (Creativity & Innovation in Information Systems Organizations, Boyd & Fraser, Danvers, CT, 1996)."

Positions: Industrial engineer, National Gypsum Co., 1953-54; Hallmark Cards, Inc., Kansas City, MO, industrial engineering department supervisor, 1954-58; Martin Marietta Corp., Littleton, CO, computer department section chief, 1958-65; University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, professor of computer and management science, beginning 1965. Member of affiliate faculty of Japan American Institute of Management Science. Has lectured in twenty-three countries. President of Gethsemane Christian Church, Colorado Springs, 1972-73. Consultant to International Business Machines Corp., Dow Chemical Corp., and Hewlett Packard Co.  Education: Phillips University, B.A., 1951; University of Kansas City (now University of Missouri--Kansas City), M.A., 1958; University of Colorado, D.B.A., 1964.

Member: Operations Research Society of America, Institute of Management Sciences, Society for Management Information Systems (secretary; member of executive council), Association for Computing Machinery (chair of lectureship series), American Institute for Decision Sciences (vice-president), Association for Systems Management, Data Processing Management Association, Christian Churches of Colorado and Wyoming (chair of new church development, 1969-71), Boy Scouts of America (cubmaster, Denver Area Council, 1965-66).  Presbyterian.

Honors:  National award from American Association for Collegiate Schools of Business, for curriculum innovation; distinguished service award, 1966, from Association for Systems Management; University of Colorado, Distinguished Faculty Award, 1976, and Chancellor's Award, 1977; U.S. Computer Science Man of the Year award, 1977, from Data Processing Management Association.

Author: Computers and the Schools of Business, Business Research Division, School of Business Administration, University of Colorado, 1967; (With Loren E. Shannon) FORTRAN IV: A Programmed Instruction Approach, Irwin, 1968, 3rd edition, 1976; (With Shannon) FORTRAN: A Beginner's Approach, with programmed learning aid, Irwin, 1971; (Editor with Robert W. Knapp) Systems Analysis Techniques, Wiley, 1974; Acts of the Holy Spirit, Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship, 1974; (With Fred McFadden) Introduction to Computer-Based Information Systems, Wiley, 1975; (With McFadden) A First Course in Data Processing, Wiley, 1977; (Coauthor with Robert A. Zawacki) Motivating and Managing Computer Personnel, Wiley (New York, NY), 1980; (Coauthor with Mel A. Colter) Advanced System Development/Feasibility Techniques, Wiley (New York, NY), 1982; Creative Problem Solving and Opportunity Finding, (Boyd & Fraser) (Hinsdale, IL), 1995; Creativity and Innovation in Information Systems Organizations, Boyd & Fraser 1996.

Editor, "Business Data Processing" series, Wiley, beginning 1965. Columnist, Computerworld, beginning 1970. Contributor of over fifty articles to professional journals. Editor, Computing Newsletter for Schools of Business, beginning 1967.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Articles by J. Daniel Couger:


Charles Augustin Coulomb / Charles Augustin de Coulomb

The French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) was famous for establishing the relation for computing the force between electrical charges. He also did pioneering work on sliding and fluid friction.

"Charles Augustin de Coulomb,"


Charles Alfred Coulson

(1910-1974). King's College, University of London, London, England, Professor of theoretical physics, 1947-52; Oxford University, Oxford, England, Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics, 1952-74, Wadham College, Fellow, 1952-74. Riddell Lecturer, King's College, 1953; Rede Lecturer, Cambridge University, 1954; McNair Lecturer, University of North Carolina, 1954; Bruce Preller Lecturer, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1956; Firth Lecturer, University of Nottingham, 1957; Eddington Memorial Lecturer, Cambridge University, 1958; Fisher Baker Lecturer, Cornell University, 1959. Vice-president, Methodist Conference, 1959.


Michael A. Covington *** Not in Gale

Computer scientist. Senior Research Scientist, Adjunct Professor of Computer Science, Associate Director,
Artificial Intelligence Center, The University of Georgia.

B.A. (Linguistics), summa cum laude, University of Georgia, 1977; M.Phil. (Linguistics), Cambridge University, 1978; Ph.D. (Linguistics), Yale University, 1982.

