Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (M)


Alexander MacAlister *** Not in Gale

(1844-1919). Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge.


Donald MacCrimmon MacKay

Known for his wide-ranging research on the brain and intelligence, Donald M. MacKay (1922-1987) was a neuroscientist, educator, editor, and author. His major work involved brain organization and vision, but he also conducted comparisons between the brain and computers and explored cybernetics.

W. R. Thorson. "An I Behind the Eye: Donald MacKay's Gifford Lectures," Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G2

From PSCF 44 (March 1992): 49-54.

MacKay told Contemporary Authors: "As a practicing scientist and a committed Christian, I find no shadow of conflict between my science and my faith. For me each fresh discovery only adds to the wonder of the world and the glory of its Author-but it also increases our need for wisdom greater than our own if we are to use our scientific knowledge responsibly. I believe that the re-integration of science and Christian faith is not just possible but long over-due."


Colin Maclaurin

(1698-1746). Scottish mathematician. Professor at Marischal College, Aberdeen (1717) and at Edinburgh (1725). Author of Geometrica Organica, sive Descriptio Linearum Curvarum Universalis (1720) dealing with general properties of conics and of higher plane curves, Treatise of Fluxions (1742) containing his essay on tides, statement of the conception of level surfaces, and theory of maxima and minima, A Treatise of Algebra (1748), An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries (1748).



Jed Macosko, Ph.D. / Jed C. Macosko *** Not in Gale

Biochemist. Jed C. Macosko is Assistant Professor of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC. Dr. Macosko's research involves the detection of forces in single biomolecules and molecular machines by using microspheres and centrifugal force.  Dr. Macosko studies protein motors and machines, mapping their potential energy surfaces. Surveying and mapping the potential energy surfaces of protein machines is essential for understanding their function and for developing drugs to halt their activity.

Dr. Macosko received his B.S. in chemistry from MIT and his Ph.D. from UC Berkeley in 1999 for his work on influenza hemagglutinin and HIV RNA. Dr. Macosko taught chemistry at Wheaton College, IL, then returned to UC Berkeley for a two year NIH postdoctoral fellowship in the Molecular and Cell Biology Department.  From there, he took an Assistant Professorship of biophysical chemistry at La Sierra University in Riverside, California, consulting for Burstein Technologies Inc. in Irvine, CA.  Then, he moved to the University of New Mexico where he studied life's molecular machines as a Discovery Institute, before settling at Wake Forest University in North Carolina.

Dr. Macosko has been awarded MIT's Merck award for academic excellence, Admiral Rickover's medal of honor for exemplary research, and two of NIH's competitive research grants. 

International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design,

Welcome from Wake Forest University,

Macosko Research Group, Jed C. Macosko, Assistant Professor of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC,


Graham Maddox *** Not in Gale

Professor of Political Science, University of New England, Australia.

From "Graham Maddox, Professor of Political Science, retires after a distinguished 38-year career at UNE!" (Excerpts):

"Professor Maddox was presented with the title, Emeritus Professor, at a celebratory evening held at Booloominba on Wednesday 30 July, 2003.  Joining the Univesity as a Lecturer in Continuing Education, stationed in Tamworth, he went on to become a long-serving Dean of the Faculty of Arts, including a double term as (Foundation) Executive Dean.  As a teacher, he has inspired generations of students with a passionate sense of social justice that informs his scholarship.

Professor Maddox is the author of four books, including Australian Democracy in Theory and Practice (1st edition 1988, 5th edition in preparation), the most widely used first-year Politics Text in Australia. The Hawke Government and Labor Tradition (1989) sparked considerable public debate,and Religion and the Rise of Democracy (1996) has been widely praised for its insight and scholarship.  In addition he is the author of dozens of refereed journal articles, many of which have been reprinted in standard anthologies.

His longstanding concern with constitutionalism and the Australian Constitution has been recognised by his invited participation in several constitutional conferences and conventions, and his international reputation as a scholar has been recognised by his election to the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia.

A fine musician, Graham Maddox has made a huge contribution, as conductor and performer, to musical life within and beyond the Armidale community."

Other writings: "Australian Democracy and the Compound Republic," Pacific Affairs vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 193-207, year 2000; Socialism in Contemporary Australia. South Melbourne: Longman, 1996; Political Writings of John Wesley, Bristol: Thoemmes, 1988
Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, Directory of Fellows,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Johann Heinrich Madler

(1794-1874). German astronomer. With Wilhelm Beer published first map of Mars (1830)and an authoritative map of the Moon (1836); popularizer of astronomy with his Populare Astronomie (1841) and Geschichte der Himmelskunde (1873).


Michael Maestlin *** Not in Gale

(1550-1631).  German astronomer.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

In 1580, appointed Professor of mathematics, University of Heidelberg.  1584-1631, Professor of mathematics, University of Tuebingen.  Between 1588 and 1629, elected dean of Tuebingen arts faculty eight times. (in French)


 Lorenzo Magalotti *** Not in Gale

(1637-1712).  Italian specialist in scientific communication, natural philosopher.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Magalotti was the secretary of the Accademia del Cimmento and reported its activity in the Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell'Accademia del Cimento (Florence, 1667), essays on natural experiments mainly carried out by Borelli, Redi, and Vincenzio Viviani.  Magalotti did not carry on any significant scientific work of his own, but he was involved part of his life with the currents of scientific thought.

Member: Accademia del Cimento, 1560-1667; Royal Society, Accademia della Crusca and of the Arcadia.

He carried on an extensive correspondence, at least some of which has been published (see Cochrane). Among his correspondents were Michelini, Viviani, and Redi, all of whom were Magalotti's close friends. Magalotti became the friend of Steno when he came to Florence.  In England he formed a friendship with Boyle. (in Italian)


Cesare Magati *** Not in Gale

(1579-1647).  Italian surgeon.  Catholic. In 1619 Magati joined the Capuchin order.

The Galileo Project,

He is particularly remembered for De rara medicatione vulnerum (1616), which discusses the theory and method of healing wounds. He also wrote another work on this subject, replying to an attack by Sennert. Magati was a conservative physician who held to the tradition of Galen and Hippocrates. Within those limits he emphasized that the function of the physician was to assist nature, the ultimate source of cure, as much as possible by obstructing her as little as possible with excessive medication and treatment. For this he is remembered as a fundamental reformer of surgery.

Magati also left behind a manuscript De re medica. An important consultation on syphilis survives, as well as a writing on the plague.


Bartolomeo Maggi *** Not in Gale

(c. 1477-1552).  Italian surgeon.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Maggi was among the first to teach a rational method of treating gunshot wounds. The De vulnerum bombardorum et sclopetorum curatione, his work on the treatment of wounds, was published posthumously at Bologna in 1552. He was known also for his method of amputation.  In 1550 Maggi published a consultation of syphilis.


Raffaello Magiotti *** Not in Gale

(1597-1656).  Italian physicist.  Instrument-maker.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Magiotti demonstrated experimentally Torricelli's hypothesis that the mean velocity of a liquid flowing out of the bottom outlet of a vessel is proportional to the square root of the head pressure. He determined the rate of flow through various sizes of openings. Only one work by him was printed during his lifetime, the Renitenza dell'acqua alla compressione (1648). This work embodies the first published announcement of the near incompressibility of water at a constant temperature and the expansion and contraction of water and air according to changes in temperature.

