Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (L)


Guy de La Brosse *** Not in Gale

(c. 1586-1641).  French botanist, physician, pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

His major book, De la nature, vertu et utilité des plantes (Paris, 1628), was a theoretical book about plants in general. In it he raised questions about the generation, growth, and nutrition of plants. He also published a monograph on the causes of the plague, Traicté de la peste (Paris, 1623), and several other works on medicine, on plants, and on the collection of plants in the Jardin du Roi.

His titles make it clear that he regarded the Jardin du Roi as a collection of medicinally useful plants. The edict establishing it referred to it as a "Jardin des Plantes Medicinales" for the instruction of students of medicine.

From the beginning, La Brosse's idea of the Jardin included instruction in chemistry as a handmaiden to medicine, and he devoted part of his works to chemistry--Paracelsian chemistry.


Jean Charles de La Faille, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1597-1652).  Belgian mathematician.  Military engineer.  Catholic, who entered the Jesuit order in 1613.

The Galileo Project,

La Faille owed his fame as a scholar to his tract, Theoremata de centro gravitatis partium circuli et ellipsis, published at Antwerp in 1632. In it the center of gravity of a sector of a circle was determined for the first time.

Also wrote Theses mechanicae, 1625.

Philip IV consulted La Faille on questions of defense and of military engineering and later charged him with teaching military arts and engineering to pages in the court. He served as technical adviser to the Duke of Alba along the Portuguese frontier in 1641-4. He also accompanied Don Juan on military expeditions.

He corresponded with Michel van Langren.


Philippe de La Hire [Philippe I] *** Not in Gale

(1640-1718).  French astronomer, mathematician, mechanic, zoologist, physiologist, meteorologist, cartographer, instrument-maker, hydraulics and navigation specialist, architect, naturalist, painter.  Catholic.  Eldest son of Laurent de La Hire, peintre ordinaire du roi, and founder and professor at the Académie Royale de Peinture and Sculpture. La Hire's father was also one of the first disciples of Desargues.  Philippe's younger brother is Gabriel-Philippe de La Hire.

The Galileo Project,

After his father's death La Hire spent four years in Venice where he developed his artistic talent and studied classical geometry. Upon his return to France he was active primarily as an artist.  He formed a friendship with Abraham Bosse, Desargues's last disciple, who asked La Hire to solve a problem in stonecutting. In 1673 La Hire published Nouvelle methode en géometrie pour les sections des superficies coniques et cylindriques from his research in constructing conic sections. Twelve years later he published a much more extensive work, Sectiones conicae, through which Desargues' projective geometry became known.

La Hire published three works in one volume which, though not original, provided an exposition of the properties of conic sections and the progress of analytic geometry during the half century.

After his nomination to the Académie La Hire became active as an astronomer. He produced tables of the movements of the sun, moon, and the planets. He studied the instrumental techniques and particular problems of observation. From 1679-1682 he made several observations and measurements (occasionally with Picard) of different points along the French coastline. He continued his involvment in the mapping project of France (1683) by extending the meridian of Paris to the north.  In 1683 he participated in the experiment of falling bodies with Mariotte. The following two years he directed the surveying operations to provide water to Versailles. He devoted several works to the methods and instruments of surveying, land measuring, and gnomics.

La Hire's work also extended to descriptive zoology, the study of respiration, and physiological optics.

During his many travels he made observations in natural science, meteorology, and physics. At the Paris observatory he conducted experiments in terrestrial magnetism, pluviometry, thermometry, and barometry.

In 1695 he published Traité de mécanique, an important work in the development of modern manuals of manuals.

He developed a leveling instrument for use in surveying.  He suggested the epicycloidal profile for gear teeth.

Memberships: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1678-1718.  He was nominated astronome pensionnaire in 1678. He participated in several projects of the Académie. He even edited various writings of his colleagues, Picard, Mariotte, Roberval, and Frenicle.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Philippe de La Hire," or (in French)


Gabriel-Philippe de La Hire [Philippe II] *** Not in Gale

(1677-1719).  French astronomer, engineer, physician, anatomist, meteorologist, architect, cartographer, instrument maker, specialist in mechanical devices.  Catholic. His father, Laurent de La Hire, (1606-1656), was a distinguished artist.  Younger brother of Philippe de La Hire.

The Galileo Project,

La Hire assisted his father Laurent de la Hire in his regular observations at the Paris Observatory. His first solo work was the establishment of the Ephemerides for 1701, 1702, and 1703. This work involved de La Hire in a painful dispute with Jean Le Fevre, 'astronome pensionnaire' and editor of Connaissance des temps. Le Fevre accused both father and son of plagiarism and incompetence. The result of the controversy left Le Fevre with the loss of his editorship, severely censured, and expelled from the Académie.

In 1702 La Hire published a new edition of Mathurin Jousse's Le theatre de l'art de charpentrie.  The following year he presented several short memoires to the Académie on subjects ranging from observational and physical astronomy to applied science and medicine.

After his nomination to the second class of architects of the Académie of Architecture (1706), de La Hire began to consider several technical and architectural problems. In 1707 he wrote a memoire on the organ of sight in which he established that the aqueous humor filled the same function as the vitreous humor.

In 1718 he participated in the geodesic operations carried out under the direction of Jacques Cassini to extend the meridian of Paris from Amiens to Dunkerque.

He invented a device to detach a carriage from the horses when they got out of hand.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1694-1719.

The Index biographique de l'académie lists the steps of his membership:

1694, appointed élève astronome.

1699, appointed associé

1706, appointed to second class in the Royal Academy of Architects.

1718, succeeded his father as pensionnaire in the Académie des sciences.

1718, succeeded his father as professor of architecture (Académie of Architecture). (in French)


Estienne de La Roche / Villefranche *** Not in Gale

(c. 1480-c. 1520).  French mathematician.

The Galileo Project,

La Roche's fame rests solely on his Larismetique published in 1520. This work introduced into France the Italian knowledge of arithmetic and useful notions of powers and roots. In 1880 Aristide Marre published Chuquet's Triparty which only existed in manuscript form and suddenly La Roche was a plagiarist. Recent scholarship, though agreeing that parts of the Triparty were blatantly copied and other parts suppressed or curtailed in La Roche's Larismetique, has emphasized the audience that La Roche was trying to reach with his work. At worst La Roche can be accused of patching together the works of three authors, Luca Pacioli, Philippe Frescobaldi (a banker in Lyon), and Nicolas Chuquet, whose works were inaccessible to the average French merchant. La Roche simply made their information available to a previously neglected audience.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Estienne de La Roche,"  La Roche taught commercial arithmetic in Lyon for 25 years. Clearly he was well thought of as a teacher of arithmetic since he was often called master of ciphers.


David Lambert Lack

(1910-1973).  Biologist.  Ornithologist.  Lack was director of the Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology in Oxford, England for more than twenty-five years, beginning 1945. During 1938 and 1939, he participated in a biological expedition to the Galapagos Islands.  Previous posts: Dartington Hall School, Devonshire, England, biology master, 1933-38, 1939-40.  President, International Ornithological Congress, 1962-66.  Education: Magdalene College, Cambridge, B.A., 1932, M.A., 1936, Sc.D., 1948.

Member: Royal Society (fellow), British Ecological Society (president, 1964); also member of numerous British and foreign ornithological societies.  British Army, Anti-aircraft, 1940, Operational Research, 1940-45. Anglican.

Author: Life of the Robin, Witherby, 1943, 4th edition, F. Watts, 1965; Darwin's Finches: An Essay on the General Biological Theory of Evolution, Harper, 1947, reprinted, Peter Smith, 1968; The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers, Clarendon Press, 1954; Swifts in a Tower, Methuen, 1956, reprinted, Halsted, 1973; Evolutionary Theory and Christian Belief, Methuen, 1957; Enjoying Ornithology, Methuen, 1965; Population Studies of Birds, Clarendon Press, 1966; The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers, Clarendon Press, 1967; Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds, Barnes & Noble, 1968; Ecological Isolation in Birds, Harvard University Press, 1971; Evolution Illustrated by Waterfowl, Harper, 1974; Island Biology, University of California Press, 1976.  Contributor of scientific papers on birds to professional journals.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Papers and correspondence of David Lambert Lack, 1910-1973,


René Théophile Hyacinthe Laennec

(1781-1826).   French physician. Considered father of thoracic medicine;introduced practice of auscultation with the stethoscope, which he invented (c.1819). Published De l'auscultation mediate (1819); Professor at College de France (1822); physician at Hopital de la Charite, Paris (1823).

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Thomas Fantet de Lagny *** Not in Gale

(1660-1734).  French mathematician.

The Galileo Project,

Lagny is remembered for his contribution to computational mathematics. From 1687 to 1733 he published seven works.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1695-1734, Royal Society

The Index biographique de l'académie lists the steps of his membership:

1696, académicien géomètre, académicien externe.

1699, associé géomètre, premier titulaire.

1699, associé mécanicien (replacing Sauveur)

1719, pensionnaire surnuméraire.

1723, pensionnaire géomètre (replacing Varignon)

1724, sous-directeur.

1725, directeur.

1733, pensionnaire vétéran.


Charles Dean Lakin

(Born February 29, 1936 in Liberal, Missouri, United States).  Petroleum engineer.  Achievements include research in petroleum lubricants, fuels and additives; prevention of ground water and air contamination; disposal of hazardous waste; and product recycling.  Director product and environ. svcs., MFA Oil Co., Columbia, Mo., 1988; Director safety, MFA Oil Co., Columbia, Mo., 1985; Manager Agriculture chem. division, MFA Oil Co., Columbia, Mo., 1971-86; product researcher, MFA Oil Co., Columbia, Mo., 1964-71; biologist, MFA Oil Co., Columbia, Mo., 1960-64.  Advisory board Missouri Department of Agriculture, Jefferson City, 1983; Board of Directors Imperial, Inc., Shenandoah, Iowa; Member Missouri L.P. Gas Advisory Council, Jefferson City, 1985.  Education: BS, Kans. State University, 1957; Graduate, American Institute Coops., 1975.

Member: ASTM, American Petroleum Institute, Entomol. Society America, SAE International, American Management Association, Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility-Land-Sea-Air and Space, Columbia Cosmopolitan Club.  Deacon, elder Broadway Christian Church, Columbia, 1965. 1st lt. U.S. Army, 1957-59.

Contributor of articles to Pesticide Recommendations, Pesticide Formulation Procedures, L.P. Gas Safety.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Antoine de Lalouvere, S.J. / Lalouère / La Loubère / Lalovera *** Not in Gale

(1600-1664).  French mathematician. Catholic, who entered the Jesuit order in 1620.

The Galileo Project,

Lalouvere's chief book is the Quadrature circuli, on the quadrature of the circle, published in 1651 and dedicated to Louis XIV.  In 1658 he was drawn into the dispute with Pascal on cycloids for which his name is best known.  He was professor of humanities, rhetoric, Hebrew, theology, and mathematics in the Jesuit college at Toulouse.

Friendship and correspondence with Fermat.  Close relationship with Pardies and Willis.


Len Lamerton *** Not in Gale

Radiobiologist.  One of the founders of radiation biology in Britain. He was Professor of Biophysics as Applied to Medicine, London University 1960-1980 and Dean of the Institute of Cancer Research, London 1967-1977.  Quaker.