Member: Senior Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Member, University of Georgia Linguistics Faculty and Engineering Faculty, Erdös number: 3 (via D. Potter and R. Robinson), 

The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia

Faculty webpage, Michael A. Covington-Associate Director, Artificial Intelligence Center,

Curriculum vitae (PostScript) (PDF) (not always 100% current)

Personal website: Covington Innovations.

Michael and Melody Covington, Athens, Georgia.  "What Christianity is All About: Basic information about the Christian faith," "Michael and Melody Covington are Christians who live in Athens, Georgia. Michael is Associate director of the Artificial Intelligence Center at the University of Georgia; he has a Ph.D. from Yale University. Melody is a graphic artist and typesetter; she has a B.F.A. from the University of Georgia. They attend Beech Haven Baptist Church."

Michael A. Covington.  "Christianity and the History of Mathematics,"  May 17, 1995.

Dr. Michael Covington.  Christian Student Survival Conference Session 7: "Jesus and the Historical Reliability of the Bible,"


Irving Cowperthaite *** Not in Gale

(1904-1999).  Chemist, engineer, metallurgist.  One of the five founders of the American Scientific Affiliation.  Chief Engineer and Metallurgist at Thompson Steel Co. in Mattapan, MA, 1937-1969. Born in Worcester, Irving earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry at MIT and doctorate at Columbia University. He taught chemistry at Columbia from 1930-37, then joined Thompson Steel. He retired in 1969.

F. Alton Everest.  "Irving A. Cowperthwaite, 1904-1999,"

"Irving received the BS degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in chemistry in 1926. About that time Professor D.A. MacInnes left MIT for Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research and he took Cowperthwaite with him. For the next four years Irving was a research chemist at Rockefeller Institute in New York City while pursuing a full graduate Ph.D. program at Columbia University.

In 1937 Irving left Columbia University to become Chief Engineer and Metallurgist at Thompson Wire Company in Boston. He retired from Thompson in 1969 with an impressive list of scientific papers to his credit.

Irving married Fae Irene Poore, a graduate student at Teachers College, in 1931 whom he had met at Calvary Baptist Church of New York City. An interesting twist: Will H. Houghton was pastor of Calvary at that time. It was in Dr. Houghton's Board Room at Moody Bible Institute that ASA 'first saw the light of day.'"


Gertrude Mary Cox

(1900-1978).  American stastician.  Professor of Statistics at North Carolina State University at Raleigh. Founder of the Department of Experimental Statistics at North Carolina State University (1940), the Institute of Statistics of the Consolidated University of North Carolina (1946), and the Statistics Research Division of the Research Triangle Institute. President of the American Statistical Association (1956). In 1949 became the first female elected into the International Statistical Institute (1949). Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975.

Cox made substantial contributions to the theory of statistics and experimental design. Richard Anderson wrote in Biographical Memoirs that her most valuable contribution to science was organizing and administering programs. She was exceptionally successful in generating financial support for research.

Although she received numerous honors, including her 1975 election to the National Academy of Sciences, Cox was particularly pleased with the dedication of the statistics building at North Carolina State University as "Cox Hall" in 1970 and the establishment by her former students of the $200,000 Gertrude M. Cox Fellowship Fund for outstanding students in statistics at NCS in 1977.

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.  "Gertrude Mary Cox,"

Plaza of Heroines.

Biographical Memoirs V.59 (1990), National Academy of Sciences (NAS),

North Carolina State University Libraries' Special Collections Research Center Guide to the Gertrude Mary Cox Collection, 1918 - 1983, Collection Number MC 117,


William Sands Cox *** Not in Gale

(1802-1875). Physician.

To William Sands Cox is due the merit of establishing the Queens Hospital. He was a remarkable man. Born in Birmingham in 1802, educated at King Edward's School, articled to his Father (a Birmingham Surgeon), he began to study at the General Hospital and continued his studies at Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals in London and Paris. He returned to Birmingham in 1825, and giving up all thought of acquiring a large general practice resolved to start a School of Anatomy of his own.



William Crabtree *** Not in Gale

(1610-1644).  English astronomer.  Cartographer.  Instrument-maker.

