Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (E)



James Clifton Eaves

(1912-2002).  Mathematician, astronomer, computer scientist.  Eaves invented a submarine tracking plotting board (ATRAP), an automatic clock set, and other devices. His interests included early computers, the theory and development of watch and clock mechanisms, the patern markers' art, kites, and computer constructed songs and music.  Dr. Eaves was a teacher at Hillside School from 1932-35, in Pineville, KY, from 1936-37, and at Morton Junior High School in Lexington, KY from 1937-40. He became an instructor in mathematics at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1942-43, 1946; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1946-49; then assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 1949-50; associate professor at Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 1950-51, research associate professor, 1951-52, professor of mathematics, 1953-54, research associate of Auburn Research Foundation, 1952-53; University of Kentucky, Lexington, professor of mathematics and astronomy, 1954-67, head of department, 1954-63; West Virginia University, Morgantown, Centennial Professor of Mathematics, beginning 1967. Director of Institute of Consultants in Mathematics, Statistics, and Patent Law, beginning 1956, of Kentucky Space Flight Program in Space Mathematics and Astronomy, 1959-63; consultant to International Business Machines, 1957-59, to National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1964, leading a team doing early orbital research related to the three body problem.  Education: He received a B.A. degree, with a major in mathematics and physics, from the University of Kentucky in 1935, an M.A., majoring in mathematics and mathematics statistics, again from UK in 1941 and a Ph.D. in 1949 from the University of North Carolina, majoring in mathematics and matrix algebra.

Member, Kentucky Governor's Committee on Constitutional Revision, 1956-57.  Mathematical Association of America (Kentucky section, president, 1956 and 1963, secretary-treasurer, 1960-66; Allegheny Mountain section, chair, 1971-73), American Mathematical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), American Association of University Professors, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, American Society for Engineering Education, Association for Higher Education, National Education Association, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, International Congress of Mathematicians, Kentucky Academy of Science, Kentucky Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools (president of mathematics section, 1957 and 1964), Alabama Association of College Teachers of Mathematics (president, 1953-54), United Commercial Travelers (Lexington, KY; member of board, 1962-2002), Rotary, Kiwanis, Sigma Xi, Pi Mu Epsilon, Mu Alpha Theta, Phi Delta Kappa.Baptist.  Military service: U.S. Naval Reserve, 1942-46; became lieutenant.

Honors: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1963.

Dr. Eaves authored numerous mathematics textbooks on such topics as geometry and matrices and held many patents in such varied fields as submarine tracking and watch movements. Author: The ATRAP, U.S. Navy, 1944; Antisubmarine Electronics, U.S. Navy, 1945; (With others) College Algebra, Pitman, 1956; (With A. J. Robinson) Introduction to Euclidean Geometry, Addison-Wesley, 1956, 2nd edition, 1957; The Kentucky Program for Large Classes, University of Kentucky, 1958; (With Pignani) Computer Programming, University of Kentucky, 1959; (Coauthor with William Vann Parker) Matrices, Ronald, 1960; (With Pence) Mathematics Honors Tests, University of Kentucky, 1962.

Contributor to mathematics and science journals; contributor of popular articles on astronomy to magazines.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Obituary in The Courier-Journal, (Louisville, KY), March 23, 2002.


Fred M. Eckel / Fred Monroe Eckel, M.S.

(Born 1939).  Pharmacologist. Professor, School of Pharmacy, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC.  Research Interests:  Changing pharmacy to a more patient focused practice. Executive director of the North Carolina Association of Pharmacists; Residency Program Director, University of North Carolina Hospitals Pharmacy Department, University of North Carolina School of Pharmacy.

Faculty webpage,

Member: Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International,


Karen Stinneford.  "Pharmacists Restructure Jobs to Better Serve Patients, Adapt to Managed Care,"  July 10, 1997.  Interview.