G. Gordon Steel.  "Professor Len Lamerton, 1915-1999," from The Times, 20th October 1999, and Kit Hill, "Professor Len Lamerton," from The Guardian, 10th November, 1999. 


Kendall R. Lamkey / Kendall Raye Lamkey

(Born November 22, 1958 in Springfield, Illinois, United States).  Research geneticist, corn breeder. Achievements include development of improved maize germplasm. Kendall R. Lamkey is the Pioneer Distinguished Chair in Maize Breeding (2002-present) and director of the Raymond F. Baker Center for Plant Breeding at Iowa State University (2002-present).  Professor of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, (1997-present); school geneticist, USDA-ARS, Ames, Iowa, 1984.
Lamkey is a research geneticist with the USDA-ARS and a professor of agronomy in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University. He is a full member of Iowa State's Graduate Faculty. In addition, he is a member of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Biometrics Society, ENAR, Genetics Society of America, The Society for the Study of Evolution and the American Genetic Association. His research focuses specifically on the origin, maintenance, and utilization of genetic variation for important agronomic and grain quality traits in maize. In addition to funding from USDA, Lamkey has received funding from Pioneer Hi-Bred International. This private sector support represents approximately 5 percent of his research funding over the past 5 years. Lamkey received his B.S. in agronomy in 1980 and his M.S. in plant breeding in 1982, both from the University of Illinois. He received his Ph.D. in plant breeding in 1985 from Iowa State University. Currently, Lamkey is a technical editor for the journal Crop Science, and associate editor for the Journal of Heredity.

Chair Board of directors, First Christian Church, Ames, 1997, deacon, 1995-96.

Honor: Recipient Raymond and Mary Baker award for agronomic excellence Iowa State University, 1994.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Kendall R. Lamkey.

Refereed Publications,

"Welcome to the homepage of Kendall R. Lamkey's maize breeding and quantitative genetics research project.  Our project is part of the Cooperative Federal-State Maize Breeding Program located on the campus of Iowa State University. My research project is focused on the origin, maintenance, and utilization of genetic variation in maize."


Walter Lammerts *** Not in Gale

Botanist.  Geneticist.


Bernard Lamy

(1640-1715). French ecclesiastic and scholar. Member of the Congregation of the Oratory; disciplined for teaching Cartesian doctrines. Wrote Nouvelles reflexions sur l'art poetique (1668), Traite de la grandeur en general (1680), Harmonie evangelique (1689).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Bernard Lamy," or

MEMO - Le site de l'Histoire. (in French)


Francesco Lana-Terzi, S.J. *** Not in Gale


The Father of Aeronautics, Fr. Francesco Lana-Terzi, S.J., (1631-1687) Professor of physics and mathematics at Brescia. Histories of flight refer to his work Prodromo dell'Arte Maestra (1670) as the "the first publication to establish a theory of aerial navigation verified by mathematical accuracy and clearness of perception".


Giovanni Maria Lancisi

(1654-1720). Italian physician, clinician, and botanist. Physician to three popes. Considered first modern hygienist; related prevalence of malaria in swamps to presence of mosquitoes and recommended drainage as preventive measure. Wrote De subitaneis mortibus on sudden deaths in Rome (1707), De motu cordis et aneurysmatibuson cardiac pathology (1728), treatises on influenza, malaria, rinderpest, etc.

The Galileo Project,

Lancisi is considered the first modern hygienist. (in Italian) (in Italian)


Bohumir Alfons Lang

(Born October 19, 1924 in Vyskov, Moravia, Czechoslovakia).  Molecular biologist, researcher.  Professor, Palacky University, Olomouc, 1993; researcher, Masaryk Meml. Cancer Institute, Brno, 1987; head clin. biochem. dept., Masaryk Meml. Cancer Institute, Brno, 1977-86; head clin. biochemistry dept., Brno, Czech Republic, 1969-76; Assistant Professor, Institute Medical Chemistry, Olomouc, 1957-68; house officer, Tchg. Hospital, Clinic of Neurology, Olomouc, 1955-56; house officer, Polio Rehab. Institute, Velké Losiny, Czech Republic, 1950-54.  Science council medical faculty, Olomouc, 1990-99; medical faculty Consultant Institute Chemistry, Olomouc, 1996.  Education:  MD, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, 1950; Ph.D., Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, 1964.

Member: Czechoslovak Medical Society J. E. Purkyne (Deyl prize 1968), International Society Neurochemistry, International Society Oncodevelopment Biology and Medicine, International Union Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fed. European Biochemical Society.  President, Moravian-Silesian Christian Academy, Brno, 1990-99, Honorary President, 2000.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Karl Nikolaus Lang *** Not in Gale

(1670-1741).  Swiss paleontologist, natural historian, physician.

The Galileo Project,

In addition to practicing medicine for his entire career, Lang was called upon by certain organizations to prepare reports on water quality. In 1720, with Mauriz Kappeler, he was appointed to investigate the springs at Schachenwald, Hackenrain, and Doggeli-Loecher. This report still exists. In addition, he was commissioned by the government of Uri to investigate Gades Unterschaechen and the privately owned spring at Suessberg.

Memberships: Academia Leopoldina, Berlin Academy, Institute Bologna.  John Woodward sucessfully opposed his membership in the Royal Society.  1703, member of the Academia Physico-Criticorum, Siena; 1705, member of the Academia Caesareo-Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum.  Member of the Prussian Academy.  Member of the Academia Scientiarum, Bologna.  Connections: He was a good friend of the French botanist Joseph Pitton.


Dr. R. Alan Langford *** Not in Gale

Dermatologist.  Microbiologist.  Coordinator, Pre-Medical Studies Program, Franklin College of Arts & Sciences, University of Georgia.  Dr. Langford now teaches UGA courses in microbiology and pharmacy and is a clinical faculty member with the Medical College of Georgia. Dr. Langford serves as Faculty Advisor for the Georgia Alpha Chapter of Alpha Epsilon Delta Premedical Honor Society, which meets frequently on campus and welcomes any student to participate in its meetings.

In 1997, R. Alan Langford, M.D., F.A.A.D., became Coordinator of the Premedical Studies Program for the Franklin College.  He is a graduate of the University of Georgia, the Medical College of Georgia, trained in an internship in internal medicine at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, served as a military flight surgeon in primary patient care in the U.S. Army and completed a residency in dermatology. In 2003, he received a Post Graduate Diploma in Infectious Diseases from the University of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.  He served on the faculties of two medical schools, and as a Consultant in Dermatology at the Carl Vincent V.A. Medical Center in Dublin, Georgia, where he had a solo practice in surgical and medical dermatology for 17 years and served a term as the Chief of the Medical Hospital Staff.

Faculty webpage, Franklin College of Arts & Sciences,


Philip van Lansberge / Philips Lansbergen *** Not in Gale

(1561-1632).  Belgian mathematician, astronomer.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Lansberge published on the geometry of triangles, including spherical triangles in 1583--i.e, on trigonometry--apparently an important work.  Another work offered a new method to calculate the value of pi, which he computed to 28 places.  Lansberge was a Copernican who published defenses of Copernicanism already in 1619, and again in 1629. He did not accept Kepler's ellipses, and he published astronomical tables intended to rival the Rudolphine Tables.


Robert Larmer / Robert A. H. Larmer *** Not in Gale
Professor of Philosophy.  Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Philosophy, University of New Brunswick,Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. University of Ottawa, Thesis Topic: Philosophy and the Principle of the Conservation of Energy, Ph.D. (Philosophy), 1985; University of Ottawa Thesis Topic: The Question of Miracle, M.A. (Philosophy), 1981;  Carleton University BA (Philosophy), 1979.

Author: Questions of Miracle, 1996; Water Into Wine: An Investigation of the Concept of Miracle, (Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 1988, paperback edition McGill-Queen's, 1996); Ethics In The Workplace: Selected Readings in Business Ethics, editor (New York: West Educational Publishing, 1996, 2nd edition forthcoming Wadsworth, Fall 2001).

Faculty webpage,


Dawson Franklin Lasseter

(Born 1949).  Oil and gas consultant. Registered professional engineer, Oklahoma, Texas; Certified professional geological scientist. Reservoir engineer, staff geologist Mustang Fuel Corp., Oklahoma City, 1972-76; reservoir engineer Ramsey Engineering, Oklahoma City, 1976; district reservoir engineer, proration engineer Texas Oil & Gas Corp., Oklahoma City, 1976-79; v.p. exploration and engineering GEC Prodn. Co., Norman, Oklahoma, 1979-82; President, founder Geological Engineering Consultant, Norman, 1979. B.S. in Geological Engineering, University Oklahoma, 1972.

Honors:  Recipient James K. Anderson award University Oklahoma, 1972.

Member:  Society Petroleum Engineers, American Association Petroleum Geologists, American Institute Professional Geological Scientists, Society Indiana Petroleum Exploration Scientists, National Society Professional Engineers, Oklahoma Society Professional Engineers. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Oklahoma Dept. of Environmental Quality,


Joao Baptista Lavanha *** Not in Gale

(1550-1624).  Portugues-born cartographer, geographer, mathematician, instrument-maker and expert in navigation.  Catholic, converted Jew.

The Galileo Project,


Jacques-Desire Laval *** Not in Gale

(1803-1864).  Physician.  Intially torn between the priesthood and medicine, Jacques was educated at local schools, Evraux, and Stanlislaus College in Paris, and received his medical degree in 1830. Established his medical practice in Saint André and Saint Ivry-la-Bataille in his native Normandy.

Website (in French):


Antoine Laurent Lavoisier

(1743-1794).  French chemist. Founder of modern chemistry and the author of the oxygen theory of combustion.  He was the first scientist to explain how things burn. He developed the first rational system for naming chemical compounds, which is still in use today, and established the practice of accurate measurement, which is the basis for all valid quantitative experiments.  He reformed chemical nomenclature, held various government offices. Member of Ferme Generale (1768-91); Director of state gunpowder works (1776); member of commission to establish uniform system of weightsand measures (1790); arrested by order of the Convention and guillotined. Conducted quantitative experiments; disproved the phlogiston theory; explained combustion (1772) as the union of the burning substance with the part of the air that he later (1777) termed oxygen; with Pierre Laplace proved that respiration is a form of combustion (1780); propounded a theory of formation of chemical compounds; conducted experiments to determine composition of water and various organic compounds; with Berthollet, Guyton de Morveau, and Fourcroy, devised system of chemical nomenclature that served as basis of present system (pub. 1787); published chief work Traite elementaire de chimie (1789).  Catholic.

"Antoine Lavoisier,"

The Complete Works of Lavoisier (in French):

Lavoisier, Antoine (1743-1794).


Michael J. Lawrence *** Not in Gale

(Not geologist Michael J. Lawrence of Croydon, New South Wales, Australia)

Information systems specialist. Emeritus Professor, School of Information Systems, Technology and Management University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1975-present. Director, International Institute of Forecasters.  School of Information Systems Technology and Management (SISTM), Faculty of Commerce, University of New South Wales, 1975 - present; Professor of Information Systems 1991 - present, and Head of School of Information Systems, 1996 - 1998; Associate Professor, 1983 -1991 and Head 1987, 1988; Senior Lecturer 1975 - 1983. Bachelor of Science, University of Sydney, N.S.W., 1962; Master of Science - Bachelor of Engineering (First Class Honours) University of Sydney, N.S.W., 1964; Doctor of Philosophy -  University of California, Berkeley, California, USAMajor: Operations Research, (College of Engineering) 1967.