The Galileo Project,

Crabtree made precise observations, which convinced him of the accuracy of the Rudolphine Tables; he became one of the early converts to Kepler's system. He converted the tables to decimal form. By observation he established the latitude of Manchester.  He was one of the earliest Englishmen to study the sunspots. He collaborated with Horrock's work on the moon.  Crabtree was occasionally employed as a surveyer, and a map of the estate of Sir Humphrey Booth that he did in 1637 survives.

He recognized the importance of instruments in refining observational accuracy, and his correspondence with Gascoigne is filled with discussions of this issue. The correspondence refers to clocks, telescopes, micrometers, and related pieces. Like Horrocks and Gascoigne, he apparently made his own telescopes and other instruments (which means, for parts other than lenses, that he employed local craftsmen to make things to his specifications).


William Lane Craig

(Born 1949).  Scholar. William Lane Craig is Research Professor of Philosophy at Talbot School of Theology in La Mirada, California.

Virtual Office of William Lane Craig,

At the age of sixteen as a junior in high school, he first heard the message of the Christian gospel and yielded his life to Christ.  Dr. Craig pursued his undergraduate studies at Wheaton College (B.A. 1971) and graduate studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (M.A. 1974; M.A. 1975), the University of Birmingham (England) (Ph.D. in Philosophy, 1977), and the Ludwig Maximilians Universität-München, Germany (Doctorate in Theology, 1984). For two years he was a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, writing on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus.   From 1980-86 he taught Philosophy of Religion at Trinity, during which time he and his wife Jan started their family. In 1987 they moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Dr. Craig pursued research at the University of Louvain until 1994.

Member: American Philosophical Association, American Academy of Religion, Society of Biblical Literature, Leibniz Society of America, Society of Christian Philosophers, ASA; SRF; PTS; ETS; EPS.

He has authored or edited over thirty books, including Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus, 1989; Will the Real Jesus Please Stand Up? (with John Dominic Crossan), 1998; Time and the Metaphysics of Relativity, Kluwer Academic, 2000; and Jesus' Resurrection: Fact or Figment? (with Gerd Lüdemann), as well as numerous articles in professional journals such as New Testament Studies, Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Expository Times, and Kerygma und Dogma.

Biographical sketch.

Curriculum vitae:


Craig told Contemporary Authors: "My special interest is investigating the rational basis of Christian faith."

Interviewed in The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God, by Lee Strobel.  Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2004.  ISBN 0-310-24144-8, (hardbound), ISBN 0-310-24050-6 (paperback).


Elma Aisha Crawford

(Born August 17, 1959 in Libya, came to U.S., 1980).  Biologist, researcher. Graduate Teaching Laboratory Assistant S.C. State College, Orangeburg, 1983-84; Necrospy and histology technician, Life Science, Hazleton, Vienna, Virginia, 1985; intern Teacher Assistant Shriner's Hospital School, 1980. B.S.C., Claflin College, 1983; postgraduate S.C. State University, 1983-84, Georgetown University, 1984-85.

Coordinator Young Christians for Global Justice, Orangeburg, S.C., 1982. Methodist, Baptist.

Author monograph, How to Achieve Happiness in this World Full of Evil, 1981.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Richard Critchfield / Richard Patrick Critchfield

(1931-1994).  Journalist, author.  Awarded one of the first MacArthur Foundation "genius" grants in 1981, journalist Richard Critchfield was best known for his nonfiction accounts of ordinary life in villages throughout the world. "My central finding, that the spread of Western medicine, agriculture, and communications were bringing about a great change in the general human condition, was reported in the Economist on March 9, 1979. This article was expanded in `Science and the Villager: The Last Sleeper Wakes,' written for the 60th anniversary edition of Foreign Affairs."  Richard Critchfield received his B.A. from the University of Washington, Seattle.  In 1957 he received his M.S. in journalism from Columbia University and did additional graduate work at the Universities of Vienna and Innsbruck as well as Northwestern University.

Member: Explorers Club, Overseas Press Club of N.Y.C. (award best daily reporting Vietnam 1965), Cosmos Club, Commonwealth Club of California, Phi Kappa Psi.