Magiotti developed the "Cartesian devil" or "diver" to illustrate the incompressibility of water.

Magiotti was one of the three favored followers, along with Castelli and Torricelli, whom Galileo referred to as his Roman "triumvirate." He maintained a correspondence with Galileo.  Torricelli greatly admired him, openly acknowledged his aid in the field of hydrodynamics, and sought his approval of his work on solid cycloids.

He was present at an experiment to test why pumps raise water only about 30 feet that was devised and staged in Rome by Berti at sometime between 1638 and 1644.


Valeriano Magni *** Not in Gale

(1586-1661).  Italian-born physicist, natural philosopher.

The Galileo Project,

Magni was one of the pioneers with the Torricellian experiment and published an account of it, the Demonstratio ocularis (Warsaw, 1647).  Magni also worked on a general philosophy opposed to Aristotle.

Magni was first, foremost, and overwhelmingly a Catholic activist in the struggles of the counter-reformation. Although his scientific activities really existed, they were always decidedly subordinate to his religious activities.  The publication of his barometer experiment aroused great controversy in 1640's.


Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky *** Not in Gale

(1669-1739).  Russian mathematician, military engineer, expert in navigation.  Russian Orthodox.

The Galileo Project,

Magnitsky's Arithmetic (1703) was the first guide to the new mathematics published in Russia. Combining the tradition of Russia mathematical literature of the 17th century with that of the western European mathematical schools, the work served as the basic texbook of mathematics in Russia for half a century.  He also participated in the preparation of a Russia edition (1703) of the logarithmic table of Vlacq (1618).

He co-edited Tables for Navigation (1722).

In addition to the work on navigation, in 1707, on the occasion of the Swedish invasion, Peter set Magnitsky to work on the fortifications of the city of Tver.

The Moscow Academy, in which Magnitsky appears to have been prominent, was not connected with the famous imperial academy in St. Petersburg. It was based rather on an earlier Kiev Academy.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky,"

Peter the Great founded the Navigation School in Moscow in 1701 and the following year he appointed Magnitsky a teacher there. Magnitsky remained there for the rest of his life. From 1715 until his death he was director of the Navigation School.


Pierre Magnol

(1638-1715). French physician and botanist. Originated classification of plants by families; works included Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum (1689) and Novus caracter plantarum (1720). The genus Magnolia was named after him.

The Galileo Project,

One of the greatest botanists of the 17th century and demonstrator of plants and later director at the Montpellier botanical garden, made important contributions towards a "natural" classification of plants and was the first to use the term "family" for plants. Magnol had contact with all the leading botanists of Europe.


Olaus Magnus

(1490-1557). Swedish ecclesiastic, geographer and historian. Roman Catholic priest; left Sweden (1523); resident in Danzig and (from 1541) in Rome; director of St. Brigitta's monastery, Rome (from 1549); archbishop of Uppsala (1544-57). Published Carta Marina (1539), first detailed map of Scandinavia, and Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (1555), long accepted as authoritative on Scandinavian history. His brother (1488-1544), also ecclesiastic and historian; sent to Sweden by Pope Adrian VI as papal legate (1523); administrator of Uppsala archdiocese (1524); exiled for refusalto support Gustav I Vasa; archbishop of Uppsala (1533-44) but lived with his brother in Danzig and Rome. Author of Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus (1554), primary source for history of several Scandinavian kings.

The Galileo Project,


Dr. Eric Magnusson

(Born 1933). School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University College, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia. Research in quantum mechanics and chemistry, University of London, 1957-60. Learn to program the enormously expensive "Mercury", the University's first mainframe computer. Returned to Australia and spent the next twenty years in teaching and administration. Set up a science faculty at Avondale College as it prepared for degree-granting status. Principal for ten years. Also taught at University of Newcastle. Introduced research students to the mysteries of quantum chemistry on computers. Returned to research at the Australian National University in 1981. University of New South Wales, Australia, 1986-2001. Retired in 2001.

Now a Visiting Fellow in quantum chemistry.


Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Emanuel Maignan *** Not in Gale

(1601-1676).  French-born physicist, optician, instrument-maker.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Maignan entered the order of Minims in 1619, and devoted much of his energy to the administrative and religious work of his order as well as to the education of the youths of Toulouse.

He participated in Rome in the important experiments which helped to establish the possibility of artificially creating a void space in nature and which influenced the work of Torricelli and others. His Cursus philosophicus (1653) provides one of the fullest accounts of these researches. His Perspective horaria (1648) is an extremely detailed and almost exhaustive discussion of sundials. In this work many optical topics such as sciagraphy are also treated.

Maignan and Berti constructed an apparatus to demonstrate that a bell ringing in a Torricellian tube becomes inaudible when the air is removed.  Maignan's Perspective gives a clear and full account of how to make the instruments for constructing dials and buffing instruments and the necessary steps in polishing lenses.

Sun dials.

Maignan (1601-76), was a priest who was a member of the circle of experimenters in Rome which included Kircher, Magiotti, and Berti. Once described by Bayle as 'one of the greatest philosophers of the seventeenth century,' Maignan has largely been forgotten, although he was an original and individualistic thinker of no small merit.


Jean Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan *** Not in Gale

(1678-1771).  French physicist, mechanic, optician, mathematician, engineer, scientific organizer.

The Galileo Project,

Mairan was concerned with a wide variety of subjects, including heat, light, sound, motion, the shape of the earth, and the aurora. His works include Dissertation sur les variations du barometre (Bordeaux, 1715), Dissertation sur la glace (Bordeaux, 1716), Dissertation sur la cause de la lumière des phosphores et des noctiluques (Bordeaux, 1717), and Dissertation sur l'estimation et la mesure des forces motrices des corps (1728). He also published a number of mathematical works.

Mairan replaced Fontenelle as perpetual secretary of the Académie. He was its assistant director in 1721, '27, '36, '44, '59, and director in '22, '28, '45, '60. He was also editor of the Journal des scavants.

After the Maritime Council commissioned the Académie, the Académie charged Mairan and Varignon in 1721 to investigate the gauging of ships in order, by means of an exact method, to prevent the complaints of commerce and the fraud of merchants. Mairan visited the ports of the Mediterranean in this capacity. In the end, the scheme of the Académie was not adopted.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, Royal Society, Institute Bologna, Russian Academy (St. Petersburg)

1718, associé of the Académie; 1719, pensionnaire géomètre until his death (with an interlude from 1743-46).

With Jean Bouillet and Antoine Portalon, he founded his own scientific society in Béziers about 1723.

Born on November 26, 1678 in Béziers as a lower nobleman, de Mairan attended college at Toulouse, with main interest in ancient Greek language. He went to Paris in 1698 to study physics and math, under the direction of Malebranche (1638-1715), among others. From 1704 to 1718 he lived in Béziers. In 1718, he was made a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences as Associate in the department of Geometry. In 1740 he became Associate Secretary of the academy, and was elected to the Academy Francaise in 1743.