Dr. Robert H. Eckel *** Not in Gale

Endocrinologist.  Dr. Robert Eckel is a Professor of Medicine and of Physiology (1995-present) and Biophysics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (UCHSC), in Denver, Colorado. Dr. Eckel is also the Program Director of the General Clinical Research Center of the UCHSC (1993 - present). He is the chairman of the American Heart Association's Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism. His other posts were Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Colorado HSC, Denver, 07/79 - 06/85; Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Colorado HSC, Denver, 07/85 - 09/89; Adjunct Appointment, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, 07/87 - present; Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, 10/89 - present; Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Genetics, University of Colorado HSC, Denver, 10/89 - 06/95; Graduate Faculty Appointment, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Colo State University, 07/90 - present. Dr. Eckel received his B.S. (with honors), Bacteriology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1969 and his M.D. from the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1973.

Honors:  B.S. with Honors in Bacteriology, University of Cincinnati, 1969; Alpha Omega Alpha, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 1973; American Society for Clinical Investigation, 1988;  Outstanding Faculty Award for Housestaff Teaching, UCHSC, 1988; Editorial Board, Diabetes, International Journal of Obesity, and Obesity Research, 1990-94; Western Association of Physicians, 1989;   Moses Barron Award, American Diabetes Association - Minnesota Affiliate, 1990; Colorado Dietetic Association Award of Excellence, 1991; Best Doctors in America, 1994, 1995.

Curriculum vitae.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

The English astronomer Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944) greatly advanced theoretical astrophysics as a consequence of his original contributions to the theory of relativity and his studies on the internal constitution of stars.  Quaker. or

Ian Hutchinson.  "Astrophysics and Mysticism: the Life of Arthur Stanley Eddington,"

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


J. Gary Eden / James Gary Eden

(Born 1950).  Electrical engineer, educator, physicist, researcher.  Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  Professor Eden is also Director of the Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, a laboratory devoted to developing new sources and applications of coherent radiation in the spectral region below 500 nm. The Laboratory has discovered several new lasers and amplifiers in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet, including the first ultraviolet and violet fiber lasers, ultralow threshold, diode laser-pumped visible fiber lasers, and the diatomic CdI, CdBr, and ZnI molecular lasers in the visible and near-IR. With his students, Professor Eden has developed laser spectroscopic techniques which have resulted in the discovery of Rydberg series in the rare gas dimers, and the first observation of free-bound (photoassociation) spectra of thermal atomic pairs. Recent accomplishments of his research group include the generation and modulation of coherent UV by atomic wavepackets on the 100 fs time scale, and the development of microdischarge devices and arrays. For the latter, he and several colleagues were recently awarded three patents and others are pending.

Dr. Eden was a National Research Council Post-Doctoral Research Associate at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, DC) and then was appointed a research physicist in the Laser Physics Branch. He joined the University of Illinois faculty in 1979 where he has been engaged in research in molecular and ultrafast laser spectroscopy, the discovery and development of visible and ultraviolet lasers, and microplasma devices.

He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Optical Society of America and the American Physical Society, Past Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, and has served as Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research, Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering, and Associate Dean of the Graduate College. Dr. Eden was the James F. Towey Scholar at the University of Illinois from 1996 through 1999 and, in 1998, served as President of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS).

BS, University of Maryland, 1972; MS, University of Illinois, 1973; Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1976.

Faculty webpage, University of Illinois,

Faculty bio, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Coordinated Science Laboratory.

J. GARY EDEN, Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana.  "Unseen Realities,"

"I am persuaded by two truths. First, the physical world-which displays a level of complexity and beauty that we can only begin to fathom (much less duplicate)-bears the unmistakable signature of a superior intellect. Second, Christianity provides a rational explanation for life on this planet as it really is, not as we would wish it to be. In light of these truths, I accept the testimony of the apostle Peter, who states emphatically that "when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, we were not following cleverly devised fables. On the contrary, we were eyewitnesses of His majesty" (2 Peter 1:16 New Berkeley Version)."  From Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty,  edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


David Edwardes [Edgaurdus] *** Not in Gale

(c. 1502-1542).  English physician, anatomist.

The Galileo Project,

Edwardes produced a small book of two treatises (London, 1532), the first entitled De indiciis et praecognitionibus, dealing with uroscopy and medical prognostication; the second, In anatomicen introductio luculenta et brevis, devoted to anatomy, the first work specifically on anatomy published in England. The reference to his dissection of a human body in 1531 in the latter treatise is the first record of a human dissection in England.


Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), colonial New England minister and missionary, was one of the greatest preachers and theologians in American history. At the age of twelve he had shown close and delicate scientific observation in an account of phenomena relating to "flying spiders", and in college he added a power of theoretic reasoning in terms of Newtonian science.

Jonathan Edwards.  Concerning the End for which God Created the World, 1755, unpublished. "… a disposition in God, as an original property of his nature, to an emanation of his own infinite fullness, was what excited him to create the world; and so that the emanation itself was aimed at by him as a last end of the creation."


William D. Edwards / William Dean Edwards

(Born 1948).  Pathologist.  Diplomate American Board of Anatomic Pathology.  Diplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners.  Professor of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, 1988 - present.  Residency:  University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Ohio; University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.  Interest: Cardiovascular Pathology.  Previous posts: Consultant in pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, 1980; resident in cardiovascular pathology, United Hospitals-Miller Division, St. Paul, 1976-77; resident in anatomic pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, 1974-76.  BA in Chemistry, University of Kansas, 1970; MD, University of Kansas, 1974.

Member: Fellow at American College of Cardiology; AMA, Society Cardiovascular Pathology, Fellow at Cardiovascular Pathology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Ohio.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

William D. Edwards, M.D. home page,

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.
William D. Edwards, MD; Wesley J. Gabel, MDiv; Floyd E Hosmer, MS, AMI.  "ON THE PHYSICAL DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST," From the Departments of Pathology (Dr. Edwards) and Medical Graphics (Mr. Hosmer), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and the Homestead United Methodist Church, Rochester, Minnesota, and the West Bethel United Methodist Church, Bethel, Minnesota (Pastor Gabel).

Reprint requests to Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (Dr. Edwards)., or, or (without visuals)

Abstract: "Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials, was flogged, and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable blood loss, and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock, as evidenced by the fact that Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. At the site of crucifixion, his wrists were nailed to the patibulum and, after the patibulum was lifted onto the upright post (stipes), his feet were nailed to the stipes. The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations. Accordingly death resulted primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus' death was ensured by the thrust of a soldier's spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical evidence indicate that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross." JAMA - The Journal of the American Medical Association, March 21, 1986, Volume 256, pp. 1455-1463.


Loren Corey Eiseley

Trained as an anthropologist and paleontologist, Loren Corey Eiseley (1907-1977) became one of the foremost essayists of his generation to interpret science for the layman. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Assistant Professor, 1937-42, Associate Professor of sociology and anthropology, 1942-44; Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, Professor of sociology and anthropology and chair of department, 1944-47; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Professor and chair of the department of anthropology, 1947-59, provost, 1959-61, Professor of anthropology and history of science, 1961-63, chair of department of history of science, 1961-63, Benjamin Franklin and University Professor of Anthropology and History of Science, 1961-77, curator of early man, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 1948-77, chair of department of history and philosophy of science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 1961-64.

Member: American Anthropological Association (Fellow; vice-president, 1948-49), American Institute of Human Paleontology (president, 1949-52), American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow; vice-president, 1969), National Academy of Arts and Sciences (Fellow), National Institute of Arts and Letters (Fellow), American Philosophical Society (Fellow), American Academy of Political and Social Science (member of board of directors), American Association of University Professors, American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Society for American Archaeology, New York Academy of Sciences (Fellow), Philadelphia Anthropological Society (vice-president, 1947; president, 1948), Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Century Club (New York). Member of presidential task force on preservation of natural beauty, 1964-65. Member of board of directors, Samuel S. Fels Foundation; National Parks Division, Department of the Interior, member of advisory board, 1966-72, member of council, 1972-77.  Hosted television program, Animal Secrets, 1966-68.