Richard Critchfield reported from all over the world, concentrating mainly on the Third World.  He wrote for the Christian Science Monitor, The Economist, The New York Times, Reader's Digest, The Wall Street Journal, American University Fieldstaff Report and the Washington Post.  In 1965 he won the Overseas Press Award for his reporting in Vietnam.  His books include Lore and Legend of Nepal (1971); The Long Charade: Political Subversion in the Vietnam War (1968); The Golden Bowl Be Broken: Peasant Life in Four Cultures (1973 and 1988); Shahhat: An Egyptian (1978); Villages (1981); Those Days: An American Album (1986); An American Looks at Britain (1990); Tress, Why Do You Wait? (1991); and Villagers (1994). 

Honors: Recipient Alicia Patterson Fund award, 1970-71; Ford Foundation grantee, Asia, Africa, Latin American, U.S., 1972-74, 76-81, 86-87, 90-92, Mexico, 1993-94; Institute Current World Affairs grantee, 1971; Rockefeller Foundation humanities fellow, 1978, grantee, 1990-92, MacArthur Foundation Prize fellow, 1981. He continued to work as a journalist and author up to his death from a stroke on December 10, 1994. 

 Critchfield's notes, including 450 Vietnam notebooks, are kept at the Mass Communications Library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Richard Critchfield Papers, 1954-1994 (Mss 206), Biography,

Richard Critchfield Papers, 1954-1994 (Mss 206), Scope and Content,


William Croone / William Croune *** Not in Gale

(1633-1684).  English physiologist, physician, embryologist, anatomist, physicist.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Croone was especially interested in muscular action and embryology. He published De ratione motus musculorum in 1664, and in 1672 read a paper , "De formatione pulli in ovo," (radically preformationist) to the Royal Society in 1672. He gave reports to the Royal Society on a range of physiological questions. He lectured on anatomy to the Barber Surgeons for years, and also pursued some comparative anatomy.  As an experimenter he was associated with Boyle's study of pressure and volume in air. Croone discovered, and demonstrated experimentally, that water has its maximum density above the freezing point.  He carried out systematic observations of the weather with crude thermometers and hygroscopes and with barometers.

Member: Medical College, Royal Society, 1660-84. Croone was one of the original members. He was Register (i.e., Secretary), 1660-2, frequently on the Council throughout the rest of his life, and in general active in the Society's affairs.  Royal College of Physicians, 1663-84; Candidate 1663; Fellow 1675; Censor, 1679.

Informal Connections: London circle.  Correspondence with N. Steno, Henry Power, and others.


Jean-Pierre de Crousaz

(1663-1750). Swiss philosopher, mathematician, natural philosopher, mechanic and theologian. Professor at Lausanne (1700-24, 1738-49); tutor to Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1726-32). Works included Nouvel essai de logique (1712), Traite du beau (1714), Traite sur l'education des enfants (1722), critique of Pope's Essay on Man (1737), refutations of Bayle and Leibnitz.

The Galileo Project,

His Commentaire sur l'analyse des infiniment petits, appeared in 1721, made him famous.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1725-1750; Associate member of the Académie des Sciences.  Associate member of the Académie des Sciences of Bordeaux, 1735-1750.


William Cruickshank ***

(?-1811). English chemist William Cruickshank designed the first electric battery capable of mass production (1802) by joining zinc and copper plates in a wooden box filled with electrolyte. He also performed experiments leading to electroplating.  Discovered the metal strontium in 1787.  Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. He described and studied proteinuria in 1799 in Rollo's Diabetes (see Neild G 1998).

Member: Fellow of Royal Society, 1802.

"Batteries in a Portable World,"

"The Heritage of Alessandro Volta,"

"The first of the long list of those to improve the battery was Dr. William Cruickshank who discovered the metal strontium in 1787. He arranged square sheets of copper which he soldered at their edges to similar sized sheets of zinc. These couples were placed into a long rectangular wooden box lined with a resinous cement. The couples were set into grooves and an electrolyte of brine or dilute acid was added to fill the box. This arrangement avoided the drying out of the spacers as in Volta's battery and also provided a much more powerful source of electric current.