De Mairan's scientific work includes contributions to the theory of heat, observations of meteorological phenomena, and theoretical work on the orbital motion and rotation of the Moon.

He mentioned his notion of a small nebulosity around a star closely north of the Orion Nebula in or before 1731, mentioned in his best known work, Traite physique and historique de l'Aurore Boreale (Physical and Historic Tract of the Aurora Borealis), published 1733 in Paris and reprinted in the Journal des Scavans in 1754. This nebula was later cataloged as "M43" by Charles Messier.

De Mairan died of pneumonia in Paris on February 20, 1771.

He is honored by naming a Moon Crater after him: Mairan (41.6N, 43.4W, 40.0 km diameter, named 1935). (in French)


Charles Maitland *** Not in Gale

(1668-1748). Scottish-born surgeon.  At the behest of English aristocrat Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Dr. Maitland was the first doctor to apply variolation techniques in Britain.  King George II sent him to Hanover to inoculate Frederick Prince of Wales.

Isobel Grundy Montagu's variolation,

Nicolau Barquet, MD, and Pere Domingo, MD.  "Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death Annals of Internal Medicine 15 October 1997. 127:635-642. Related Letters,"

"Lady Montague was so determined to prevent the ravages of smallpox and so impressed by the Turkish method that she ordered the Embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland, to inoculate her 5-year-old son in March 1718. On returning to London in April 1721, she had Maitland inoculate her 4-year-old daughter in the presence of the physicians of the court. Among these physicians was Sir Hans Sloane, President of the Royal Society and the king's physician. This was the first professional variolation performed in England. Word of these practices spread and reached the Princess of Wales and other members of the Royal Family. Charles Maitland was granted royal license to perform a trial of variolation on six prisoners at Newgate on 9 August 1721; these prisoners were promised a full pardon if they submitted to the so-called Royal Experiment. The trial was observed by the court physicians and 25 members of the Royal Society and the College of Physicians. All of the prisoners survived and were released. One was exposed to two children with the illness and proved to be immune. Maitland later variolated six charity children in London and successfully treated the two daughters of the Princess of Wales on 17 April 1722. Not surprisingly, the procedure gained general acceptance after this last success."


Jenö Major

(Born November 28, 1952 in Budapest, Hungary).  Geneticist, researcher. Certification: Biologist diplomate. Senior researcher, National Institute Chemical Safety, Budapest, 1999; head laboratory, National Institute Occupl. Health, Budapest, 1992-99; science councillor, National Institute Occupl. Health, Budapest, 1995; Senior researcher, National Institute Occupl. Health, Budapest, 1989-95; Assistant Professor, Madarász St. Hospital, Budapest, 1985-86; Junior researcher, head of laboratory, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest, 1986-89; Research Assistant, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest, 1979-85; science co-worker, Eötvös Lóránd University Science, Budapest, 1977-79.  Education: MSc, József Attila University science, Szeged, Hungary, 1977; Ph.D., József Attila University science, Szeged, Hungary, 1980.

Member: N.Y. Academy Science, European Tissue Culture Society, Hungarian Cancer Society (sec. environ. and worksite mutagenesis section 1994).  Parish clerk, Lutheran Church, Budafok, 1994, Presbyterian, 1988. Sgt. Hungarian People's Army, 1971-72.

Contributor of articles to professional journals., chapters to books.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Nicholas de Malebranche

The French philosopher and theologian Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715) was a noted Cartesian. His analysis of the fundamental presuppositions of Descartes's philosophy led to a set of doctrines that is known as occasionalism.  Entered Congregation of the Oratory (1660); ordained (1664); engaged in philosophical controversies, esp. with Arnauldand Bossuet. Principal disciple of Descartes; attempted to synthesize Cartesianism with Neoplatonism and thought of St. Augustine; his philosophical system embodied the doctrine that the mind cannot have knowledge of anything external to itself except through its relation toGod. Chief work De la recherche de la verite (1674-78); also wrote Traite de la nature et de lagrace (1680), Meditations chretiennes (1683), Traite de morale (1684), Entretiens sur la metaphysique et la religion (1688).

The French Cartesian Nicolas Malebranche was hailed by his contemporary, Pierre Bayle, as "the premier philosopher of our age." Over the course of his philosophical career, Malebranche published major works on metaphysics, theology, and ethics, as well as studies of optics, the laws of motion and the nature of color. He is known principally for offering a highly original synthesis of the views of his intellectual heroes, St. Augustine and René Descartes. Two distinctive results of this synthesis are Malebranche's doctrine that we see bodies through ideas in God and his occasionalist conclusion that God is the only real cause.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Nicholas de Malebranche," (in German)


Nicholas Malebranche.


Bonnie A. Mallard *** Not in Gale
Veterinarian.  Professor of Immunology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph.

B.Sc. (Agriculture) 1979, M.Sc. 1982, Ph.D. 1988.

Member, Christian Veterinary Missions, Canada.

Faculty webpage, Ontario Veterinary College. . Bonnie Mallard and Bruce Wilkie, both of the department of Pathobiology, have developed an alternative breeding method that boosts the immune sys- tems of pigs and cattle.

Mary Koske.  "Immunity research earns recognition,"  "Research begun in graduate school to produce disease-resistant cows and pigs has earned Professor Bonnie Mallard, Pathobiology, the 1996 Pfizer Award for Research Excellence for contributions to animal health genetics. The award recognizes young researchers for excellence in their work.

"Mallard gives credit for the award to her collaboration with Professor Bruce Wilkie, Pathobiology, and the late professor Brian Kennedy, Animal and Poultry Science. She says their work has been aimed at achieving 'environmentally friendly food products' - cattle and pigs that have not been treated with hormones or antibiotics to prevent or cure disease.

"'Because of this research, Canada's farmers and dairy industry will have a unique market niche in the exportation of hormone and drug-free food products,' she says.

"As a Guelph graduate student, Mallard was interested in the inherent immunity of dairy cows, but the limited number of cows available and their 10-month breeding period made research slow and difficult. She decided instead to study the immune system of pigs because there are many siblings in a litter and their gestation interval is only four months.

"After completing her Ph.D., Mallard began collaborating with Wilkie and Kennedy to find a way to produce animals that were inherently resistant to disease. Wilkie's expertise in immunology, Mallard's in immunogenetics and Kennedy's in quantitative genetics led to a model that, seven years later, is the prototype for genetic selection for broad-based disease resistance."

"Commercial farm testing of dairy cattle is under way and will begin soon for pigs, says Mallard. And the patent for the technology developed at Guelph is in its final stages for approval. She believes this technology will not only improve animal health, but will also give Canada an edge in food production because more and more people are demanding drug- and hormone-free food products."


Marcello Malpighi

(1628-1694). Italian anatomist and microscopist Marcello Malpighi used the newly invented microscope to make a number of important discoveries about living tissues and structures.  He discovered capillaries; founded sciences of histology (the study of tissues), embryology, plant anatomy, comparative anatomy.  Professor at Pisa (1656-59) and Messina (1662-66); personal physician to Pope Innocent XII (1691). Because of early use of microscope in biological studies, called founder of microscopic anatomy; studied structure of secreting glands; discovered capillary circulation in the lung of the frog (1661), the deeper portion of the epidermis known as the Malpighian layer, loops ofcapillaries (or Malpighian tufts) in the kidney, and masses of adenoid tissue (or Malpighian corpuscles) in the spleen; described taste buds, structure of human lung, development of the chick, structure of the brain and spinal cord, and the metamorphosis of the silkworm.