Awards: Athenaeum of Philadelphia Award for nonfiction, 1958, for Darwin's Century; first Phi Beta Kappa award in science, 1959; Page One Award of the Philadelphia Newspaper Guild, 1960; John Burroughs Medal and Pierre Lecomte du Nouy Foundation Award, both 1961, for Firmament of Time; Philadelphia Arts Festival Award for literature, 1962; Bradford Washburn Award from Boston Museum of Science, 1976, for his "outstanding contribution to the public understanding of science"; Joseph Wood Krutch Medal from Humane Society of the United States, 1976, for his "significant contribution to the improvement of life and the environment in this country"; Social Science Research Council postdoctoral Fellow, 1940-41; Wenner-Gren Foundation of Anthropology, research grant, 1952-53; Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences fellowship, Stanford, CA, 1961-62; Citation for Outstanding Service to Education, Department of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1962; Guggenheim Fellow, 1964-65. Recipient of over 35 honorary degrees.

Author: The Immense Journey (1957), Darwin's Century (1958), Firmament of Time (1960), The Unexpected Universe (1969), Invisible Pyramid (1970), Night Country (1971), All the Strange Hours (1975).

Loren Corey Eiseley.


George F. R. Ellis


(Born 1939) Dr. Ellis is a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Capetown, South Africa. His professional research work concentrates on relativity theory and cosmology and he has published over 200 scientific papers and several books including The Large Scale Structure of Space Time, Cambridge University Press, 1973, which he co-authored with Steven Hawking. He published several papers on the relationship between science and religion and is active on several Quaker committees and boards.


George Ellis - Natural Law and Divine Creation, Online video presentation:

Ellis in his book, Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature:

God is the creator and sustainer of the universe and of humankind, transcending the universe but immanent in it;

God's nature embodies justice and holiness, but is also a personal and loving God who cares for each creature (so the name "father" is indeed appropriate);

God's nature is revealed most perfectly in the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as recorded in the New Testament of the Bible, who was sent by God to reveal the divine nature, summarized in "God is Love;"

God has an active presence in the world that still touches the lives of the faithful today.


Kenneth G. Elzinga / Kenneth Gerald Elzinga

(Born 1941).  Robert C. Taylor Professor of Economics, 2002-present, University of Virginia. Previous Positions: Cavaliers' Distinguished Teaching Professorship, 1992-1997; Associate Professor of Economics, 1971-1974;Assistant Professor of Economics, 1967-1971; Special Economic Advisor to the Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice, 1970-1971; Assistant Instructor of Economics, Michigan State University, 1965-1966; Research Economist, Senate Antitrust & Monopoly Subcommittee, Summer, 1964. Previous appointments have included the Cavalier's Distinguished Teaching Professorship at the University of Virginia, 1974 - present; a Thomas Jefferson Fellow at Cambridge University January - June 1990; Visiting Professor of Economics, Trinity University, 1984; Fellow in Law & Economics, University of Chicago, 1974. Elzinga has recently been involved with the Microsoft Antitrust case, working for Microsoft.

Education: B.A., Kalamazoo College, 1963; M.A., Michigan State University, 1966; Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1967; L.H.D., Kalamazoo College, 2000.

Member: American Economic Association, Southern Economic Association, Mystery Writers of America, International J. A. Schumpeter Society, Industrial Organization Society, European Association for Industrial Economics, American Bar Association; Associate, American Law & Economics Association, International Association of Crime Writers, Council of Academic Advisors, C. S. Lewis Foundation, 2000- present), Board of Trustees, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, 1992-2000.

Elzinga shared with William Breit the Phi Beta Kappa Prize for "The Antitrust Penalties: A Study in the Law and Economics." Elzinga is the recipient of the Templeton Honor Roll Award for Education in a Free Society from the John Templeton Foundation. He is also the recipient of the Kenan Enterprise Award for Teaching Economics from the William R. Kenan Jr. Charitable Trust; the Phi Eta Sigma Teacher of the Year Award in 1992; and the Distinguished Professor Award from the University of Virginia in 1979.

He is the author of several books, including Economics: A Reader and Murder at the Margin. He and Breit created this mystery novel in which the protagonist uses economic analysis to solve the crime. He also has written and edited many articles for professional journals including the Social Science Quarterly, the Antitrust Law & Economics Review, the Journal of Law and Economics and the Harvard Law Review. Editorial Board: The Journal of Markets and Morality, 1998-present; The Antitrust Bulletin, 1977-present; Industrial Organization Review, 1972-79.