"With this battery Dr. Cruickshank was able to extract metals out of their solutions, thereby establishing the art of electroplating. Although the new arrangement was an important improvement, the cells still leaked and were untidy. Cruickshank decomposed the chlorides of magnesia, soda and ammonia and he was able to precipitate pure copper and silver from their salt solutions - a process that led to the beginnings of the great metal refineries of today.

"Additional discoveries showed that the liquid around the poles connected with the positive wire of the battery proved to be alkaline and the liquid around the negative wire was shown to be acid. Finally, the common term 'cell' associated with the elements of an electric battery was derived from Cruickshank's arrangement of elements in his trough battery."


William Cumberland Cruickshank

(Often confused with the chemist William Cruickshank of Woolwich)

(1745-1800).  Scottish surgeon who discovered the ovum in mammals.  Incorrectly labeled as "Cruickshanks" in the following biography.

"Significant Scots: William Cruickshanks,"

"CRUICKSHANKS, WILLIAM, F.R.S. an eminent surgeon in London, the assistant, partner, and successor of the famous Dr. William Hunter of the Windmill Street Anatomical School, was the son of an officer in the excise, and was born at Edinburgh in the year 1745.

"After completing the elementary branches of his education at the schools of Edinburgh, he commenced the study of divinity at that university; but he soon forsook his clerical studies and directed his attention to medicine. With a view to that profession, he removed to Glasgow, where he went through a complete course of medical education at the university. Having devoted eight years of his life to assiduous study, he obtained, through the recommendation of Dr. Pitcairn, the situation of librarian to Dr. William Hunter of London; and so highly did that great man estimate his talents, that he soon after appointed him his assistant, and ultimately raised him to the honour of being his partner, in superintending his establishment in Windmill Street. On the death of Dr. Hunter in the year 1783, the students of that institution thought so favourably of Mr. Cruickshanks' professional acquirements, that they presented an address to him, and to the late Dr. Baillie, requesting that they might assume the superintendence of the school; which they did.

"Mr. Cruickshanks is known to the world by his medical publications; and as a teacher and writer he acquired a high reputation for his knowledge of anatomy and physiology. In the year 1786, he published his principal work The Anatomy of the absorbent vessels of the Human Body, a production of acknowledged merit, which has been translated into several languages. He also wrote an ingenious paper on the nerves of living animals, which establishes the important fact of the regeneration of mutilated nerves. This paper, however, although read before the Royal Society, was not published in the transactions of that body until several years afterwards. This delay was owing to the interference of Sir John Pringle, who conceived that Mr. Cruickshanks had controverted some of the opinions of the great HaIler. In the year 1797, Mr. Cruickshanks was elected fellow of the Royal Society.  [Note: The Royal Society names him as 'Cruickshank'.]  In 1799, he made his experiments on insensible perspiration, which he added to his work on the absorbent vessels."


Billy Lee Crynes

(Born 1938). Chemical engineering educator.  Dean College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1987; head dept., University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1978-87; President Chemical Engineering, University Oklahoma, Norman, 1967.  Consultant, ERPI; Consultant, Global Engineering; Consultant, General Mills; Consultant, Arco Corp.; Consultant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Research Engineer, E.I. duPont, 1968-70; Research Engineer, Standard Oil, 1968; Research Engineer, Nalco Chemical Co., 1969-70;  BS, Rose-Hulman Institute Tech., 1963; MS, Purdue University, 1966; Ph.D., Purdue University, 1968.

Member: American Chemical Society (National Treasurer 1975-83), American Chemical Society (chairman elect Industrial and engineering chemistry division, 1983), American Institute Chemical Engineers

Recipient Young Engineer of Year Award, Oklahoma Society Professional Engineers, 1972; MASUA Visiting scholar, 1976-77.

Contributing author: Chemistry of Coal Utilization, 1981, (with L.F. Albright and W.H. Corcoran) Pyrolysis: Theory and Industrial Practice, 1983, (with L.F. Albright) Pyrolysis: Theory & Practice, 1983.