The Galileo Project, Notes Malpighi is founder of comparative physiology.

"Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694)."

An Italian scientist and physician who studied tissues and organs microscopically and is considered the founder of microanatomy. He related anatomy and physiology to medicine, including detailed structure of lungs, kidneys, spleen, and other organs, and the capillary circulation in frogs (1660). He later studied the structure of plants and animals and may have referred to cells when he spoke of "globules" and "saccules" (1661). He discovered the existence of blood capillaries, whose existence had been hypothesized by William Harvey about 30 years earlier. In addition, he studied the development of organs of chick embryos and erroneously concluded that the adult was preformed in a miniature form in the egg.

"Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694),"


Eustachio Manfredi *** Not in Gale

(1674-1739).  Italian astronomer, mathematician, specialist in hydraulics.

The Galileo Project,

Manfredi's publications were heavily in astronomy. Around c. 1690, he frabricated his own astronomical instruments.  However, he also wrote a number of opinions on hydraulic questions (which were published in the collections on that subject), and he edited Guglielmini's work on rivers.  For years he was the superintendent of waters for Bologna. In that position he appears to have been the principal agent behind the planned diversion of the Reno into the Po that upset everyone outside of Bologna.  He went to Ravenna to repair damage caused by rivers and to advise on planned diversions. He was called to Rome to advise on draining the Pontine Marches, and to the Val di Chiana and to Lucca on questions of hydraulics.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences (1726), Royal Society (1729).  In1690, he founded his own scientific academy, the Accademia degli Inquieti, a private institution that became the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna in 1714.  He became a member of the Bologna "colony" of the Arcadia in 1699 and (as a literary figure) of the Accademia della Crusca in 1706.  Manfredi corresponded extensively with many of the leading mathematicians of Europe. (in Italian)

 "In 1715 Manfredi completed his two-volume Ephemerides motuum coelestium for 1715-1725, based on the still unpublished tables of Cassini in Paris, his predecessor in the chair of astronomy at Bologna. Intended, unlike most of its predecessors, not for astrological use but for practical astronomy, the ephemeris were of unusual extent and practicability. They included tables of the meridian crossing of the planets, tables of the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter and of the conjunction of the moon and the principal stars, as well as maps of the regions of the earth affected by solar eclipses. The ephemeris were preceded by a volume of instructions including tables that were reprinted by Eustachio Zanotti in 1750" (DSB). Manfredi was lecturer in mathematics at the University of Bologna, and one of the leading observational astronomers of the eighteenth century. This was his first major publication.


Patricia Ann Pritchett Mangan

(Born 1953).  Statistician. staff specialist, N.C. Baptist Hospital, 2000; statis. analyst, N.C. Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, 1999-2000; Senior staff scientist, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, 1996-99; Director software Development, ARJAY Equipment Corp., Winston-Salem, N.C., 1993-96; Senior staff R&D statistician, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, N.C., 1990-93; Senior R&D statistician, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, N.C., 1986-90; R&D statistician, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, N.C., 1982-86; tobacco Development statistician, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, N.C., 1978-82. Education: BS, Purdue University, 1975; MS, Purdue University, 1977.

Member: American Statistics Association, Washington Statistics Association, Purdue Alumni Association.
Honors:  Recipient G.R. DiMarco award, 1990, 96, Excaliber award for Outstanding Performance, 1991, 93.

Editor Journal of Sensory Studies, 1992-95; Contributor of articles to science journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Dr. John Mann *** Not in Gale

Agriculturist, former director of Director of Alan Fletcher Research Station.



Donald H. Mansfield

(Born October 30, 1951 in Salem, Oregon, United States). Biologist, educator.

 Donald H. Mansfield is professor of biology at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho, 1989 and curator of the Harold M. Tucker Herbarium. Research interests: Flora of Steens Mountain; Floristics of SW Idaho and SE Oregon; Evolution of

SW Idaho flora; Biology of rare plants; Subalpine flora and plant succession; Environmental control of plant metabolism, growth and development; Physiologic ecology of plants; Laboratory, field, and problem-solving education in biology.  Previous posts:  Associate Professor of biology and environmental studies, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, 1984-89; Assistant Professor of biology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, 1981-84; postdoctoral plant physiologist, University of California, Davis, 1979-81.  Education: BA, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, 1973; MS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1977; DA, Idaho State University, 1979.

Member: Idaho Academy of Science (President 2000-2001). Phi Beta Kappa, 1973-present; Sigma Xi, 1978-present; National Association of Biology Teachers, 1977-present; Association for Biology Lab. Educators, 1979-present; American Institute of Biological Science, 1984-present.

Author: Flora of Steens Mountain, 2000.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Curriculum vitae:


Neil A. Manson *** Not in Gale
Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, 2002.

Neil A. Manson earned his Ph.D. in philosophy from Syracuse University in 1998. Afterwards, he held the positions of Gifford Research Fellow in Natural Theology at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland
(1999-2001) and Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Center for Philosophy of Religion at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana (2001-2002). His general interests include metaphysics, philosophy of religion, and philosophy of science, with a specific emphasis on the design argument for the existence of God. He has authored several published articles on the topic and recently finished editing Godand Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science (Routledge, 2003).



Sir Patrick Manson

(1844-1922). Scottish parasitologist. The father of tropical medicine.  Manson earned his MD from Aberdeen Medical School in 1865.  Manson was posted to Formosa (Taiwan) as medical officer for the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs in the southwestern port of Takao (Kaohsiung). It was Manson's responsibility to inspect ships and treat crews, which gave him ample opportunity to observe tropical diseases.  He later settled at Amoy (Xiamen), a port on the Chinese mainland, as head of Baptist Missionary Hospital and engaged in private practice (1871); settled in Hong Kong (1883); instituted school of medicine which developed into university and medical school of Hong Kong. To London (1890); instrumental in foundation (1899) of London School of Tropical Medicine and taught there (to 1914). First to enunciate (1877-78) hypothesis that the mosquito was the host of the malarial parasite at one stage of its existence, and thus an active agent in spreading malaria.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.  "Behind the Frieze - Sir Patrick Manson (1844-1922),"

He wrote Manual of Tropical Diseases which promptly became a bestseller in its field. He retired in 1912 to fish in Ireland but returned to London at the beginning of the First World War. Despite crippling attacks of gout he continued to take a lively interest in medical education until his death in 1922.


Giacomo Filippo Maraldi

(1665-1729). Italian astronomer. Nephew of J. D. Cassini; lived in Paris (from 1687). Discovered that the dark division observed by Cassini was the line of demarcation between two of Saturn's rings; recognized the variability of one of the stars in the constellation Hydra (1704); author of a star catalogue.