Kenneth G. Elzinga, Robert C. Taylor Professor of Economics, University of Virginia, faculty webpage,

Dr. Elzinga has many more honors and achievements, which can be found at his Curriculum vitae: or


Mr. Elzinga's Personal Web Page:

University of Virginia Faculty Experts Guide,

Kenneth G. Elzinga, Professor of Economics, University of Virginia Personal Statement of Teaching Philosophy, January 1996.

Kenneth G. Elzinga, Ph.D. Professor of Economics, University of Virginia.  "The Real Issue:

The Academy and Jesus,"  "There is a link on my web page to a place where one can do daily devotions. Not long ago, a grad student in my department, an atheist at the time, questioned me about why I was a Christian. Unbeknownst to me, she had been visiting my web page. Using the link found there, she regularly read the Bible verse and lesson for the day. Unbeknownst to her-for she said later she did not even know the term-she was "having devotions" every day off my web page link-and she did this for about three months before the Holy Spirit broke into her life through this and other means and she placed her faith in Jesus Christ. (The link is"

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Christian Charles Emig

(Born December 10, 1941 in Colmar, Alsace, France).  French biologist, researcher.  Research Professor, University Madrid, 1990; researcher Director, Center of National Research Science, Marseille, 1985-2000; program Director, Center of National Research Science, Marseille, 1983-88; Associate Director, Center of National Research Science, Marseille, 1978-82; researcher, Center of National Research Science, Marseille, 1965-85; monitor in microbiology and zoology, University of Marseille, 1962-64.  Head oceanographic cruises, 1975-90; Consultant in field; free-lance journalist.  Education: D, University of Marseille, France, 1965; DS, University of Marseille, France, 1972.

Member: Institute des Hautes-Etudes de la Def. National, 1985; President Sail Club Nautique Provencal de la Recherche Science, Marseille, 1970-77.

Author 13 books; editor 9 books; Contributor of over 200 articles to professional journals.; editor science film on oceanographic methods, 1987.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Website: (in English) (in French)


Margaret (Peggy) A. Emmelhainz *** Not in Gale

Marketing researcher.  Terry Teaching Fellow, Terry College of Business Department of Marketing, University of Georgia. Prior to joining the faculty at UGA in fall of 2000, Dr. Emmelhainz held the position of the Donna L. Gibbs and FCS End Professor of Marketing at the University of North Florida. She also served on the faculty at the University of Dayton.

From Faculty webpage, Peggy Emmelhainz-Terry College of Business-Department of Marketing and Distribution,

Dr. Emmelhainz's research interests include electronic commerce, customer satisfaction and strategic partnerships. Dr. Emmelhainz received her Ph.D. in Business Administration (Marketing and Logistics) from The Ohio State University. While at The Ohio State University, she was awarded a university fellowship and also received a doctoral research grant from the National Association of Purchasing Management. She holds a M.S. from the Air Force Institute of Technology and a B.A from Trinity University. Her teaching interests include Principles of Marketing, Services Marketing, Marketing Research, and Logistics.

She has received college level research and service awards and a university-wide (University of North Florida) teaching award.

Author: Electronic Data Interchange: A Total Management Guide, which has been translated into Japanese and French. Her research has resulted in over 40 publications, including articles in the Journal of Retailing, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Journal of Market Focused Management, Journal of Business Logistics, Journal of International Logistics and the International Journal of Supply Chain Management.

Member: The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia

"The Cost of Advancing Technology,"


Franklin D. Enfield

(1933-1996).  Geneticist.  Director graduate studies in genetics, University of Minnesota, 1971-76; Professor genetics, University of Minnesota, 1970-96; Associate Professor, University of Minnesota, 1965-70; Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, Mpls., 1960-65. Career-Related: member advisory panel population biology and physiol. ecology NSF, 1987-89; vice Chairman Gordon School Conference on Quantitative Genetics and Biotechnology, 1991, Chairman 1993.  Education: B.S., Iowa State University, 1955; M.S., Oklahoma State University, 1957; Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1960.

Member: Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, Gamma Sigma Delta, Alpha Zeta, Phi Eta Sigma.  Lutheran.

Honors: NIH, USDA and NSF grantee, 1963-96; Genetics Society travel grantee to USSR, 1978.