Visiting Positions: Visiting Professor, Management Science Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, England September 1998- May 1999; Visiting Professor, London Business School, June 1990 - January 1991, and April 1994 - September 1994;Visiting Professor, City University, London; January 1994 - April 1994; Visiting Professor, INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France; December 1984 - June 1985; Visiting Scholar, Imperial College of Science and Technology, July - November 1981.

Honor: Elected Fellow of the Australian Computer Society, 1987.

Full List of Publications:

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Dawn M. Lawson

(Born 1963).  Information scientist.  Lawson is a telecommunications specialist with the Defense Information Systems Agency in Falls Church, Virginia. Education: George Mason University, MA, telecommunications management, 1998, UNC-Greensboro, BS, clothing and textiles, 1986; Chicago State University, leadership seminar, 1999; Leadership Development Institute, 1999.

Member: Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc, state legislative coordinator, 1998-02; Blacks In Government, life member, national corresponding secretary, 2000-01; National Secretary 2001-02; League of Women Voters; NAACP; University of North Carolina at Greensboro Alumni Association, life member; Fairfax County Commission on Organ & Tissue Donation and Transplantation; Fairfax County Complete Count Committee, 2000; West Springfield Civic Association; Antioch Baptist Church; Armed Forces Communication & Electronics Association (AFCEA); Fairfax County Telecommunications Task Force.

Honors: Blacks in Government, Meritorious Service Award, 1999, council involvement Award, 1998, outstanding mentor/community service Award, 1996; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, certificate of recognition, 1998; Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Inc, Doris R. Asbury Connection Award for legislative involvement, 1997, 1998; US Geological Survey Performance Awards, 1993-96, 1998-99; Joan Orr Air Force spouse of the year, 1995; US Dept of Interior, Service Award, 1995; AT&T FTS2000 Award for management and administrative excellence, 1993; DISA special Act Service Award, 2000; Technology All-Star during the first annual Women of Color Government and Defense Technology Awards conference, 2001; DISA Wall of Heroes, 2002.  Listed in the June/July 2001 U.S. Black Engineer Information Technology magazine.

"Dawn M. Lawson." Who's Who Among African Americans, 17th ed. Gale Group, 2004.


Jenice Evelyn Lawson

(Born 1952). Quality assurance professional, pharmacist.  Senior scientist, Clorox Tech. Center, Pleasanton, California, 2000-2002; regulatory compliance specialist, Clorox Tech. Center, Pleasanton, California, 1989; Manager, Lynn Drug Co., Columbus, 1987-88; computer programmer, consultant, College. pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1986-87; pharmacist, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Fed. Rep. Germany, 1985; graduate Research, teaching Associate, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1980-84; staff pharmacist, Easter's Ben Franklin Pharmacy, Maryville, Missouri, 1979; staff pharmacist, St. Francis Hospital, Maryville, Missouri, 1976-78; staff pharmacist, The Corner Drug, Maryville, Missouri, 1975; pharmacy intern, Federmann Drug Store, Kansas City, 1974. Education: AA, East Central College, 1972; BS, University Missouri, Kansas City, 1975; BS, Northwest Missouri State University, 1979; MS, Ohio State University, 1985.

Member: American Pharmaceutical Association Contra Costa German-American Club, Society Risk Analysis and Exposure Assessment, Diamond Toastmasters (secretary district 57 club 4582, 1991, Treasurer 1991, President 1991, Competent Toastmaster award 1991, Able Toastmaster award 1993), Kappa Epsilon (Nellie Wakeman award 1983). Worker Trinity Baptist Church, Livermore.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Gaspar Lax *** Not in Gale

(1487-1560).  Spanish scholastic philosopher, mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Lax was engrossed in nominalist logical subtleties; he was known as the Prince of Sophists. In his own age he was better known as a mathematician, a field in which he published. He also published a Quaestiones phisicales, 1527.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Gaspar Lax,"


Henrietta Swan Leavitt

Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) was an American astronomer of the first magnitude. Her research resulted in numerous advances within the field, the effects of which extended well beyond her lifetime. She discovered a means to rank stars's magnitudes using photographic plates, which became a standard in the field. Leavitt also discovered a means by which astronomers became better able to accurately measure extra galactic distances known as the period-luminosity relation. She also discovered more variable stars than any other astronomer in her time.,_Henrietta_Swan@871234567.html


Charles de L'Écluse / Carolus Clusius / Carlus Clusius / Jules-Charles L'Écluse

(1526-1609). French botanist, natural historian, pharmacologist, cartographer. Credited with introducing the potato into Europe; published Rariorum plantarum historia (1601), etc.

The Galileo Project,

L'Écluse's Rariorum plantarum historia (1601) records approximately 100 new species; Exoticorum libri decem (1605) is an important work on exotic flora and includes everything that he published on the subject. Those two works contain all of his original contributions in botany and natural history and are still often consulted. He also published other works and translated several works of his contemporaries in natural science.

He edited De piscibus marinis libri xviii, (1554).  He published Antidotarium, sive de exacta componendorum miscendorumque medicamentorum ratione libri tres (1561) and another similar work in 1567.

Beyond his interest (like that of every other natural historian of the age) in the medicinal properties of plants, l'Écluse did not practice medicine.  He prepared two major maps for Ortelius, one of Gallia Narbonensis (or southern France) and the other of Spain.

"In 1593 Clusius (also known as Carlus Clusius, Charles de L'Écluse, and Jules-Charles L'Écluse) succeeded Dodoens as the chair of botany at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, where he started their (later famous) botanical garden.  Clusius is most famous among mycologists for a picture of a stinkhorn that Robert Gerard lifted and included in his "Gerard's Herbal"... but upside-down, because it looked more like a plant that way. This, of course, demonstrates the atrocious intellectual standard of the herbals of the time (or perhaps just Gerard's) but little else.
"Clusius made many contacts while wandering Europe after fleeing France (he was a Protestant, and the French Church went on one of its periodic rampages), and used them to obtain plants unavailable in Western Europe at the time: Isley credits him with the introduction of the peony, tulip, hyacinth and potato to Western European gardening, and likewise credits him with establishing the Netherlands as the tulip center of the world.
"The Fungorum Historia appendix to his Rariorum Plantarum Historia describes over a hundred fungi (including his famous stinkhorn), the most in one place for quite some time."

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Universiteit Leiden branch, History,


Mark Lee

(Born1952). Colonel, USAF.  Astronaut. With wife Jan Davis, first husband-and-wife team in space, 1992.  Chief of the Astronaut Office EVA Branch. Shuttle flights included missions on the Atlantis (1989), Endeavor (1992) and Discovery (1994, 1997). Lee graduated from Viroqua High School, Viroqua, Wisconsin, in 1970; received a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1974, and a master of science degree in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980.

Following pilot training at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas, and F-4 upgrade at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, Lee spent 2-1/2 years at Okinawa Air Base, Japan, flying F-4's in the 25th Tactical Fighter Squadron. Following this assignment, he began his studies at MIT in 1979 specializing in graphite/epoxy advanced composite materials. After graduation in 1980, he was assigned to Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, in the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) Program Office, as the operational support manager. His responsibilities included resolving mechanical and material deficiencies which affected the mission readiness of the AWACS aircraft. In 1982 he returned to flying, upgrading in the F-16 and serving as executive officer for the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing Deputy Commander for Operations, and as flight commander in the 4th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, until his selection as an astronaut candidate.

He has logged 4,500 hours flying time, predominantly in the T-38, F-4 and F-16 aircraft.

Lee was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in May 1984. In June 1985, he completed a one-year training and evaluation program, qualifying him for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical responsibilities within the Astronaut Office have included extravehicular activity (EVA), the inertial upper stage (IUS), Spacelab and Space Station systems. Lee has also served as a spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) in the Mission Control Center, as Lead "Cape Crusader" at the Kennedy Space Center, Chief of Astronaut Appearances, Chief of the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch, Chief of the EVA Robotics Branch, and Chief of the EVA Branch. He also worked Space Station assembly issues for the Astronaut Office.

A veteran of four space flights, Lee has traveled over 13 million miles going around the world 517 times and spending 33 days in orbit. He flew as a mission specialist on STS-30 (May 4-8, 1989) and STS-64 (September 9-20, 1994), and was the Payload Commander on STS-47 (September 12-20, 1992), and STS-82 (February 11-21, 1997). During STS-64, he logged EVA hours totaling 6 hours and 51 minutes. During STS-82 he logged 19 hours and 10 minutes in 3 EVAs.

Lee retired from NASA and the Air Force effective July 1, 2001.

Member: Registered professional engineer in the State of Colorado. Member of the American Angus Association and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Honors: Distinguished Flying Cross, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, 2 Air Force Commendation Medals, 4 NASA Space Flight Medals, NASA Distinguished Service Medal, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award, and 2 NASA Exceptional Service Medals.



Dr. Wayne Lees, DVM*** Not in Gale

Veterinarian.  Epidemiologist.  Animal Disease Surveillance Unit, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), Oak Lake, Manatoba, Canada.

Member: Christian Veterinary Missions, Canada.

Wayne Lees.  "Unraveling the mysteries of CWD,"  July 26, 2003.


Nicaise Le Febvre *** Not in Gale

(c. 1610-1669).  French pharmacologist, iatrochemist.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Le Febvre's principal contribution to science is his textbook, the Traité de la chymie (Paris, 1660). His other published work was a description of a polypharmaceutical preparation. In the tradition of iatrochemistry, the Traité was directed to medicinal preparations.

Memberships: Royal Society, 1663-1669.  He was admitted on the nomination of Sir Robert Moray.


Jean LeFevre / Jean LeFebvre *** Not in Gale

(Not the instrument maker of the same name who lived at the same time.)

(1652-1706).  French astronomer, cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

Around c. 1682, LeFevre did calculations for Picard.  After Picard's death, he continued pedestrian aspects of Picard's work, calculating astronomical tables, publishing the Connaissances des Temps, making a few observations and assisting R. de la Hire in surveying.  In 1682, this work got him elected to the Académie.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, c.1682-1701.


Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

(1646-1716). German philosopher and mathematician. In service of archbishop elector of Mainz (1667-76); on diplomatic missions to Paris (1672-76) and London (1673), meeting many scholars; laid foundations (1675)of integral and differential calculus, published (1684) before Newton's, thus causing long-debated controversy; developed the dynamic theory of motion (1676). In service at Hanover of dukes of Braunschweig-Luneburg as librarian and privy councilor (1676-1716); proposed basis for general topology (1679); wrote (1686, pub.1819) Systema theologicum, an attempt to find common ground for Catholic and Protestant faiths; suggested founding of Academy of Sciences (1700). Developed rationalistic system of metaphysics basedon his theory of monads; also wrote on mathematics, natural science, philosophy, theology, history, law, politics, and other subjects; his principal work in theology Essais de theodicee (1710), in the main a discussion of problem of evil and a defense of optimism.