The Galileo Project, (in Italian) (in Italian) (in French)


Norman Henry March

(Born 1927). Professor of physics, University of Sheffield 1961-72; Professor of theoretical solid-state physics Imperial College, London 1972-77; University of Oxford: Coulson Professor and head Dept of Theoretical Chemistry 1977-94, Professorial Fellow University College, 1977-94, Professor Emeritus 1994-present; former chairman: Condensed Matter Physics Committee, Institute of Physics London, Advisory Committee on Condensed Matter Int Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy; Hon DTech Chalmers University Gothenburg Sweden 1980.


Jean Marchant *** Not in Gale

(1650-1738).  French botanist.  Catholic.  Father was Nicolas Marchant.

The Galileo Project,

Marchant devoted almost all his life's work to the preparation of the Histoire des plantes. When the Académie decided to give up the project, he continued to prepare botanical descriptions. Although the greater part of this work remained unpublished, some fifteen of his notices did appear in the Academy's memoires. Among these, his "Observations sur la nature des plantes" deals with the notion of partial transformism among plants, thus foreshadowing one of the tenets of evolution.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1678-1678, académicien botaniste, replacing his father.  1699, pensionnaire botaniste, premier titulaire.


Nicolas Marchant *** Not in Gale

(Birth unknown-1678).  French botanist.  Pharmacologist.  Father of Jean Marchant.

The Galileo Project,

Marchant devoted the last ten years of his life to the preparation of the Histoire des plantes, undertaken in 1667 by the Académie. He prepared a large number of descriptions for this project which was never published, being abandoned by the Academy in 1694. He collaborated in editing the Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire des plantes (1676). He was the first botanist to take up the study of lower plants.

Member: Founding member, Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-78.


Jan Marek Marci of Kronland / in Latin Johannes Marcus Marci, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1595-1667).  Bohemian physician, mechanic, optician, mathematician.  Catholic. According to Jesuit sources he was admitted to the Society shortly before his death.

"Jan Marek Marci of Kronland, in Latin Johannes Marcus Marci (1595--1677), was a doctor and scientist in Bohemia (present Czech Republic). He spent most of his career as a professor of Charles University in Prague, where he served as Dean of the medical school and Rector. He was also personal doctor of Emperors Ferdinand III and Leopold I, and distinguished himself in the defense of Prague against the Swedish armies in 1648. His studies covered the mechanics of colliding bodies, epilepsy, and the refraction of light, among other topics."

The Galileo Project,

Marci's most important work was accomplished in medicine and physics. The De proportione motus (1639) contained his theory of the collision of bodies and gave an account of the experiments whereby he reached it. He also carried out research in optics, setting down most of his results in Thaumantias liber de arcu coelesti (1648). Also Disssertatio de natura iridis (1650).

His medical works involved philosophical as well as theological problems. He was a follower of the school of Paracelsus. He renewed the idea that an organic body develops from a semen. The powers of a creative spirit are put into individuals by God in the process of creating the world. Every individual can renew himself. In all, a Platonic-Stoic conception of nature close to van Helmont and Leibniz. He devoted particular attention to questions of what would now be termed neurology, physiology and psychophysiology, in treatises that have not yet been fully evaluated. He also tried to adopt a purely medical approach to disease and to analyze critically both previous descriptions of epileptic fits and existing theories of their origin.

Author: Idearum operaticum idea,1636; Philosophia vetus restitute, 1662; Othosophia seu philosophia impulsus universalis, 1683; De longitudine seu differentia inter duos meridianos, 1650.

Marci (1595-1667), professor of medicine at Prague University has been called the "Bohemian Galileo." Needham, in his History of Embryology, describes Marci's theories regarding embryology in the present book as a "development of extraordinary interest" (p. 80)."His Idearum Operatricium Idea, published in 1635, was a mixture of purely scientific contributions to optics, and speculative theories about embryology. Thus he explained the production of manifold complexity from the seed in generation by an analogy with lenses, which will produce complicated beams from a simple light-source. The formative force radiates from the geometrical centre of the foetal body, creating complexity but losing nothing of its own power..."Marcus Marci thus links together the following trends of thought: (1) the old Aristotelian theory of seed and blood, (2) the new rationalistic mathematical attitude to generation as e.g. in Gassendi and Descartes, (3) the new experimental approach, in his contributions to optics, (4) the cabbalistic mysticism of light as the fountain and origin of things. Finally (5) by his brilliant guess of centres of radiant energy, he anticipates much of modern embryology (field theories, fate of part as function of positions, etc.). Pagel and Baumann give an elaborate discussion of his opinions."Needham, pp. 80-81. The present book contains "his theory of the collision of bodies (particularly elastic bodies) and gave an account of the experiments whereby he reached it. Although these experiments are described precisely, Marci was unable to formulate general quantitative laws from them, since his results were not drawn from exact measurements of either of the sizes and weights of the spheres that he employed or of the direction and velocity of their motion. Rather, he was content with simple comparisons of the properties that he investigated, characterizing them as being 'smaller,' 'bigger,' or 'the same' as each other...despite these shortcomings, his observations and conclusions are generally right. He was able to distinguish different qualities of spheres and to state the concepts of solid bodies and of quantity of motion."D.S.B., IX., p. 97.The delightfully engraved title-page illustrates many of the experiments described in the book: weights being dropped from a high tower, a cannon being fired, careening balls on a billiard table, sparks flying off a grinding wheel (centrifugal force), a man swinging from two ropes (pendulum motion), and a man batting a ball against a wall.Marci "was the first to make substantial progress with the difficult problem of impact, a problem that Galileo touched on without success and that Descartes completely muffed."E.C. Watson in American Journal of Physics, Vol. 16 (1948), pp. 246-47.III.  The present book, concerned with the theory of collisions, is a continuation and elaboration of his 1639 publication De Proportione Motus seu Regula Sphygmica. In this work, Marci responds to criticisms made of his 1639 book [see item II] and presents new theories concerning the geometrical form of bodies in movement, the properties of free fall, the duration of the oscillation of a pendulum and its length, etc. There are a number of references to Galileo.

"Marci also carried out research in optics, setting down most of his results in Thaumantias...(1648). In his optical experiments, designed to explain the phenomenon of the rainbow, Marci placed himself in the line of such Bohemian and Moravian investigators as Kepler, Christophe Scheiner, Baltasar Konrad, and Melchior Hanel. In his experiments on the decomposition of white light, for which he employed prisms, Marci described the spectral colors and recorded that each color corresponded to a specific refraction angle. He also stated that the color of a ray is constant when it is again refracted throughout another prism...He did not mention the reconstitution of the spectrum into white light (a result that is first to be found in the work of Newton), although he did study the 'mixture' of colored rays. He also made inconclusive experiments on light phenomena on thin films."D.S.B., IX, p. 97. (in Czech)

Pavel Šišma .  "Jan Marcus Marci," (in Czech)


John P. Marcus *** Not in Gale

Biochemist and Molecular Biologist.  Senior Research Officer at the Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Plant Pathology, University of Queensland, Australia. His research involves the discovery and characterisation of anti-microbial proteins from plant sources to enhance disease resistance in agriculturally important plants.  Marcus obtained his B.A. Degree with a Major in Chemistry at Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa in 1987. His Ph.D. in biological chemistry at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1993 involved research on enzymes. John and Amy Marcus and their two young children attend the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Australia, Brisbane.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Henry Margenau

Born April 30, 1901, in Bielefeld, Germany; naturalized U.S. citizen; died February 8, 1997, in Hamden, CT. Scientist, educator, author. Margenau was an authority in the field of spectroscopy. He worked extensively with microwave theory, which contributed to the study of radar during World War II. Margenau worked as an educator, teaching physics and natural philosophy. He served on the faculty of Yale University for more than forty years. He earned the title of Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics and Natural Philosophy while at Yale. He also was visiting Professoressor at the University of Pennsylvania, University of Heidelberg, and Carleton College, among others. He also served as the Center for Integrative Education's executive director beginning in 1969, and was an editor with the Foundation of Physics. Margenau also was a consultant to organizations such as the Social Science Research Council, General Electric Company, and Lockheed Corporation. He wrote some ten books, including Einstein's Space and Van Gogh's Sky,The Miracle of Existence, Ethics and Science, The Nature of Physical Reality, and Integrated Principles of Modern Thought.