Contributor of science articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


George Ent *** Not in Gale

(1604-1689).  English physiologist, anatomist, pharmacologist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Ent published a defense of Harvey, Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis, 1641, in which he showed the influence also of hermetic authors and concepts of innate heat, which seem to look forward to Mayow.

He also composed some minor anatomical works published as part of one of Charleton's books.

Ent dedicated Apologia pro circulatione to the Earl of Lincoln.  Granted a knighthood by Charles II in 1665 after an anatomy lecture at the College of Physicians at which the King was present.

Ent was one of three fellows of the College of Physicians who supervised the revised edition of the Pharmacopoeia londonensis, 1650.

Member: Royal Society, 1660-89. Ent was one of the founding fellows and was named to the original Council in the charter of 1662; Royal College of Physicians, 1639. President, seven years between 1670 and 1684. Censor, 22 years between 1645-69; Medical College.  Informal connections: Friendship with Harvey from their chance meeting in Rome in 1636. He was one of the first writers to compose a detailed defense of Harvey. In 1648 he persuaded the elderly Harvey to release the manuscript of De Generatione which Ent edited and published with a commendatory preface in 1651. His transcript of Harvey's correspondence was used in the College of Physicians edition of Harvey's works in 1766. In Harvey's will, Ent was charged with dispersing his library in the College of Physicians.


Thomas Erastus [Lieber] *** Not in Gale

(1524-1583).  Swiss-born physician and natural philosopher.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

In 1540 Erastus was studying theology at Basel. The plague of 1544 drove him to Bologna and thence to Padua as student of philosophy and medicine. In 1553 he became physicjan to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg. His patrons successor, Frederick III, made him (1559) a privy councillor and member of the church consistory. He published several pieces bearing on medicine, astrology and alchemy, and attacking the system of Paracelsus. His name is permanently associated with a posthumous publication, written in 1568.


John Robert Erickson

(Born September 4, 1939 in Flaxton, North Dakota, United States).  Agronomist.  Achievements include discovery of new source of cytoplasmic sterility in rice; development of first winter wheat "Roughrider" for N.D.; release of 10 commercial hybrid wheats.  Director school, HybriTech Seeds International Inc., Wichita, 1982; wheat breeder, DeKalb Hybrid Wheat, Wichita, Kans., 1978-82; Associate Professor, dept. agronomy, N.D. State University, Fargo, 1974-78; Assistant Professor, dept. agronomy, N.D. State University, Fargo, 1969-74; school geneticist, USDA Agricultural School Station, Biggs, California, 1967-69.  Member Winterhardiness Team, USSR, 1977, National Wheat Improvement Committee, 1984-85; Chairman American Seed Trade Subcommittee, 1989-92.

Association Official Seed Certifying Agencies (small grain rev. Board 1991-94), American Society Agronomy, Crop Science Society, Phi Kappa Phi.  With U.S. Army, 1958-60, Europe.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Lazarus Ercker [Erckner, Erckel] *** Not in Gale

(c. 1530-1594).  Chemist, metallurgist.

The Galileo Project,

Erker's whole career was explicitly directed to the practical goals of metallurgy and mining.

"Lazarus Ercker," Britannica Concise Encyclopedia; from Encyclopædia Britannica:

"In 1554 Ercker was appointed assayer at Dresden, the first of his many positions in the Saxony bureaucracy, and later became a control tester of coins. His systematic review of the techniques then in use for testing alloys and minerals of silver, gold, copper, antimony, mercury, bismuth, and lead, of obtaining and refining such metals, and of extracting acids, salts, and other compounds may be regarded as the first manual of analytical and metallurgical chemistry."


Charles [Carolus Stephanus] Estienne *** Not in Gale

(c. 1505-1564).  French anatomist, botanist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Estienne published Anatomia, a short treatise, in 1536, and his main anatomical work, De dissectione, in Latin in 1545, and in French in 1546. His many original observations included the morphology and physiological significance of the "feeding holes" of bones, the cartaliginous meniscus of the temporomandibular joint, the valvulae in the hepatic veins, and the scrotal septum.