Jack Cuozzo, D.D.S. *** Not in Gale

Orthodontist.  Paleontologist.  Research orthodontist and head of the orthodontic section, Mountainside Hospital, Montclair, New Jersey.  Dr Cuozzo was also a member of the St. Barnabas Hospital Medical Staff and served on their Cleft Palate Team. He also was a member of the New Jersey Academy of Medicine for many years. Dr. Cuozzo has been an orthodontist in New Jersey for 33 years. He prepared for his career through studies at Georgetown University (biology major, philosophy minor) and degrees from the University of Pennsylvania (D.D.S.) and Loyola University / Chicago Graduate School of Dentistry (M.S., Oral Biology; Certificate of Specialty in Orthodontics). He also was a Lieutenant in the Navy serving aboard the USS Enterprise (CVAN-65). He and his wife Diane have five grown children and four grandchildren.

In 1977 he studied in Switzerland with the late Dr. Francis Schaeffer and in 1979 embarked upon an original study of Neanderthal fossil specimens with the aid of the late Dr. Wilton M. Krogman, noted anthropologist and Professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Cuozzo's paleontology studies have been conducted at the laboratories in the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, the British Museum in England under Christopher Stringer, the University of Liege in Belgium, the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem, the Museum of Prehistory in East Berlin, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the Field Museum in Chicago, the Peabody Museum at Harvard University, and the paleontology collection of Southern Methodist University.

He has also studied the Paleolithic caves in Southern France. Part of his work has included taking the first cephalometric (orthodontic) radiographs in history of the Neanderthal fossils (1979-1991).

He also has served as an adjunct Professor of biology at the former King's College (Briarcliff Manor, NY). He has taught seminars and courses on the growth and development of ancient man, the fossil record, cave research, and the philosophical basis of evolution. He has lectured at numerous churches, colleges, and organizations. Dr. Cuozzo has conducted paleontology tours of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City for the last four years.

Dr. Cuozzo's publishing efforts have included three articles in the Journal of the New Jersey Dental Society and one article and one editorial review of his work in Creation magazine. He has also published in the Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal and the Creation Research Society Quarterly. Some of his work was included in The Creation series (editor: Josh McDowell; Here's Life Publishers Inc.), and the movie series: Origins: How The World Came To Be, The Illustrated Origins Answerbook (edited by Paul Taylor, 4th ed.; Eden Productions). In 1996 he made a series of six TV programs for Cornerstone TV in Wall, Pennsylvania. that have been aired over a satellite network. Dr. Cuozzo's first book, Buried Alive, was released in 1998 by Master Books of Green Forest, Arkansas. He is one of six authors of the book, When Christians Roamed The Earth, published by Master Books.

Web site at:


Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Robert Floyd Curl / Robert F. Curl, Jr.

(Born 1933).  Physical chemist. American scientist Robert F. Curl, Jr., a professor of physical chemistry at Rice University, won the 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with fellow Rice professor Richard E. Smalley and Briton Harold W. Kroto from the University of Sussex, for the discovery of a new form of the element carbon, called Carbon 60. The third molecular form of carbon (the other two forms are diamonds and graphite), C60 consists of 60 atoms of carbon arranged in hexagons and pentagons and is called a "buckminsterfullerene," "fullerene," or by its nickname "Buckyball" in honor of Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles.

Curl was the chairman of the Rice University Chemistry Department from 1992 to 1996. As the school's Harry C. and Olga K. Wiess Professor of Natural Sciences, his current research centers on gas phase chemical kinetics, spectroscopy, and environmental monitoring. BA, Rice University, 1954; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1957; D, University Buenos Aires, 1997; D, University Littoral, 2002.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Curl has received the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award in 1984 and the APS International Prize for New Materials in 1992.  He has been named to the Texas Science Hall Fame; recipient Clayton prize, Institution Mechanical Engineers, London, 1958, Order of Golden Plate, 1997, Achievement award, American Carbon Society, 1997, Texas Distinguished Scientist award, 1997, Johannes Marcus Marci award in spectroscopy, 1998, Madison Marshall award, 1998, Space Act award, 1998, Centenary medal, Royal Society Chemistry, 1999; fellow NSF, Alfred P. Sloan, 1961-1963, NATO postdoctoral, 1964. He has also been a NATO fellow, an Alfred P. Sloan fellow, and an Optical Society of America fellow.