The Galileo Project,

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz," (in German) (in French)


Egbert Giles Leigh, Jr.

(Born 1940.)  Biologist, educator.  Staff scientist, biologist, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Canal Zone, Republic of Panama, 1969-present.  Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, Assistant Professor of biology, 1966-72.  Education: Princeton University, B.A., 1962; Yale University, Ph.D., 1966.

Member: American Society of Naturalists.

Author: Adaptation and Diversity: Natural History and the Mathematics of Evolution, Freeman, Cooper, 1971; (Editor with A. Stanley Rand and Donald M. Windsor) The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term Changes, Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, DC), 1982; Tropical Forest Ecology: A View From Barro Colorado Island, Oxford University Press (New York), 1999.

Contributor of articles to American Naturalist, Science, and other periodicals.

Faculty webpage, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.


Matti Leisola *** Not in Gale
(Born 1947).  Chemist.  Bioprocess Engineer.  Professor, Department of Chemical Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland (1997 - present). Research Director Cultor Ltd 1991-1997; Department manager Cultor Ltd, 1989-1991; Senior scientist Cultor Ltd, 1988-1989; Senior teaching Assistant, ETH-Zürich, 1984-1988;Research Fellow ETH-Zürich, 1981-1983; Professor (acting) HUT 1978; Senior teaching ass HUT, 1976-1981; Research assistant The Academy of Finland ,1974-1976; Research help The Academy of Finland, 1972-1973; Habilitation ETH-Zürich, Institut für Biotechnologie, 1988.  Education: D.Sc. (Tech.) Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), 1979; Lic.Science Technician, HUT ,1975; M.Sci (Tech.) HUT, 1972. Scientific expert: Oulu university, Professor of bioprocess engineering, 1998 - 2000 ; HUT, docent of biochemistry, 1998; Evaluator for EU-biotech programs, 1991-1995; scandinavian representative, 1996; Expert for US-Department of Energy, 1988.

Awards: Latsis-Preis, ETH-Zürich, 1987; Biotechnology award of Alko Ltd , 1997; Innovation award (Foundation for new technology, with O.Turunen and F. Fenel), 2000.

Patents:  1. Visuri K, Niemi H, Leisola M, Palosaari S ja Kaipainen E (1990) Menetelmä proteiinien kiteyttämiseksi korkean paineen avulla.Finnish patent no.; 2. Apajalahti J and Leisola M (1996) Novel yeast strains for the production of xylitol. French patent no. 9209109 + patent applications in several countries; 3. Leisola M ja Jokela J (2000) Process for the preparation and simultaneous separation of enzyme-catalysed products. Kansainvälinen patenttihakemus; 4.Turunen O, Fenel F ja Leisola M (2000) Method to improve the stability and optimal pH of family G/11 xylanases. Kansainvälinen patenttihakemus.

Contact page,

Contact page,

Curriculum vitae:

Laboratory homepage:


Jérôme Jean Louis Marie Lejeune

(1926-1994).  French geneticist.  Physician.  The father of modern genetics.  In 1959, Lejeune identified the human chromosomal abnormality linked to Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, one of the most common forms of mental retardation and the first chromosomal disorder to be positively identified. Lejeune's discovery marked a turning point in the new science of cytogenetics (the scientific study of genetic variations at the chromosomal level). Institute Progenese, Paris; Professor fundamental genetics Faculty Medicine, Necker-Enfantsmalades, Paris, l969-94; chief Service, Hopital Enfants Malades, Paris, l964-94; Director, National Science School Center, Paris, l963-64; attending, National Science School Center, Paris, l952-63.  Education: The University of Paris (M.D., 1951; Ph.D., 1960).

Member:  Royal Society Medicine (London), American Academy Arts and Sciences, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Royal Academy of Sciences (Stockholm), Academy Moral and Political Sciences, National Academy Medicine (Paris).  Roman Catholic.

Honors: Recipient Kennedy prize, l962, Znanie diploma, l964, William Allen Meml. award, l969, Feltrinelli prize, l984.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

The Jérôme Lejeune Foundation  "The main target of the Jerome Lejeune Foundation, a state-recommended foundation, is research into Intelligence Disability.
The Foundation supports both fundamental and clinical research projects aimed at leading, directly or indirectly, to the discovery of treatments for genetic intelligence diseases, in particular, trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)."

The Jérôme Lejeune Foundation. Professor Lejeune cited as the father of modern genetics. "The establishment known as the Jérôme Lejeune Foundation, created in 1995, is intended to follow up the work to which Professor Jérôme Lejeune devoted his life :
- Medical research into intelligence diseases and genetic diseases,
- Care and treatment of patients, in particular those suffering from Trisomy 21 or other genetic anomalies, whose lives and dignity must be protected from the moment of conception until they die

 "French Pro-Life Geneticist Jerome Lejeune to be Considered for Catholic Beatification," "He was a man of science who lived his Christian faith in his profession work, heroically, showing his faith with a simplicity and joy, serving life with a full devotion and complete disinterest," said Cardinal Angelini, the former president of the Pontifical Council for Health Care. (in French)

Access Research Network, Volume 13, Number 1.  "What is in the Fridge?"  Testimony of French geneticist Jérôme LeJeune in the Tennessee "Frozen Embryo" case.


Abbé Georges Édouard Lemaître

The Belgian astronomer Abbé Georges Édouard Lemaître (1894-1966) originated what came to be called the "big bang" theory of cosmogony.

After 1927, Lemaître served as a professor of astrophysics at the University of Louvain, teaching and conducting research. Throughout his career he continued to refine his theory, but he also investigated such subjects as the three-body problem, calculating machines, and cosmic rays. He remained, throughout his life, active in the Catholic Church. He saw no conflict between his scientific work and his religious beliefs. He once said, as quoted in the New York Times: "All problems in life can be solved either by religion or science, but not by both combined." In an interview with the New York Times Magazine, he put much of the blame for the perception of a conflict on scientists: "Once scientists can grasp that the Bible does not purport to be a textbook of science, the old controversy between religion and science vanishes." He acknowledged, however, this is more difficult for some branches of science to do than others, but physicists and astronomers "have been religious men, with a few exceptions. The deeper they penetrated into the mystery of the universe, the deeper was their conviction that the power behind the stars and behind the electrons of atoms was one of law and goodness."

Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges Lemaître,

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Louis Lémery *** Not in Gale

(1677-1743).  French chemist, anatomist, physiologist.  Son of Nicolas Lemery.

The Galileo Project,

The bulk of Lémery's scientific writings, which deal mainly with problems of chemical analysis, were published in the Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences. His most important observations on organic analysis are contained in four papers published in 1719-1721. His anatomical papers deal with the circulation of the blood in the fetal heart and with the origin of monaters. In addition to his Academy memoirs, he published two monographs, Traité des alimens (1702) and Dissertation sur la nourriture des os (1704).

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1712-1743.  He was sous-directeur in 1716 and 1717.


Nicolas Lémery

(1645-1715). French chemist, pharmacologist.  Apothecary to the king (1674-81); noted teacher. Two sons both followed him into the Academy as chemists: Louis and Jacques.

The Galileo Project,

Lémery's chief contributions to pharmacy were his two complementary works, the Pharmacopée universelle (1697) and the Traité des drogues simples (1698). They represent a comprehensive dictionary of pharmaceuticals. His last major work, Traité de l'antimoine (1707), contains the results of his investigation into the properties and preparations of mineral antimony.  His textbook on chemistry, the Cours de chymie (Paris, 1675), went through more than thirty editions.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1699-1715. or

First to distinguish between vegetable (organic) and mineral (inorganic) chemistry. Adopted an atomic theory assuming that fundamental particles have characteristic shapes.  Discovered a commercial process for the production of sulfuric acid.  Obtained boric acid from borax.  Investigated chemistry of antimony sulfide.  Analyzed camphor and honey.


E. Stan Lennard, M.D., Sc.D.  *** Not in Gale
General surgeon.  Associate Professor of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.  Clinical Associate Professor of Surgery (beginning 1987), Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, Kirkland, Washington, U.S.A. (Retired).  Specialist, thorax and abdomen.

E. Stan Lennard, M.D., Sc.D. "The Distinctive Human Self,"


John C. Lennox / John Carson Lennox, M.A., D.Phil. (MA Ph.D. Camb. DSc Wales) *** Not in Gale
(Not Professor of English John Lennox, York University, Toronto, Ontario)

Mathematician.  Research Fellow in Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, England.

John Lennox was Exhibitioner and Senior Scholar at Emmanuel College Cambridge from which he gained MA and Ph.D. degrees (1970) and has worked for 29 years as Reader in mathematical research at the University of Cardiff, Wales, for which he was awarded a DSc. He spent a year at each of the universities of Wuerzburg, Freiburg (as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow) and Vienna, and has lectured extensively in both Eastern and Western Europe on mathematics, apologetics and the exposition of Scripture. He is currently Fellow in Mathematics and the Philosophy of Science at Green College, University of Oxford, Visiting Fellow at the Mathematical Institute Oxford, and a Senior Fellow of the Whitfield Institute.  He also teaches a module in Science, Faith and Philosophy in the Medical Faculty at Oxford. In addition to around 70 papers and two books in mathematical publications, he is the author of a number of books on the relations of science with religion, the most recent of which is: Hat die Wissenschaft Gott begraben (Has Science Buried God?), Brockhaus, 2002.


John has lectured extensively in Europe, both Western and Eastern, including many visits to Russia as a guest of the Academy of Science.  John is very involved in the science-religion debate, having been active in Christian work since his student days. He gave the Whitefield Institute annual public lecture in 1998 on the topic, "Is the Watchmaker Really Blind?" in which he challenged the materialistic atheists like Dawkins et al.


Author: Did Science Bury God? A critical analysis of modern conditions for thinking, R. Brockhaus: Wuppertal 2002.

John Lennox on C.S. Lewis,

John Lennox.  "Science and Creation," (In French) Translated and transcribed by A.Kitt.  Lennox: "The rise of sciences to the 16th and 17th centuries was the fact of men such as Kepler and Newton which believed in a creative God.  They expected to find laws in nature because they believed in a person who had registered these laws in their creation. Science is possible because there is order in the universe, and in my opinion this order finds its origin in God of order. Intellectually, I cannot believe in a rationality which would come from the irrational one."

Quoted here:

"Suppose I wheel in the most magnificent cake ever seen and I had it in front of me various fellows of every academic and learned society in the world and I picked the top men and I tell them to analyse the cake for me. So out steps the world famous nutritionist and he talks about the balance of the various foods that form this cake.

"Then a leading biochemist analyses the cake at the biochemical level. Then a chemist says, 'Well, yes, of course, but now we must get down to the very basic chemicals that form this.'

"Then the physicist comes on and says, 'Well, yes, these people have told you something, but you really need to get down to the electrons and the protons and the quarks.'

"And last of all the stage is occupied by the mathematician. And he says, 'Ultimately you need to understand the fundamental equations governing the motion of all the electrons and protons in this cake.'

"And they finish, and it is a magnificent analysis of the cake.