Among his several treatises on gardening and the names of plants and birds, De re hortensi libellus (1535) and Seminarium (1536) were favorably received and republished. He published other works on botany.  He published a book on medicine, derivative from Galen, in 1550.  As a publisher, he printed mostly dictionaries, grammars, and classical literature, but only one real scientific book, by Pierre Belon.

Estienne, Charles (1504?-1564). Le guide des chemins de France [Document électroniqu]. 2000. (in French)


Leonhard Euler

The Swiss mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler (pronounced "oiler", not "yooler") (1707-1783) made important original contributions to every branch of mathematics studied in his day. A prolific author, among his greatest writings are treatises on analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus, and the calculusof variations. Euler developed spherical trigonometry, demonstrated the importance of convergence in algebraic series, proved important assertions in number theory, and made contributions to hydrodynamics, celestial mechanics, and optics. Euler also brought into common usage such mathematical notations "e" for the base of the natural logarithm, "i" for the square root of negative 1, and f(x) for a function of x. A variety of mathematical concepts bear his name, including Euler's characteristicin topology, Euler's trianglein geometry, Euler's polynomials, Euler's integrals, and Euler's constant. His accomplishments are especially remarkable in that many were made during the last quarter of his life, when he was totally blind.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Bartolomeo Eustachi / Eustachius *** Not in Gale

(c. 1500-1513).  Italian anatomist, physician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In 1562 and 1563 Eustachi produced a remarkable series of treatises on the kidney, the auditory organ (De auditus organis), the venous system, and the teeth. These were published in Opuscula anatomica (1564). The treatise on the kidney was the first work specifically dedicated to that organ. The teatise on the auditory organ provided a correct account of the tuba auditiva that is still referred to eponymously by Eustachi's name. He was also the first who made a study of the teeth in any considerable detail. In 1552 Eustachi, with the help of Pier Matteo Pini, prepared a series of 47 anatomical plates, which (although they were published only in 1714, long after his death) alone assured him a distinguished position in the history of anatomy. He placed anatomy in the service of medicine; much of it was pathological anatomy.

Member: Medical College of Rome.

Associated eponyms: Eustachian catheter, A catheter devised by Jean Marie Gaspard Itard, French physician, 1774-1838; Eustachian cushion, A swelling at the entrance of the auditory tube into the naso-pharynx; Eustachian tube, This 3-4 cm tubular structure connecting the nose with the middle ear permits communication between the inner ear and the external atmosphere so that equal pressure is maintained on either side of the eardrum; Eustachian valve, Obsolete term for the Valvula venae cavae inferiore; Eustachianography,  
Radiologic examination of the eustachian tube and middle ear after the introduction of a contrast agent.
On his (assumed) 400th birthday in 1913 a memorial was erected in his honour at the Sapienza in Rome.
In 1552 Eustachi, with the help of Pier Matteo Pini, a relative and an artist from Urbino, prepared a series of forty-seven anatomical illustrations for a medical treatise; these were engraved, two on the obverse and reverse of a single copper plate, by Giulio de' Musi of Rome. The illustrations were prepared for a book entitled De dissensionibus ac controversiis anatomicis but were never published. The first eight large octavo plates, labelled Tabula Prima-Octava, were used in the Opuscula anatomica.
Although from an artistic point of view they are not as well done as the anatomical plates of Vesalius, from the point of view of anatomy they are sometimes more accurate than Vesalius'. Had the plates been published at the time they were executed, Eustachi would undoubtedly have ranked with Vesalius as founder of modern anatomy, and anatomical studies would have reached maturity in the seventeenth rather than in the eighteenth century.

Eustachi, Bartolomeo, Tabulae Anatomicae,  Bartolomeo Eustachi, also known by his Latin name of Eustachius, was one of the founders of the science of human anatomy. (in German)


Richard Martin Evans

(Born July 26, 1945).  Forester, consultant.  Survey party chief U.S. Forestry Service, Burns, Oreg., 1965; Assistant geneticist Texas A&M University, College Station, 1970-73; supt., Director Forestry Experiment Station and Arboretum, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge, Oliver Springs and Tullahoma, 1973; owner Newstead Farm, Wartburg, Tennessee, 1981; consultant Velsicol Chem. Co., 1983; Director MidSouth Christmas Tree Association, Sewanee, Tennessee, 1984; Board directors Woodland School PTO, 1987.  Education: B.S., University of Tennessee, 1968, M.S., 1971.