 Royal Society of New Zealand (honorary); NAS, European Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters (titulaire member), American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi, Phi Beta Kappa.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Rice University bio,


Peter Brian Edwin Curtis-Prior

(Born July 18, 1941 in Dartford, Kent, U.K.).  Medical research executive, biomedical educator, research and development consultant.  Chartered biologist. CEO, R&D Director, Cambridge Research Institute, 1987; head biosciences, Napp Research Center., Cambridge, Eng., 1984-87; science Director, Institute Henri Beaufour, Paris, 1982-84; head metabolic diseases, coordinator foreign toxicology, Synthelabo-Lab. d'Etudes et de Recherches Science, Paris, 1976-82; head metabolism/nutrition, Marie Curie Research Center., Limpsfield, U.K., 1975-76; Senior Research scientist, Wellcome Research Labs., Beckenham, U.K., 1972-75; biochem. Research Assistant/Associate department of experimental medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, 1964-72. Consultant various Argentinian, French, German and UK cos., 1991; Visiting Lecturer in biochemistry University of London, 1973-76; hon. Research fellow Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge, Eng., 1996, University Public orator, 1998, Visiting Professor, 2002; Board of Directors Curtis-Prior Assocs. Ltd., Cambridge (Eng.) Health Ltd.; speaker in field.  Education: BS, University of London, 1964; Ph.D., University of London, 1972.

Member: Fellow Institute Biology; Brit. Pharm Society, Biochemical Society, Society for Medicines Research, Society of Pharmaceutical Medicine, Assoc. Clinical Research Pharm. Ind., Christian Medical Fellowship, Army and Navy Club. Foundation Member Bethany Trust, Cambridge, 1990; Foundation Chairman Prison Fellowship, Cambridge; President Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International, Cambridge. Major parachute regiment British Army, 1964-75.

Honor: Recipient Terr. Declaration award Ministry of Defense, London, 1976.

Editor: (series) The Biochemical Pharmacology of Metabolic Disease States, vol. 1, 1983, Prostaglandins: Biology and Chemistry of Prostaglandins and Related Eicosanoids, 1988, Icosanoids, 2004; Contributor of over 100 articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

"The Eicosanoids - Definitive Work on Ubiquitous Molecules,"  "Professor Peter Curtis-Prior is Visiting Professor in Health Sciences in the School of Health Care Practice (and a University Public Orator) and outside of APU is engaged, primarily, in the development of new 'medicines' from natural sources (mainly herbs) at Cambridge Research Institute. He has been involved in research in the area of prostaglandins for over 30 years. In that time he has worked for various prestigious organisations including the Department of Experimental Medicine at Guy's Hospital, the Wellcome Research Laboratories, Marie Curie Cancer Research and in the pharmaceutical industry in France at Synthelabo and the Institut Henri Beaufour. He wrote the definitive work on prostaglandins in 1988 and this year, as editor, has planned and arranged this second updated multi-author definitive work, The Eicosanoids."


Malcolm Armstrong Cutchins

(Born 1935).  Aerospace engineer, educator, researcher.  Professor of Aerospace Engineering at Auburn University, where he has twice won Auburn's Outstanding Faculty Award.  Various positions to senior mechanics engineer, Lockheed-Georgia Co., 1956-66.  Principal investigator on research for NASA, USAF, others.  He received his Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1967.  He was recognized by the journal Industrial Research for "developing one of the 100 most significant new technical products of 1973." (701 Sanders, Auburn, Alabama 36830.)  Contributor of articles to professional journals; patentee in field.

Recipient Engineer of Year award Alabama Society Professional Engineers, 1985.