Professor Henry Margenau.  "Why I am a Christian"


FrÈre Marie-Victorin / Frere Marie-Victorin / Conrad Kirouac

FrÈre Marie-Victorin (1885-1944) achieved international acclaim for his botanical work on the plants of the Laurentian Mountains of Quebec, Canada. A member of many Canadian and international learned societies, Marie-Victorin wrote a number of works that are considered important to the field of botany and have often received awards. He taught at the University of Montreal for more than two decades and advocated the popularization of science, often working with children's groups. "He can truly be said to have been one of the founding fathers of modern intellectual enterprise in French Canada," Dictionary of Literary Biography contributor Michel Gaulin wrote of the botanist.


Edme Mariotte *** Not in Gale

(c. 1620-1684).  French physicist, mechanic, optician, botanist, hydaulics specialist, meteorologist, engineer, navigation specialist.  Catholic. Titular abbot and prior of St. Martin de Beaumont sur Vingeanne.

The Galileo Project,

Mariotte's work on plant physiology drew the attention of the Académie soon after its founding in 1666. He held the "singular doctrine" that sap circulated through plants in a manner analogous to the circulation of blood in animals.

Mariotte had a wide range of interests including mathematics, geometrical optics, hydrostatics, and the laws of impact. At the Académie he participated in several of the investigations both inside and outside his area of speciality. He participated in the installation of the the hydraulic system at Versailles and directed some important hydraulic experiments at the chateau de Condé in Chantilly and at the Observatory. He conducted experiments on the refraction of light, barometric changes, and falling bodies among many others. With Cassini and Picard he examined a work on navigation and the problem of longitude. The strength of his work was in his ability to recognize the importance of results, confirming them by new and careful experiments, and drawing out the implications of the results.

In 1668 he wrote, Nouvelle découverte touchant la veue, on optics and his experiments to locate the blind spot in vision. Traité de la percussion ou choc des corps (1673), became a standard work on the subject of laws of inelastic and elastic impact. Mariotte's law (i.e., Boyle's Law) appeared in his De la nature de l'air (1679) in which he described the isothermal behavior of an enclosed mass of air. Mariotte's final work published posthumously (1686), Traité du mouvement des eaux et des autres corps fluides, treated the theory of the motion of bodies in a resisting medium using natural springs, artificial fountains, and the flow of water through pipes as his topic.

In 1672 Mariotte published, Traité du nivellement, a work describing a new form of level using the surface of free-standing water as the horizontal reference and employing a reflection mark on the sight stick to gain greater accuracy in sighting. He gave full instructions for the instrument's use and discussed its accuracy with respect to other levels.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-1684.  Mariotte entered the Académie as a physicist but was soon sharing in the work of the mathematicians. His work was known to the Royal Society and cited in Newton's Principia. Mariotte recognized the important role that international cooperation could play in science. He sent for information and shared information with societies in London, Warsaw, Constantinople, and in Spain and Italy. or

Mariotte's fame rests on his work on hydrostatics and on the establishment of the law of gases that bears his name. This was first published in an essay on the nature of air in 1676. "The diminution of the volume of the air proceeds in proportion to the weights with which it is loaded." This law is now stated as follows: "The volume of a gas, kept at a constant temperature, changes inversely as the pressure upon the gas." This is the fundamental generalization of our knowledge concerning gases. He invented a device for proving and illustrating the laws of impact between bodies. The bobs of two pendulums are struck against each other, and the resultant motions are measured and studied. He added to the mathematical deductions of Galileo, Pascal, and others, a number of experimental demonstrations of the laws of the pendulum, of the flow of water through orifices, of hydrostatic pressure etc. Mariotte's flask is an ingenious device to obtain a uniform flow of water. His work included experiments on heat and cold, light, sight, and color. He was a member of the Royal Society of Science from its foundation in 1666. His contributions (Oeuvres) were collected and published at Leyden in 1717, and again at The Hague in 1740.  (in French)

Boyle-Mariotte Law. (in German)


Georg Markgraf / Georg Marcgraf *** Not in Gale

(1610-1644).  Dutch astronomer, botanist, zoologist, cartographer, military engineer.

The Galileo Project,

In 1638, Markgraf sailed with military and exploratory expedition to Dutch settlements in Brazil under Maurice of Nassau. The expedition founded the town of Mauritzstad and built the castle of Vrijburg (in the tower of which Markgraf had an observatory) on Antonio Vaz island (Recife). Markgraf drew up the plan of the city and its fortifications, and mapped the region from Rio Sao Francisco to Ceara and Maranhao.


Dr. Frank Marsh *** Not in Gale

(1899-1992) Dr. Frank Marsh, Ph. D. in Botany from the University of Nebraska, says that "if evolutionists had not wasted a generation of hard work in trying to pick up a trail which never existed, biology would be at least a generation further along in the discovery of the laws and processes which do exist" (Marsh, Evolution, Creation and Science (1947),. p. 285).


John Harrison Marsh

(Born June 25, 1954 in Auburn, Washington, United States).  Biologist.  Environmental planner, environmentalist.  Certification: Bar: Oregon 1986.  Director ESA program, Parametrix, Inc., Portland, 1999; Manager habitat and production, N.W. Power Planning Council, Portland, 1996-99; Enhancement Act coordinator, N.W. Power Planning Council, Portland, 1985-96; fisheries ecologist, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, 1979-85; public info. officer, enhancement coordinator, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, 1978-79; fisheries biologist, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Astoria, 1978; fisheries biologist, National Marine Fisheries Service, Portland, Oregon, 1977-78; Research Assistant, EPA, Corvallis, Oregon, 1975-77.   Instructor science and technical of watershed Management Portland State University, 1997; speaker, expert witness in field; guest Lecturer Lewis and Clark College, 1984, 95, Portland State University, 1995, 96, 98; field leader streamkeeper program Oregon Trout, 1997, 98.  Education: BS, Oregon State University, 1977; JD, Lewis & Clark College, 1985; certified, Lewis & Clark College, 1985.