Member MidSouth Christmas Tree Association (Board directors), Natural Resource Conservation Society Tennessee (Board directors 1982), Tennessee Forestry Association, Morgan County Forestry Development Association (Board directors 1981), Tennessee Native Plant Society (Board directors 1980-84), University of Tennessee Arboretum Society (Board directors 1973), Friends of Camp Friendship (Board directors 1985-87), Oak Ridge C. of C., Alpha Zeta, Xi Sigma Di, Gamma Sigma Delta. Methodist.

Honors: Fellow Society American Foresters (Chairman, member exec. com Ky.-Tennessee Chapter 1984-85; Outstanding Service award 1984, recognition award 1986, 87).

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


John Evelyn

(1620-1706).  English botanist and historian.  Wrote vivid account of 1640-1706 cultural life in his Diary, published, 1818.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Studied anatomy and physiology in Padua, 1645-6.  Studied chemistry in England and France, 1646-9.

Evelyn laid out famous gardens at Sayes Court and worked all his life on a projected treatise on gardening, to be called Elysium britannicum, which he never completed and published, though various parts of it were.  He did publish a translation of a French work on gardening, and in 1664 Kalendarium hortense, or the Gardener's Almanack.  1664, Sylva, a book on timber and Evelyn's most important work. Attached to Sylva was Pomona, on fruit growing for cider.  Evelyn also published a translation of Lucretius, De rerum natura.  Evelyn was more a literary figure than a scientist; he wrote on a wide variety of topics.

Member: Royal Society from its foundation, 1660-1706. He was a member of the original Council, 1662. Secretary, 1672, 1682, 1691. He refused the presidency on three occasions.  Informal connections: He collaborated several times with Christopher Wren during his lifetime. Friendship with John Wilkins and Robert Boyle. He corresponded with Boyle, and sent him a suggestion for the foundation of a mathematical college or community for scientific study in 1559. He was a very close friend of Samuel Pepys.

Guy de la Bédoyère. "Who was John Evelyn?"

The Archive of John Evelyn.  John Evelyn was at the centre of the intellectual, social, political and ecclesiastical world of his day and his Diary has long been recognised as the most extensive and historically informative record of one of the most momentous periods in English history.

"Who was John Evelyn?"  Copyright © 1997, The British Library Board. Letter from Samuel Pepys to Evelyn 2 October 1685. The two famous diarists were close friends in their later years [from The Archive of John Evelyn, purchased by The British Library March 1995]

F. Alton Everest *** Not in Gale

(Born 1909).  Acoustical engineer.  One of the five founders of the American Scientific Affiliation.


F. Alton Everest has earned a place as acoustical expert to the field of audio, sound recording, and high fidelity through his books and articles. From his Acoustical Techniques for Home and Studio (1973) through 3 editions of Master Handbook of Acoustics (latest 1994), he has led sound engineers and amateurs through the acoustical thickets of sound recording and studio design.

He has the scholastic underpinnings (BSc in EE, Oregon State; EE Stanford) and the professional experience (Professor, Oregon State and Hong Kong Baptist Universities, 25 years film production, 15 years consulting in acoustics, and 4 years in wartime research in undersea acoustics), combined with a drive to lend a published hand to those in audio seeking help in understanding the seemingly abstract field of acoustics.

F. Alton Everest is an Emeritus Member of the Acoustical Society, A Life Member of the IEEE, a Life Fellow of Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Member of Audio Engineering Society, and Co-Founder and Past President of American Scientific Affiliation.

J. W. Haas, Jr. "Irwin A. Moon, F. Alton Everest and Will H. Houghton: Early Links Between the Moody Bible Institute and the American Scientific Affiliation,"


Graham R. Everest, BSc, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale
Mathematician.  Professor of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England.

Faculty webpage, School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia.

Homepage, School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia.

Publications of Graham Everest, Norwich

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

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