"And then I turn round to them and I say, 'Ladies and Gentlemen, I've just got one more question for you. Tell me why the cake was made.' And there in front of them stands Aunt Mathilda who made the cake.

It's only when the person who made the cake is prepared to disclose why she's made it that they'll ever understand why. No amount of scientific analysis, however exhaustive and detailed, can answer that question.

"And then Aunt Mathilda in the end says, 'I'll let you out of your misery. I've made the cake for my nephew Johnny - it's his birthday next week.' And there's the answer, isn't it? No amount of scientific analysis of this planet on which we stand will tell you why it was made unless the Creator chooses Himself to speak. The fantastic thing is that He has spoken and what He has spoken is called Genesis."


James M. Lepkowski

(Born 1948).  Biostatitician, research scientist.  James Lepkowski is a research professor at the Institute for Social Research and an Associate Professor of biostatistics at the University of Michigan. He is also a research professor in the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

He is the first director of the Michigan Program in Survey Methodology. He conducts survey methodology research including the design and analysis of area probability and telephone samples, compensating for missing data, and telephone sampling methods.

He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and was elected to membership in the International Statistical Institute. He received a BS in mathematics from Illinois State University (1970), an MPH in Biostatistics (1976) and Ph.D. in Biostatistics (1980), both from the University of Michigan.

Faculty webpage, James M. Lepkowski, Ph.D., Associate Professor Department of Biostatistics, Research Professor, Institute for Social Research, Research Professor University of Maryland, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI.

Member: American Statistical Association, International Statistical Institute, International Association of Survey Statisticians, Society Epidemiologic Research.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

The National Academies Committee Membership

MiCEHS Research Staff,


Jacques-François Le Poivre *** Not in Gale

(1642-1710).  French mathematician.

The Galileo Project,

Le Poivre is known by his short treatise, Traité des sections du cylindre et du cone considerées dans le solide et dans le plan, avec les demonstrations simples & nouvelles (Paris, 1704).


Dr. Thomas Lessl / Thomas M. Lessl

(Born 1954).  Scholar.  Speech Communication. Associate Professor, Department of Speech Communication, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin.

Field of interest: Speech Communication; Research: Rhetoric of Science.

Dr. Thomas Lessl.  Christian Student Survival Conference, Session 3: "Sexuality: Straight, Gay or Bi,"


Lane Patman Lester, Ph.D.

(Born 1938).  Genetics, biology educator, computer programmer.  Professor of Biology at Emmanuel College in Franklin Springs, Georgia.  Biology teacher Evans High School, Orlando, Florida, 1963-67; Assistant Professor of biology University of  Tennessee, Chattanooga, 1970-73; mini-course developer Biology Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, 1973-74; Professor of biology, Christian Heritage College, El Cajon, California, 1974-75; Professor of biology, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia, 1979-present, Director Center for Creation Studies, 1985. B.S.E., University of Florida, 1963; M.S. in ecology, Purdue University, 1967, Ph.D. in genetics from Purdue University, 1971. NDEA Fellow, 1967-70. On board of directors of Creation Research Society, Sigma Xi.

Author: (with J.N. Hefley) Cloning: Miracle or Menace?, 1980; (with R.G. Bohlin) The Natural Limits to Biological Change, 1984; contributor articles to professional journals.

Lane Lester.  "Genetics: No Friend of Evolution,", First published in Creation 20(2):20-22, March-May 1998.


John Coakley Lettsom *** Not in Gale


John Coakley Lettsom (1744-1815) was a famous English physician, philanthropist and chronicler of the human condition. On this date in 1791, he wrote in a letter that medicine "is not a lucrative profession. It is a divine one." Born in the British Virgin Islands on a cotton plantation, Lettsom attended school in Great Britain and returned to the Virgin Islands in 1776 to provide medical treatment to the inhabitants there. His Quaker beliefs spurred him to free the slaves on his family's plantation. Upon returning to England, Lettsom started both the Medical Society of London and the Royal Humane Society.

"John Coakley Lettsom's Welsh Connections.",  Copyright InteliHealth, Inc., 2000. All rights reserved.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Benjamin S. Leung / Benjamin Shuet-Kin Xerjen Leung

Biochemist.  Animal scientist.  Gynecologist.  Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1982-present. Primary Research Interest and Area of Expertise:  Mechanism of cancer growth, metastasis and apoptosis regulated by steroid hormones and growth factors. Breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers. Receptors, signal transduction, ubiquitination and caspase cascades. Interested in partnering with industry to conduct pre-clinical trials, consult and conduct joint research. Previous positions: Assistant Professor & Director, Universtiy of Oregon Health Science Center, Surgery & Biochemistry, 1971-1976; Senior Research Scientist, Director of Research, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Surgery & Biochemistry, 1976-1978; Professor, graduate faculty, University of Minnesota, Animal Science, 1982-present; Associate Professor, University of Minnesota, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1978-1982.
Education: Student in chemistry and zoology, Hong Kong Baptist College, 1960-61; B.S. cum laude, Chemistry and Zoology, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, WA, 1961-1963; Ph.D in Biochemistry, Colorado State University, Collins, CO, 1966-1969; Postdoc, Hormone Action, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1969 - 1971.

Professional Memberships:  American Association for Cancer Research, Inc., 1984-present; American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1976 - 1995; Endocrine Society , 1974; Society of Chinese Bioscientists in America, 1990-present; Society for Gynecologic Investigation, 1982-1996; American Society for Cell Biology, 1998-present; Minnesota Chromatography Forum (Chairman program Committee 1983-1984), International Platform Association.

Faculty webpage,

Departmental website listings

Editor: Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Tumors, Vols. I and II, 1982; member Editorial Board Oncology and Biotech. News; Contributor of over 80 articles to professional journals.

Urbain LeVerrier

(1811-1877). French astronomer. Produced improved tables of Mercury's orbit; investigated (1845) disturbance in the motion of Uranus, making calculations indicating the presence of an unknown planet which was discovered (1846) by J.G. Galle and named Neptune; carried out complete revision of planetary theories. Director of Paris Observatory (1854-70, 1873-77).


Guillaume-François-Antoine de L'Hospital / Guillaume François Antoine L'Hospital / Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de l'Hôpital

(1661-1704).  French mathematician.

The Galileo Project,

L'Hospital's fame was based on his book Analyse des infiniment petits pour l'intelligence des lignes courbes (1696), the first textbook of the differential calculus. At his death he left the completed manuscript of a second book, Traité analytique, which was published in 1720.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Guillaume François Antoine Marquis de L'Hôpital,"'Hopital.html:

"Guillaume De l'Hôpital served as a cavalry officer but resigned because of nearsightedness. From that time on he directed his attention to mathematics. L'Hôpital was taught calculus by Johann Bernoulli from the end of 1691 to July 1692.

"L'Hôpital was a very competent mathematician and solved the brachystochrone problem. The fact that this problem was solved independently by Newton, Leibniz and Jacob Bernoulli puts l'Hôpital in very good company.

"L'Hôpital's fame is based on his book Analyse des infiniment petits pour l'intelligence des lignes courbes (1696) which was the first text-book to be written on the differential calculus. In the introduction L'Hôpital acknowledges his indebtedness to Leibniz, Jacob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli but L'Hôpital regarded the foundations provided by him as his own ideas.

"In this book is found the rule, now known as L'Hôpital's rule, for finding the limit of a rational function whose numerator and denominator tend to zero at a point."

W. W. Rouse Ball.  "The Development of Analysis on the Continent," From A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th edition, 1908).

Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de l'Hôpital.'H%F4pital:  His name is also spelled l'Hospital. The circumflex in "l'Hôpital" is a neologism; it was not in use at the time l'Hôpital was alive. (in German) (in French) (in Spanish)


Edward Lhwyd [Llhwyd, Lhuyd, Llwyd, Lloyd, Floyd, Luidius] *** Not in Gale

(1660-1709).  Welsh paleontologist, natural historian, botanist, geologist.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Lhwyd collected plants around the hill mass of Snowdon in Wales and established the existence of a distinct alpine flora and fauna there. Ray published Lhwyd's list of plants around Snowdon in his Synopsis, 1690.

He assisted Martin Lister in cataloguing mollusks and fossils in Oxfordshire. This topic became his primary scientific interest and resulted ultimately in Lithophylacii botannici ichnographia, 1699.

Fossils involved him in geology. Ichnographia included six letters on geological subjects. The fossil content of stones led him to question the deluge account.

Lhwyd undertook a general natural history of all the celtic parts of Britain (including also Ireland and Brittany). Achaeologia britannica, 1707, was to have been the first volume of this work, but Lhwyd did not live to publish the rest. That volume is more linguistic than scientific; it inaugurated the study of comparative celtic philology.

Membership: Royal Society, 1708.  Informal Connections: Friendship with Hans Sloane, Martin Lister, John Ray, John Morton, John Aubrey, Thomas Molyneux, Tancred Robinson, and most of the naturalists of his day in Britain. Intimate frienship with Thomas Hearne. His correspondence with his friends is published in Gunther.

Quarrelled with Dr. Woodword about the origin of marine fossils.

Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

Who was Edward Lhwyd?


Andreas Libavius / Libau

(1560-1616).  German chemist, iatrochemist, alchemist, physician and author who made important chemical discoveries but is most noted as the author of the first modern chemistry textbook.

The Galileo Project, (in German)


 Charlie Liebert *** Not in Gale

(Born 1941).  Chemist.  AAS degree in Chemical Technology from the State University of New York at Farmingdale, 1959, BS in Chemistry from Fairleigh Dickenson University (Teaneck, NJ), 1967, and an MBA in Marketing from the Graduate Division of Iona College (New Rochelle, NY), 1972.  From 1961 to 1967 he worked for Lever Brothers Company in their Research and Development Division doing laundry detergent application research and development.  In 1967 he joined Geigy Chemical Corporation (which became CIBA-GEIGY and is now known as Ciba Industrial Chemicals.) advancing from laboratory technician to supervisor.  In 1973 he moved to the marketing department, where responsibilities included; market research, customer service, order processing, transportation, technology development, strategic planning, and budgeting. He retired at age 53 after 27 years with Ciba in November 1994.  Founder, Piedmont Association for Creation Education and Research, has been working in the Piedmont region of North Carolina since 1991 to promote the acceptance of the creation model of origins. The Lieberts now belong to Covenant Fellowship in Greensboro, North Carolina.

From Biography,

Paul Chesser.  "Liberated Lieberts," or originally appeared in the September 15, 2000 edition of the Charlotte World (North Carolina, USA).  Testimony.

 "Creation, Dinosaurs and the Flood,"


Francis Line, S.J. *** Not in Gale


In 1669 King Charles II felt he needed a spectacular sundial for his garden in Whitehall. Francis Line (1595-1654), renowned dial maker and Professor of physics in Liege, was chosen for the job. Some sort of gentleman's truce was arranged, Line came to Whitehall and built a elaborate dial modeled after his famous sundial at Liege. It was an immediate and immense success, and consisted of a series of glass spheres floating freely in fluid inside larger glass spheres. Because this fascinating sundial had interesting demonstration possibilities - even for inquisitors, a friend of Galileo requested Line to bring one to Rome to help Galileo defend the heliocentric theory.