Member: American Fisheries Society (certified professional fisheries scientist, exec. committee Portland chapter 1981-84, v.p. 1981-82, President 1982-83, chair legis. committee Oregon chapter 1988-89, program committee 1980-81, riparian committee Western division 1982-83, convenor various sessions, native peoples fisheries committee 1982-88, chair 1984-86, resolutions committee 1985-86, strategic plan devel committee, 1993-95, other coms.), Oregon State Bar Association, Native America Fish and Wildlife Association, Oregon Wine Brotherhood (chair Benefit Auction and Barrel Tasting 1995), Great Lovers of Wine Society Oregon (President 1988).  Organizer food drive Friends of Seasonal Workers, 1987; chair ann. employer food drive Sunshine Divsn., 1987; Board of Directors Panavista Park Homeowners Association, 1991-93, Member architectural review committee, 1990, chair, 1991; Riverwest Church lead Sunday school instructor grades 5-6, 1992-96, adult Bible study instructor, 1995-99, Kinship leader, 1994-98, Mexican Youth Mission team, 1994, 95, libr. coordinator, 1995; Assistant scoutmaster Boy Scouts America, 1972-73, 99; Member steering committee Sharing Columbia: Partnerships for Action, 1998; Assistant coach Little League Baseball, 1998, 99.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Contributor of articles to professional publications.


Gailen D. Marshall Jr. / Gailen Daugherty Marshall, Jr.

(Born 1950).  Physician, scientist.  Gailen D. Marshall Jr. is Associate Professor of Medicine and Pathology, and Director of the Division of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, 1998-present.  Research interests:  Clinical immunoregulation; effects of psychosocial stress on human immunity; pyschoneuroimmunology, nutritional impact on immune responses, experimental immunotherapy Previous positions: Research Scientist, Division of Adult Nephrology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 1982-84; Straight Medicine Intern, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA1984-85; Research Fellow, Division of Allergy-Immunology, University of Iowa City, IA1985-86; Cellular Immunology Division Chief and Laboratory Director, Biotherapeutics, Inc., Memphis, TN1986-88; Senior Clinical Fellow, Division of Allergy-Immunology, Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Medical School, Memphis, TN,1988-89; Chief Medical Resident, University of Tennessee Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, TN, 1988-89; Associate Medical Director, Research for Health, Inc., Houston, TX, 1989-90; Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, 1990-91; Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pathology, Director, Division of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 1991-98.  Education: BS, University of Houston, 1972; MS, Texas A&M University, 1975; Ph.D., University of Texas, 1979; MD, University of Texas, 1984.

Member: Fellow ACP, American College Allergy and Immunology, American Academy Allergy-Immunology (chair committee); Texas Allergy-Immunology Society (chair committee, Board of directors, 1999-2002), Greater Houston Allergy Society.  Baptist.

Member editorial board Molecular Biotherapy, 1992-93, Cancer Biotherapy, 1994-96, Allergy Proceedings, 1994- present, Annals Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 1995-99, Journal of Interferon Cytokin Research, 1999-present, Clinical Immunology, 2001-present, Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2002-present, Cellular Molecular Allergy, 2003; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Faculty webpage,  Biographical sketch

Gailen Marshall.  "Texans' worries about mold are way out of hand,", Dallas Morning News, July 14, 2002 or, Houston Chronicle,  July 14, 2002.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Luigi Ferdinando Marsili / Marsigli

(1658-1730). Italian naturalist, geographer, and soldier. Founded Accademia della Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (1712); published first treatise on oceanography, Histoire physique de la mer (1724).

The Galileo Project, (in Italian) (in Italian) (in French) (in Italian)


Dr. Larry Dean Martin *** Not in Gale

Paleontologist.  Professor and Senior Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, Museum of Natural History; Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.


Larry D. Martin. "An Iconoclast for Evolution? A Berkeley-educated biologist's attack on the icons of evolution is full of sound and fury, signifying a difference in philosophy-not science,"  From World and I, February 1, 2001.

Faculty webpage, University of Kansas:

"The Dinosaur Hunters,"

Wichita Eagle | 09/17/2003 | The Dinosaur Hunters


Larry W. Martin / Lawrence W. Martin *** Not in Gale

(1956-2002).  Physicist.  Theologist.  Larry Martin is Professor of physics at North Park University in Chicago, IL, and visiting Professor of Physics at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC. Co-creator of WebAssign, computer software that provides faculty with the ability to assign, collect and grade students over the World Wide Web.  Martin worked on the original WebAssign project at North Carolina State University in 1997.

Lon Grahnke.  "Web Redefines Course Interaction," Chicago Sun-Times, July 5, 2000.

Nancy Amdur.  "Electronic Mail Keeps Professors' Doors Open at All Hours," Chicago Tribune, November 14, 1999.

Lisa Guernsey.  "Textbooks and Tests That Talk Back: New Software Allows Professors to Provide Instant Feedback to Students," The Chronicle of Higher Education," Information Technology, February 12, 1999.

See and

Martin has a bachelor of arts in music and education from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, a master of arts in theological studies from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in Massachusetts, and a master of science and a doctorate in theoretical solid-state physics from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. In addition to traditional physics courses, Martin occasionally teaches a science/religion course for college and seminary students. He is also a church musician.

 "Professor honored for teaching, campus leadership,"

Lawrence W. Martin, Ph.D., was awarded both the 2002 Zenos Hawkinson Award for Teaching and Campus Leadership and the Student Association Service Award at a recent Honors convocation ceremony at North Park University. Martin has taught physics at North Park since 1991.

The Zenos Hawkinson Award for Teaching Excellence and Campus Leadership honors one of North Park's Professors for superior teaching and leadership at North Park University. Senior students and all faculty members were asked to nominate a Professor who has made significant contributions to teaching and campus leadership in areas including, but not limited to, model classroom teaching, campus leadership, student mentoring, pioneering instructional methodology, or creative course development. The award is given in honor of former North Park History Professor Zenos Hawkinson, who modeled these same qualities during his years at North Park.

The Student Association Service Award nominees are chosen by the Senate, Executive Committee, and Judiciary of the North Park University Student Association. The winner is the Professor students feel has best served the student body each year.

Just a few examples of what students and faculty had to say in their nomination letters about Larry Martin: "Professor Martin is always available and always willing, whether explaining the real meaning of the second law of thermodynamics, talking about theology over coffee, or even opening his home to people who did not have a place to go over the holidays. He is a model and a mentor to many of his students. He is a man of honesty and humor, conviction and compassion, who made it his goal to love the Lord his God with all his emotions, his intellect, and his abilities-his complete being."

"Larry W. Martin,"

Recent publications include "The Web Chronology Project" in The History Teacher and "Web-based Testing in Physics Education: Methods and Opportunities" in Computers in Physics, and he contributed a chapter in the book Just-In-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Pedagogy, by Novak, et al., (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Larry Martin, Associate Professor of physics, North Park University.

Annie Hawkinson.  "Students Remember Dr. Martin,"  North Park Press, v. 83, n. 8.  November 1, 2002.


Crisóstomo Martinez *** Not in Gale

(1638-1694).  Spanish-born anatomist, physiologist, microscopist, embryologist, engraver, painter.

The Galileo Project,

His microscopical anatomical work, especially of bone structure, puts him among the leading early microscopists.