Faculty webpage.  Samuel Ginn College of Engineering. Auburn University,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Edward B. Cutler

(Born May 28, 1935 in Plymouth, Michigan, United States).  Biologist.  Professor, Utica College of Syracuse University, 1967 (On long-term disability leave because of visual impairment from Utica College of Syracuse University since 1989. At Harvard as Museum Associate working mostly out of home office); Graduate Teaching Assistant, University R.I., 1964-66; Assistant Professor of biology, Lynchburg (Virginia) College, 1962-64.   Visiting scholar and Museum Associate, Mus. Comparitive Zoology, Harvard University, 1989; condr. worldwide Research in field; presenter seminars in field including Woods Hole Oceanographic Instn., Dalhousie University, Duke University Marine Laboratory, The Lab., Mar. Biological Assoc.-UK, University Tokyo, others; participant numerous shipboard Research tours, intertidal work and symposia in field; Visiting scientist in Japan, 1979.  Education: BS, Wayne State University, 1960; MS, University of Michigan, 1962; Ph.D., University R.I., 1967.

Member: Oneida County Solid Waste Agency, 1969-73; Board of Directors Planned Parenthood Association, 1973-77, 81-84; past President Utica Comm. Development Corp., 1968-72; Member numerous coms.; Board of Directors Vision Foundation, Watertown, Mass., 1990-95, Foundation Fighting Blindness, 1996; Member Public Information Commission, Association Public Trans., 1991-94; Member consumer's advisory council. WGBH's Discriptive Video Service, 1992-93; Member Old South Church With USN, 1955-58.  Elder First Presbyterian Church.

Honors: Recipient fellowshipsgrants NSF, 1963, 64, 66-89, Office of Naval Research, 1963, Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, 1970, Danish Natural Science Research Council, 1973, numerous others.

Author: (monograph) The Sipuncula, Their Systematics, Biology and Evolution, 1994; Contributor of more than 40 articles to professional journals and publications on posonophora and sipuncula.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Edward B. Cutler, Museum Associate, Museum of Comparative Zoology.


Winnifred Berg Cutler

(Born October 13, 1944 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States).  Biologist.  In 1986, her co-discovery of human pheromones received major news coverage in Time (12/1/86), Newsweek (1/12/87) and a front page story in the Washington Post newspaper, (11/18/86) because it established the first scientific proof that human pheromones affect the relationship between men and women. Inventor of  Athena Pheromone 10:13 cosmetic fragrance additive.  Director, President, Athena Institute for Women's Wellness Research, Haverford, Pennsylvania, 1986; Co-founder, Science Director, Woman's Wellness Program University of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, 1984-86; Research Associate, Gynecology Dept. University of Pennsylvania Hospital, 1981-84; Assistant Professor biology, Beaver College, Glenside, Pennsylvania, 1982-83; post doctoral fellow in behavioral endocrinology, Stanford University, 1980. Founder, Stanford Menopause Study, California, 1980-81.  Education: B.S. in Psychology cum laude from Ursinus College Collegeville, Pennsylvania. in 1973, earned her Ph.D. in Biology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1979 followed by postdoctoral work in behavioral endocrinology at Stanford University.

Member: International Society for Study of Time, International Academy Sex Research, American Fertility Society, Conference on Reproductive Behavior, Human Biology Council.  Member Outreach Council Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church, Pennsylvania, 1984-90.

Honor: Named Business Women of the Year in the U.S. National Association of Women Business Owners, 1992.

Author of six books on women's health translated into 7 languages including Hysterectomy: Before and After, 1988, Love Cycles: The Science of Intimacy, 1991; co-author: Menopause: A Guide for Women and the Men Who Love Them, 1983, rev. editor, 1992, The Medical Management of Menopause, 1984, Searching for Courtship: The Smart Woman's Guide to Finding a Good Husband, 1993.

She has published over 35 scientific papers, is co-inventor on 5 patents.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Athena Institute.



Baron Georges Léopold Cuvier

The French zoologist and biologist Baron Georges Léopold Cuvier (1769-1832) made significant contributions in the fields of paleontology, comparative anatomy, and taxonomy and was one of the chief spokesmen for science in post-revolutionary France.


Johann Baptist Cysat, S.J. *** Not in Gale

One of the first refractor users in the astronomical field, Cysat discovered independently of PEIRESC the Orion Nebula (M42) in 1619 and recorded the first telescopic observation of a comet.  Catholic, a Jesuit. Architect of the Jesuit college chapel at Innsbruck.

The Galileo Project, (in German)

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]