Derek Arthur Linkens, BSc(Eng), MSc, Ph.D., DSc(Eng), ACGI, CEng, FIEE, FInstMC *** Not in Gale
Biomedical and industrial engineer. Professor and Dean  of the Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield. Derek Arthur Linkens received a BSc (Eng) degree in Electrical Engineering from Imperial College, London, MSc in Systems Engineering from the University of Surrey, Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield and DSc(Eng) from the University of London. After working in underwater weapon and aerospace technology he joined the University of Sheffield in 1969. He is currently Research Professor in the area of intelligent system engineering relating to both biomedical and industrial engineering problems. He is also the Director of the Institute for Microstructural and Mechanical Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield (IMMPETUS). He has published over 300 refereed papers and has been Author and Editor of 7 books. He is a Fellow of the IEE and the Inst MC of which he was President in 1993.

Honors: Elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, for his research on biological systems modelling and control.


Faculty webpage, Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield,

Contact page,


Carl Linnaeus

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) established the binomial system of biological nomenclature, formalized biological classification, and gave the first organization to ecology.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Ralph Linton

(1893-1953). American cultural anthropologist. Professor, University of Wisconsin (1928-37), Columbia (1937-46), Yale (1946-53). Contributed to development of cultural anthropology. Author of The Material Culture of the Marquesas Islands (1924), The Tanala, a Hill Tribe of Madagascar (1933), The Study of Man (1936), The Cultural Background of Personality (1945), The Tree of Culture (1955).

Honor: Huxley Memorial Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1954.

Ralph Linton, Anthropologue américain, 1893-1953 (in French)


Joseph Lister

The English surgeon Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister of Lyme Regis (1827-1912), discovered the antiseptic technique, which represents the beginning of modern surgery.  Quaker.  Listerine mouthwash is named after him for his work in antisepsis. He credits Ignaz Semmelweis for earlier work in antiseptic treatment: "Without Semmelweis, my achievements would be nothing."

Lister's 1826 Microscope.

"Joseph Lister,"

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Joseph Jackson Lister

(1786-1869). English optician. Wine merchant by trade. Investigated principles of construction of the object glasses of microscopes and discovered fundamental principle (law of the aplanatic foci) of the modern instrument (1830); first to ascertain true form of red corpuscleof mammalian blood (1834).  Founder member of the Microscopical Society.  Father of Joseph Lister.

Joseph Jackson Lister's microscope.


Martin Lister *** Not in Gale

(1632-1712). English naturalist and physician, was born at Radclive, near Buckingham. He was nephew of Sir Matthew Lister, physician to Anne, queen of James I., and to Charles I. He was educated at St Johns College, Cambridge, 1655, graduated in 1638/9, and was elected a Fellow in 1660. He became F.R.S. in 1671. He practiced medicine at York until 1683, when he removed to London. In 1684 he received the degree of M.D. at Oxford, and in 1687 became F.R.C.P. He contributed numerous articles on natural history, medicine and antiquities to the Philosophical Transactions. His principal works were Historiae animalium A ngliae tres tractatus (f678); Historiae Conch yliorum (1685 1692), and Conchyliorum Bivalvium (1696). As a conchologist he was held in high esteem, but while he recognized the similarity of fossil mollusca to living forms, he regarded them as inorganic imitations produced in the rocks. In 1683 he communicated to the Royal Society (Phil. Trans., 1684), An ingenious proposal for a new sort of maps of countries; together with tables of sands and clays, such as are chiefly found in the north parts of England. In this essay he suggested the preparation of a soil or mineral map of the country, and thereby is justly credited with being the first to realize the importance of a geological survey.


The Galileo Project,

Martin Lister (1639-1712) and Fools' Gold.


David Livingstone

(1813-1873). Scottish missionary, physician and explorer. Operative in cotton mill from age of ten; ordained missionary (1840). Embarked as missionary, reached Bechuanaland in Africa (July 1841); repulsed by Boers in missionary efforts.  He later organized exploration expeditions into interior; discovered Lake Ngami (1849), Zambezi River (1851); on great expedition northwardfrom Cape Town through west Central Africa to Luanda and back to Quilimane (1853-56) collected vast amount of information and discovered Victoria Falls of the Zambezi (1855); welcomed back in Britain with enthusiasm; published his Missionary Travels (1857).  With mutual regrets he severed connection with missionary society. Returned as consul of Quilimane (1858-64); commanded expeditions exploring Zambezi, Shire, and Rovuma rivers, discovered lakes Chilwa and Nyasa (1859); recalled (1863) and on second visit to England published The Zambesi and its Tributaries (1865) with intent to expose Portuguese slave traders and get missionary and commercial settlement established near head of the Rovuma. Led expedition to explore watershed of Central Africa and sources of Nile (1866); discovered lakes Mweru (1867) and Bangweulu (1868), explored country to Nyangwe on the Lualaba River, returned almost dying to Ujiji, where he was rescued (1871) by newspaper reporter Henry M. Stanley, saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume."  Unable to persuade Livingstone to return to England, Stanley reequipped him and departed from him near Tabora on March 14, 1872. Livingstone sought source of Nile, pushing eastward to Unyanyembe, then south to village of Chitambo's (now in Zambia).  A month before his death, he wrote in his journal: "Nothing earthly will make me give up my work in despair. I encourage myself in the Lord my God, and go forward."  He was later found dead, kneeling in prayer.  The Last Journals of David Livingstone were published in 1874.  Livingstone was buried in great honor in London's Westminster Abbey.

Award: Royal Geographical Society Gold Medal, 1855.

"David Livingstone."

"Dr. Livingstone."


D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones *** Not in Gale

Dr. D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1898-1981) Physician, pastor.  Trained in London for a medical career and was associated with the famous Doctor Thomas Horder. During his medical years he was a much sought after physician and was well respected in his field.

The Martyn Lloyd-Jones Recordings Trust official Web Site.

Sir Fred Catherwood.  "Dr. D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones: His Life and Ministry,"

"December 20, 1899 o Birth of Evangelist Martyn Lloyd-Jones,"

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones Online.


Mathias de L'Obel *** Not in Gale

(1538-1616).  Belgian botanist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

L'Obel's Stirpium adversaria nova (1571, written with Pierre Pena) is one of the milestones of modern botany. Later, Stirpium observationes, a sort of complement to the Adversaria, was joined to it under the title Plantarum seu stirpium historia (1576). Also other books on botany.

His botanical work was directed toward the pharmacological use of plants. L'Obel published an essay on the pharmacology of Rondelet as part of a reissue of his Adversia in 1605. He referred to Lord Zouch's garden as the garden of medicine.


John Locke

(1632-1704).  English philosopher, physician who an initiator of the Enlightenment in England and France. Secretary to diplomatic mission to Brandenburg (1665); went to live in house of Anthony Ashley Cooper (later Earl of Shaftesbury) as physician and confidential adviser (from 1667) and tutor; secretary of Council of Trade and Plantations (1672-73). In France (1675-79); suspected of complicity in Shaftesbury plots (1684), fled to Holland; returned to become commissioner of appeal (1689-1704) and adviser to government on coinage. Spent some 20 years developing his empirical theory of epistemology, published in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690); outlined his liberal constitutionalist ideas on government in TwoTreatises on Government (1690). Author also of three Letters on Toleration (1689, 1690, 1692), Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693), The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695). Known as the father of English empiricism.  Political theories influenced writers of U.S. Constitution.

Disclaimer: We have found claims of Unitarianism but they come from doubtful sources which will be not accepted as authoritative.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

The Galileo Project,

"John Locke (1632-1704): 'The Philosopher of Freedom',"

Locke's works available on the Internet:

John Locke Bibliography.


Sir Charles Locock *** Not in Gale

(1799-1875).  Scottish obstetric physician.  Physician-Accoucheur to Queen Victoria.

From "Biography of Sir Charles Locock (1799-1875),"

For three years Locock was resident private pupil of Sir Benjamin Brodie in London, and afterwards graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1821. Brodie recommended him to devote himself specially to midwifery, and he was fortunate in receiving the commendations of Dr. Gooch, who was retiring from practical midwifery. After 1825 he rapidly rose to the first rank, and long had the best practise in London as an accoucheur. In 1843-5 he lectured at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and was for many years physician to the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1836, and was a member of its council in 1840-1-2. In 1840 he was appointed first physician-accoucheur to Queen Victoria, and attended at the birth of all her children. Besides contributing some practical articles to the Cyclopæ dia of Medicine and to the Library of Medicine, he made a valuable contribution to medicine by the discovery of the efficacy of bromide of potassium in epilepsy (see Reports of Discussions, Royal Med.-Chir. Society; Lancet and Medical Times, 23 May 1857). In 1857 he was created a baronet, although he declined the honour in 1840. He was president of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 1857, was elected F.R.S. and created D.C.L Oxon. in 1864.

"Sir Charles Locock (1799-1875), Physician-Accoucheur to Queen Victoria," Links,


Thomas Stanton Loeber

(Born September 2, 1922 in San Francisco, California, United States).  Biologist (retired).  Achievements include co-developer of first computerized library catalog.  Biological Consultant, Pacific SW Biological Services, National City, California, 1986-1987; technical writer Nuc. Generating Station, So. California Edison, San Onofre, California, 1983-1986; program exec., Oregon Department of Transp., Portland, 1978-1981; instructor, Mt. Angel College, 1966-1967; Research analyst, State Libr., Salem, Oregon, 1963-1967; Director National Malaria Eradication Service, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 1957-1960.  Malariologist International division, USPHS, 1956-60; Assistant Professor SW Oregon C.C., 1967-73; instructor National University, San Diego, 1984; U.S. rep. Regional Conf. WHO, Baghdad, 1957, Addis Ababa, 59; Consultant Governor's Commission for Handicapped, Salem, Oregon, 1968, Manpower Study Prudential Properties, Agoura, California, 1974; tutor in Mathematics and English Latino elem. school children, 2001; founder Los Amigos Fund (Presbyterian Church), 2003; medical mission Global Health Outreach, Honduras, 2003.  Education: BA in Zoology, Pomona College, 1948; MS in Entomology, University Mass., 1950; MA in International Rels., UCLA, 1963. Certification: Certified Vector Control Specialist California Department of Health, 1955, Fundamentals of Procedure Writing Gen. Physics Corp., 1985

Member:  Director, UCLA International Student Center, 1962-63; Member Christian Medical-Dental Assoc./Global Health Outreach; staff adminstructor 58th Biennial session Oregon House of Representatives; deacon Presbyterian Church, 2002-present. Member: Nature Conservancy, Sigma Xi, Pi Gamma Mu, Pi Sigma Alpha.

Honor: Grantee, Ford Foundation, 1962.

Author: Foreign Aid Our Tragic Experiment, 1961, Three Case Studies in Public Library Development, 1966, A Brief History of Time Since 1960, 1999; co-author: A Computer-Based Approach to Planning in Underdeveloped Areas, 1965; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


James Logan

(1674-1751). American public official and jurist, b. Lurgan, Ireland, of Scottish parentage. To America (1699) as secretary to William Penn; member of the provincial council (1703-47); mayor of Philadelphia (1722); acting executive of the province (1736-38). Chief justice, Pennsylvania supreme court (1731-39). Interested in botany; the family Loganiaceae and the genus Logania were so named by Linnaeus in his honor.

Marion Parris Smith.  "James Logan."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936:  "His most important scientific work was a series of "Experiments Concerning the Impregnation of the Seeds of Plants," the results of which he reported to his friend Peter Collinson in London and to the Royal Society (1736; see Charles Hutton and others, Philosophical Transactions ... Abridged, 1809, VII, 669). His conclusions he later published in a Latin treatise, Experimenta et Meletemata de Plantarum Generatione (Leyden, 1739). Translated into English by Dr. John Fothergill, the celebrated Quaker physician, it was published in London in 1747. Other papers contributed by Logan to the Royal Society of London include "An Account of Mr. T. Godfrey's Improvement of Davis' Quadrant" (Philosophical Transactions, Abridged, VII, 669); "Some Thoughts on the Sun and Moon, When Near the Horizon Appearing Larger than When Near the Zenith" (Ibid., VIII, 112); "Concerning the Crooked or Angular Appearance of the Streaks or Darts of Lightning in Thunderstorms" (Ibid., VIII, 68). He also published two translations: Cato's Moral Distiches, Englished in Couplets (1735), and M. T. Cicero's Cato Major; or His Discourse of Old Age (1744), the latter said by Charles Evans (American Bibliography, II, 1904, p. 258) to be generally considered the best specimen of printing from Franklin's press."

The Galileo Project,


Mikhail Lomonosov / Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov / Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov / Mikhail Vasilevich Lomonosov / Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов

(1711 in Denisovka (now Lomonosov) -1765). The Father of Russian Poetry and the Father of Russian science.  Writer, chemist, meteorologist, astronomer.  Studied in Germany (1736-41), esp. under Christian von Wolff and Johann Henckel; adjunct in physics (1742-45), professor of chemistry (from 1745), St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences; established (1748) first scientific chemical laboratory in Russia and introduced (1752) a course of instruction in physical chemistry; set up a colored-glass works (1753) and produced the first colored-glass mosaics in Russia. As a scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time, and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury, and to observe the atmosphere of Venus during a solar transit in 1761, concluding that Venus had an atmosphere "similar to, or perhaps greater than that of the earth."

Lomonosov drew up plans for Moscow State University (opened 1755) and appointed a councilor (1757). While imprisoned (1743-44), wrote 276 Notes on Corpuscular Philosophy and Physics containing dominant ideas of his scientific work; developed an atomistic theory of matter based on a materialistic monadology; evolved a corpuscular, mechanical theory of heat based on Boyle; did work on the law of the conservation of matter and energy, crystallization of liquids, electricity, meteorology, metallurgy, origin of icebergs; invented (1759) several astronomical and navigational instruments.

He also made significant contributions to the philological study of the Russian language, including the development of a scientific vocabulary, and wrote a controversial history of Russia.  He wrote poetry, much of it on scientific subjects; worked on unfinished heroic epic on Peter the Great; his tragedy Tamira and Sellim produced in St. Petersburg (1750). A leader in reformation of Russian language and versification, esp. with Russian Grammar (1755-57). 

Mikhail Lomonosov Memorial.

"Combining the formidable will-power and the formidable strength of perception, Lomonosov embraced all the branches of learning.  A thirst for a deeper appreciation of things proved an overwhelming passion with that impassioned spirit.  A historian, rhetorician, mechanic, chemist, mineralogist, artist and poet, he had experienced it all and perceived it all ..." (Alexander Pushkin)

 Two Letters of Mikhail Vasilevich Lomonosov (1711-1765) to his Patron, I. I. Shuvalov. [excerpted from Anthology of Russian Literature From the Earliest Period to the Present Time, Leo Wiener, ed. and Tr. Pt. 1 (New York, 1902), pp. 242-246]:

See the grave of Mikhail Lomonosov ,

at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery,

at St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Lomonosov "Aerodynamic": Lomonosov invented a prototype of helicopter in 1754!


About Lomonosov works on chemistry (in Russian),

Biography, in Russian,

Biography, in Russian,,graphics,unix,russian,koi8,new)

M. V. Lomonosov: velikiy syn Rossii, in Russian,

Velikie himiki: Lomonosov, in Russian,

Lomonosov i metallurgiya, in Russian,

Other biographical articles in Russian,

Mikhail Vasilevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов)

Mikhail Vasilevich Lomonosov (1711-65).  "Evening Meditations on Seeing the Aurora Borealis,"  Sir Jon Bowring's Specimens of the Russian Poets.

From Lomonosov's collected essays: "The Creator gave the human race two books.  In one He revealed His majesty, in the other - his will.  The first is the visible world, which He created so that man - beholding the magnitude, the beauty, and the harmony of His creation - could acknowledge God's omnipotence.  The second book is Holy Scripture."


Crawford Williamson Long

(1815-1878).  American physician, surgeon, anesthesiologist and pharmacist.

Crawford Williamson Long received his M.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. He performed the first surgical operation in general anesthesia induced by ether (8 operations between 1842 and 1846). Although William T.G. Morton is well-known for performing his historic anesthesia on October 18, 1846, C.W. Long is now known to be the first doing an ether-based anesthesia. After observing the same effects with ether that where already described by Humphrey Davy 1800 with nitrous oxide, C.W. Long used ether the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove two tumors from the neck of his patient, Mr. James M. Venable. The results of this trials where published several years (December 1849) later only being second after Mortons publication. An original copy of his publication is held in the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

See citation on William Thomas Green Morton.


Stephen Long

Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UC Santa Barbara.  Dr. Stephen Ingalls Long (Born 1946) received the IEEE Microwave Applications Award in 1978 for development of InP millimeter wave devices. In 1988 he was a research visitor at GEC Hirst Research Centre, U.K. In 1994 he was a Fulbright research visitor at the Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere University of Technology, Finland and a visiting professor at the Electromagnetics Institute, Technical University of Denmark. He is a senior member of the IEEE and a member of the American Scientific Affiliation.


Stephen Long.  One Christian's Perspective on Work: A Personal Testimony


Adam Lonitzer / Lonicerus

(1528-1586). German botanist, natural historian, physician, mathematician.  The genus Lonicera was named after him.

The Galileo Project,

As well as acting as municipal physician, he wrote books on public health, such as regulations for controlling the plague (with Johann Palmerius, 1572) and regulations for midwives (1573).  Education: 1536, University of Marburg, received a B.A. (1540), and M.A. (1545).  He studied medicine at Marburg and at Mainz. He received his M.D. in 1554 from Marburg.


Dame Kathleen Lonsdale

Kathleen Lonsdale (1903-1971) was an early pioneer of X-ray crystallography, a field primarily concerned with studying the shapes of organic and inorganic molecules. In 1929, Kathleen Lonsdale was the first to prove experimentally that the hexamethylbenzene crystal, an unusual form of the aromatic compound, was both hexagonal and flat in shape. In 1931, she was the first to use Fourier analysis to illustrate the structure of hexachlorobenzene, an even more difficult organic structure to analyze.  In 1945, Lonsdale was the first woman, along with microbiologist Marjory Stephenson, admitted as a Fellow to the Royal Society. She was the first female professor at University College, London, the first woman named president of the International Union of Crystallography, and the first woman to hold the post of president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. She accepted her achievements as a pioneering woman scientist with characteristic humility. In 1966, the "lonsdaleite," a rare form of meteoric diamond, was named for her.

Professor of Chemistry at the University of London, 1949-68.  Dame Commander of Order of the British Empire, 1956; Davy Medal of Royal Society, 1957; honorary D.Sc. from University of Cardiff, University of Manchester, University of Leicester.

Special interests include social responsibility of scientists, science and religion, and contacts between scientists in all countries, especially in times of political difficulties-interests reflected in her lectures during visits to Europe, Soviet Union, United States, People's Republic of China, Japan, Australasia, Canada, South Africa, United Arab Republic.

Author: Simplified Structure Factor and Electron Density Formulae for the 230 Space-Groups of Mathematical Crystallography, G. Bell and Sons, 1936; Crystals and X-Rays, G. Bell and Sons, 1948; International Tables for X-Ray Crystallography, Kynoch Press, Volume 1, 1952, Volume 2, 1959, Volume 3, 1962;Removing the Causes of War, (Swarthmore Lectures), Allen & Unwin, 1953; Is Peace Possible?, Penguin Books, 1957; (With J. Kasper) International Tables for X-Ray Crystallography, Volume 2, Kynoch Press, 1959; International Tables for X-Ray Crystallography, Volume 3, Kynoch Press, 1962; I Believe (Arthur Stanley Eddington Memorial lecture), Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale.,_Kathleen_Yardley@8480138866.html

Dr. Peter E. Childs.  "The Life and Work of Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale (1903-1971),"  A lecture by Dr. Peter E. Childs to mark the official opening of the Kathleen Lonsdale Building, University of Limerick, 20th. April 1998


Frank Lorimer

(1894-1985).  Educator, clergyman, sociologist, demographer, and author. Lorimer's inquiries as a scientist of human populations covered such diverse areas as Soviet and African societies, fertility differentiation among separate groups, and eugenics-the science of breeding for purposes of genetic improvement. Professor Emeritus, American University, from 1964; Professor sociology Graduate School, American University, 1938-64; President, Population Association America, 1946-47; secretary, Population Association America, 1934-39; Research Fellow, Eugenics Research Association, 1930-34; Research Director, Brooklyn Conference in Adult Education, 1929-30; Lecturer in social theory, Wellesley (Mass.) College, 1928-29; Assistant Professor philosophy, Wells College, Aurora, N.Y., 1927-28; minister, N.Y.C. Baptist Mission Society, 1922-25; Associate Director, Abraham Lincoln Center, Chicago, 1920-1921.  Education: AB, Yale University, 1916; AM, University Chicago, 1921; BD, Union Theol. Seminary., 1923; Ph.D., Columbia University, 1929, and from 1922 to 1925, he served as a minister of the New York City Baptist Mission Society.

Author: The Growth of Reason: A Study of the Role of Verbal Activity in the Growth of the Structure of the Human Mind, 1929, The Making of Adult Minds in a Metropolitan Area, 1931, Dynamics of Population; Social and Biological Signifigance of Changing Birth Rates in the United States (with F. Osborn), 1934, Foundations of American Population Policy (with E. Winston and L. Kiser), 1940, Population of the Soviet Union: History and Prospects, 1946, Culture and Human Fertility, 1954, Demographic Information on Tropical Africa, 1961.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Dr. Adriaan A. Louis / Ard A. Louis *** Not in Gale

Royal Society University Research Fellow, Cambridge University, England.

Ard Louis grew up in Gabon, West Africa, where his parents are missionaries. His first degree was from the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and his Ph.D. in theoretical physics was from Cornell University, USA. Since 1998 he has been working at Cambridge University, UK, where he is director of studies in physics and chemistry at Hughes Hall, and leads an interdisciplinary research group in theoretical chemistry that focuses on the statistical mechanics of complex fluids.


Curriculum Vitae for Adriaan (Ard) A. Louis:

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Colonel Jack Lousma

(Born 1936). U.S. astronaut and space shuttle pilot. Crew member, Skylab 3, 1973, Columbia space shuttle, 1982.

Awarded the Johnson Space Center Certificate of Commendation (1970) and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1973); presented the Navy Distinguished Service Medal and the Navy Astronaut Wings (1974), the City of Chicago Gold Medal (1974), the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1973 (1974), the Marine Corps Aviation Association's Exceptional Achievement Award (1974), the Federation Aeronautique Internationale's V. M. Komarov Diploma for 1973 (1974), the Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy for 1975 (1975), the AIAA Octave Chanute Award for 1975 (1975), the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1974 (1975); inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame (1982). NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1982), Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal (1982), NCAA Silver Anniversary Award (1983). Inducted into the Michigan Aviation Hall of Fame (1988).

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1. "I think that it is impossible to work in the field of space technology and exploration - to be acquainted with the magnitude and precision of space, and to be exposed to the principles of the universe - without being sure that it could not all have just happened by mere chance.  It had to be engineered by a Master Planner and Designer.  My work in the space program has reinforced my faith in God, the Creator."


Richard Lower

(1631-1691).  English physician and physiologist. Made first direct transfusion of blood from one animal to the veins of another (in dogs, 1665); studied cardiopulmonary system; published Tractatus de corde (1669).  Richard Lower was a pioneer in seventeenth century medicine because of his studies in experimental physiology. His observations about the circulation and transfusion of blood led to some of the most significant discoveries in the history of medicine. Lower studied at Westminster School and Christ Church College, Oxford, where he earned an M.A. in 1655 and an M.D. in 1665. He was named Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in 1660. He is still regarded as one of Oxford's finest doctors.

Lower is famous for his anatomical work on the brain and nerves, carried out as the assistant of Thomas Willis  in Oxford in the early 1660s, and for his own anatomical and physiological investigation of the structure and action of the heart, on which he published in 1669. He was also involved in the first experimental transfusions of blood into a human subject in 1666. He was one of the most skilled and accomplished vivisectionalists of his time.


Margaret D. Lowman

(Born 1953).  Naturalist.

Burgundy Wildlife Camp, science teacher, 1969-75; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, lecturer in adult education department, 1978-81; Ruby Hills (sheep and cattle ranch), Walcha, Australia, co-owner, 1983-90; Williams College, Williamstown, MA, Professor of biology and environmental studies, 1990-92; Selby Gardens, Sarasota, FL, director of research and conservation, 1992-present, appointed to Jessie B. Cox Chair in Tropical Botany, 1993-present. Canopy Construction Associates, founder, 1992. Russell Sage College, Geneva Sayre Lecturer, 1995; West Georgia College, Professor Lampton Annual Lecturer, 1995; adjunct Professor at Williams College, University of Florida, University of South Florida, and New College of the University of South Florida, 1992-present; speaker at colleges and universities, including University of California, Santa Barbara, Pennsylvania State University, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Carleton College, Northfield, MN. Earthwatch, member of board of directors, 1990-present; Massachusetts Tropical Conservatory, member of board of education, 1991-present; Jason Project in Science Education, chief scientist, 1994 and 1999; Monteverde Institute (Costa Rica), member of board of directors, 1996; TREE Foundation, member of advisory board, 1998-present; International Canopy Network, member of board of directors, 1999. Work featured in Heroes of the High Frontier, a National Geographic television special, 1999.


Ernest Lucas

(Born 1945).  Theological educator.  Education: BA, Oxford (U.K.) University, 1967; BA, Oxford (U.K.) University, 1976; Ph.D., University Kent, Canterbury, U.K., 1970; Ph.D., Liverpool (U.K.) University, 1989. Memberships: Royal Society Chemistry, Christians in Science (Executive Committee 1986), Society of Genealogists, Human Values in Health Care Forum (vice chair 1993-95). Part-time lecturer, Bristol University, 1994; tutor in bibl. studies, Bristol (U.K.) Baptist College, 1994; director studies, Institute for Contemporary Christianity, London, 1986-94; senior tutor, Liverpool Bible College, 1982-86; tutor, Liverpool Bible College, 1978-82; minister, Durham (U.K.) City Baptist Church, 1976-78; part-time lecturer, Oxford Polytechnic, 1973-75; research Fellow, Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, 1972-73; research Associate biochemistry, University N.C., Chapel Hill, 1970-72.
Co-author: Our World, 1986 (C.S. Lewis Gold Medal 1988).


Shannon W. Lucid

(Born 1943 in Shanghai, China).  Biochemist. Aerospace administrator. Astronaut. Chief scientist, NASA Solar System Exploration division, 2002-present.  First woman to fly on the shuttle three times; mission specialist remained aloft 188 days stationed on Space Station Mir, 1996; mission specialist flight STS 76 & 79, NASA, 1996; mission specialist flight STS-58, NASA, 1993; mission specialist on Shuttle Atlantis Flight, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1991; mission specialist flights STS-51G and STS-34, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; astronaut, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1979; chemist, Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City, 1966-68; Research Associate, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, from 1974; Senior lab. technician, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 1964-66. On February 12, 2002, NASA chose Lucid to be the new chief scientist of its Solar System Exploration division (part of the California-based Jet Propulsion Laboratory). In this position, she will direct, establish, and develop the agency's science agenda, leading a three-person science council that will shape the future of U.S. space exploration.

Education: University of Oklahoma, B.S. in Chemistry, M.S. and Ph.D in Biochemistry.

Honors: Recipient Freedom Forum's highest award, the Free Spirit Award, 1997.


New Mexico Museum of Space History, Alamogordo, New Mexico.

International Space Hall of Fame, Shannon W. Lucid.

"NASA Astronaut, Dr. Shannon Lucid, Selected as Chief Scientist," by NASA,12 February 2002,

"[Oklahoma Governor] Keating Congratulates Shannon Lucid On Receiving Congressional Space Medal Of Honor,"

"The Incredible Shannon Lucid," profile.

NASA profile.

Mir Space Station Web Site, "The Career of Dr. Shannon Lucid," at: (February 28, 2002).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Solar System Exploration, "Shannon Lucid," at: (February 28, 2002).


Saint Luke

(Fl. 1st century).  Physician.  St. Luke (active 50 AD) was one of the four Evangelists. Author of the Third Gospel and its sequel, the Acts of the Apostles.  Luke's name-of Latin origin-indicates that he apparently was not of Jewish derivation. The earliest surviving testimony describes him as a Syrian from Antioch. His abundant acquaintance with the Antiochean Church, as well as his knowledge of literary Greek, both illustrated in his writings, supports this testimony. Tradition and one text of St. Paul's (Colossians 4:14) say that Luke was a trained physician. His Gospel exhibits a Greek literary style absent from the other Gospels and documents of the New Testament. Luke, apparently, was a well-educated man. His Greek was as polished as that of such classical writers as Xenophon.

Biography of Saint Luke.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Richard D. Lumsden *** Not in Gale

(1938-1997) Richard D. Lumsden, Ph.D. Biology He had a B.S. and M.S. in Zoology from Tulane University, a traineeship in Cell Biology at Harvard (non-degree), a Ph.D. in Biology from Rice University, and a Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship in Medical Pathology from the Tulane University School of Medicine. Dr. Lumsden was former Professor of Parasitology and Cell Biology and Dean of the Tulane University Graduate School. He received over 21 Research Grants and Contracts from such organizations at the National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation, and the FDA. He published some 90 peer-reviewed papers, mostly in parasitological journals often describing new species, and presented over 100 program abstracts. An issue of the Journal of Parasitology [87(3), June 2001], featured a study by a group of workers at UCLA on human brain tapeworm parasites (pages 510-521), and it references work by Dr. Lumsden done over 21 years ago on electron microscopy of the tapeworm. He won the Henry Baldwin Ward medal, the highest award in parasitology. Dr. Lumsden was a member of the American Society of Parasitologists, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Zoologists, the Society for Cell Biology, the Helminthological Society of Washington, and the New York Academy of Sciences.

For a detailed look at his accomplishments, etc., click this:


Kenneth H. Luther

Mathematician.  Environmental scientist.  Assistant Professor,  Mathematics and Computer Science and Chair, Environmental Science Program, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana.  "My area of research is mathematical modeling of groundwater flow. I am particularly interested in modeling groundwater flow using the analytic element method. This method is an alternative to grid based numerical methods such as the finite difference method or the finite element method. The AEM uses concepts from potential theory to construct solutions to flow problems which are analytic almost everywhere. Most of my work involves construction of 3D solutions, although I have dabbled in 2D as well. My professional activities include being on the Board of Directors of the Valparaiso Water Department, membership in the Indiana Water Resources Association.  I will be president of the IWRA in 2004."

Education: B.S. in Mathematics from Mount Union College, M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Delaware, Ph.D.. in Environmental Science from Indiana University.  "I studied mathematical and computer modeling of groundwater flow in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA)."

Dr. Luther is president of the IWRA. Indiana Water Resources Association.

Indiana Water Resources Association.

The Indiana Water Resources Association (IWRA) was founded in 1979 as a state affiliate of the American Water Resources Association to promote water resources research, education, and communication in Indiana. The IWRA is an organization of several hundred professionals and students working in all aspects of water resources. Its members include scientists, engineers, regulators, educators, policy-makers, and students from government agencies, universities, industry, consulting firms, and other water related groups.

Dr. Ken Luther,


Ludmila Alekseevna Lutova

(Born October 6, 1945 in Leningrad, Russia).  Geneticist, researcher.  Professor of biology, St. Petersburg State University, 1996; Department chief dept. of biology, St. Petersburg State University, 1994-95; Associate Professor, St. Petersburg State University, 1988-95; Assistant Professor biology, St. Petersburg State University, 1980-88; science rschr., St. Petersburg State University, 1969-80.  Education: MSc, St. Petersburg State University, 1969; Ph.D., St. Petersburg State University, 1977; DSc, St. Petersburg State University, 1994.

Member: N.Y. Academy of Sciences, Genetics and Breeding Society (council 1972).  Orthodox Christian.

Honors: Personal Soros grantee, 1993, RFFI grantee, 1994-95, St. Petersburg Mayor's Office grantee, 1995.

Author: (handbook) Biotechnology of Higher Plants, 1990.  Patentee in field of biology plant protection.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Richard N. Luxton / Richard Neal Luxton

(Born 1950).  South American literature educator, researcher, explorer and writer. Also worked as ship's steward, migrant farm laborer, schoolteacher, and construction worker.  Chair Department of Human Studies, Western New England College, 1992; Professor, Western New England College, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1989; Professor, Chapman College, Sacramento, 1985-89; Professor, National University, Sacramento, 1985-89.Education: BA, Essex University, Colchester, Eng., 1972; Ph.D., Essex University, Colchester, Eng., 1978.  Member: Latin American Indian Literary Assn. (symposium chairman, 1986, v.p. 1986-89, president, 1989-92).

British Academy fellow, 1979, Harvard University fellow, 1981.

Honors: Poulter Scholarship in archaeology from University of Essex, 1974-76; British Academy grant, 1979-80; Harvard fellow at Dumbarton Oaks, 1981.

Author: The Mystery of the Mayan Hieroglyphs, 1981, The Book of Chumayel, The Counsel Book of the Yucatec Maya (1539-1638).


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