Reproduction of Crisostomo Martinez Microscope (1680), (in Spanish):  Crisóstomo Martinez began to work in an anatomical atlas in 1980. At the request of the University of Valencia and the authorities of the city, Carlos II granted economic aid to him to carry out the project.  The work in Valencia began in 1687 and was transferred to Paris for completion. There it entered in relation to the scientific atmosphere of Académie of Sciences.  His drawings and manuscripts are a reflection of the scientific movement that developed in Spain at the end of the 17th century.


Todd Martinez *** Not in Gale
Todd J. Martínez, Associate Professor of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

From webpage:

Professor Martínez was awarded the B.S. in chemistry by Calvin College in 1989 and the Ph.D. in chemistry by the University of California (Los Angeles) in 1994. He was a Fulbright Fellow at the Fritz Haber Institute for Molecular Dynamics in Jerusalem, Israel and a University of California Presidential Postdoctoral Fellow at UCLA for two years prior to joining the faculty at University of Illinois in 1996. His research interests are in theoretical chemistry with particular emphasis on electronic structure and molecular dynamics. Honors and awards: Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundations (2000); Sloan Fellow, Sloan Foundation (1999); Beckman Young Investigator Award, Beckman Foundation (1999); Packard Fellow, Packard Foundation (1999); University of California President's Postdoctoral Fellow; Fulbright Junior Researcher; NSF CAREER Investigator; Research Corporation Research Innovation Award.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology profile:

Martinez Research Group:

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Nevil Maskelyne

(1732-1811). English astronomer. Ordained minister (1755); deputed to observe transit of Venus at St. Helena (1761); experimented en route on determination of longitude by method of lunars, which method he introduced in his British Mariner's Guide (1763); astronomer royal (1765); invented prismatic micrometer; supervised publication of annual Nautical Almanac (1766-1811); suggested and carried out Mt. Schiehallion experiment for determining earth's density from deviations of the plumb line (1774).


Niccolo Massa *** Not in Gale

(1485-1569).  Italian anatomist, physician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Massa undertook a program of dissection and investigation of the human body at least from 1526 to 1533, producing a treatise entitled Liber introductorius anatomiae (Venice, 1536), which remained the best brief textbook on the subject for a generation.

He also wrote on pestilential fevers, on syphilis, and on medicine in general.

Member: Medical College.  He entered the Venetian College of Physicians in 1521.


Walter Eugene Massey

(Born 1938).  Physicist, educator, science foundation administrator. He was nominated by President George Bush to be director of the National Science Foundation and became the second African American to hold this post. President, Morehouse College, Atlanta, 1995; Senior v.p. Academy of affairs, University California System, 1993-95; Director, NSF, Washington, 1991-93; v.p. for Research and for Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, 1984-91; Director, Argonne National Laboratory, 1979-84; Professor physics, University of Chicago, 1979-93; Professor, Dean of College, Brown University, Providence, 1975-79; Associate Professor of physics, Brown University, Providence, 1970-75; Assistant Professor physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1968-70; physicist, Argonne (Illinois) National Laboratory, 1966-68.

"The Faces of Science: African-Americans in the Sciences.  Walter Eurgene Massey: Physicist (Theoretical and Solid State),"

He received a Bachelor of Science from Morehouse College in 1958. He earned both a Master of Science and Ph.D. in Physics from Washington University in 1966. Professor Massey's research in theoretical and solid state physics deals with many-body problems, quantum liquids, and quantum solids.

On June 1, 1995, Dr. Walter E. Massey was named ninth president of Morehouse. Massey served previously as provost and senior vice president-academic. Massey was the director of the National Science Foundation, the government's lead agency for support of research and education in mathematics, science and engineering.

Member: AAAS (Board of Directors 1981-85, President-elect 1987-88, President 1988-89, Chairman 1989-90), American Physics Society (councillor-at-large 1980-83, v.p. 1990), Energy Advisory Board (chair 1997-99), Mellon Foundation, Amoco Corp., Motorola, Inc., Bank of America Corp., McDonald's Corp., BP Amoco, Gates Millenium Scholars Advisory Council, Marine Biology Laboratory Council Visitors, Smithsonian Institute Board Regents, Sigma Xi.  Member of the National Science Board (1978-1983); Trustee, Brown University; Trustee, Rand Corporation; Visiting Committee for the Physics Department of MIT and Harvard; Superconducting Supercollider Site Evaluation Committee of the National Academies of Science and Engineering; Co-Chairman, AAAS Steering Committee for the Project to Strengthen the Scientific and Engineering Infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Honors: Distinguished Service Citation of the American Association of Physics Teachers, 1975, New York Academy of Sciences, Archie Lacey Memorial Award, 1992; Morehouse College, Bennie Trailblazer Award, 1992; Morgan State University, Distinguished Achievement Award, 1992; Golden Plate Award, 1992. Recipient over 25 hon. degrees; NAS Fellow, 1961, NDEA Fellow, 1959-60, AAAS Fellow, 1962.

Contributor of articles on science education in secondary schools and in theory of quantum fluids to professional journals.


Michael Mästlin *** Not in Gale


German astronomer and mathematician who was one of the first scholars to accept and teach Polish astronomer Copernicus's observation that the Earth orbits the Sun. One of Mästlin's pupils was German mathematician Johannes Kepler.  Mästlin was born in Göppingen, Baden-Württemberg, and studied at Tübingen. In 1580 he became professor of mathematics at Heidelberg and in 1584 at Tübingen, where he taught for 47 years.  In 1573, Mästlin published an essay concerning the nova that had appeared the previous year. Its location in relation to known stars convinced him that the nova was a new star - which implied, contrary to traditional belief, that things could come into being in the spheres beyond the Moon.  Observation of the comets of 1577 and 1580 convinced Mästlin that they also were located beyond the Moon. Together with other observations, this led him explicitly to argue against the traditional cosmology of Aristotle.  However, Mästlin's Epitome of Astronomy 1582, a popular introduction to the subject, propounded a traditional cosmology because this was easier to teach.


Joseph Mastropaolo *** Not in Gale

Aerospace physiologist.  Kinesiologist. Professor Emeritus at California State University, 1994-present.  Adjunct faculty at Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California.  Professor of biomechanics and physiology at California State University (1968-1994), Faculty member at University of Illinois, 1955, University of Iowa, 1955-57, St. Cloud State College, 1957-58, Western State College, 1958-61.  Education: B.S. in Kinesiology, Brooklyn College, NY, 1950; M.S. in Kinesiology, University of Illinois, 1955; Ph.D. in Kinesiology, University of Iowa, 1958; Electrocardiography and Biophysics of the Circulation, University of Chicago, Medical School, 1962-63.

Member: Council on Epidemiology, American Heart Association Fellow, Associate Member: American Physiological Society, International Human Powered Vehicle Association, Council on Epidemiology Fellow.

Patent in crew conditioning for extended manned space missions, 1971.

Reviewer of Journal of Applied Physiology, 1992-96.

Joseph A. Mastropaolo, Ph.D. Kinesiology/Physiology Curriculum vitae:

Joseph Mastropaolo, Ph.D.  "Comments on the proposed new Ohio Department of Education (ODE) Science Standards,"

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Increase Mather

Increase Mather (1639-1723), American colonial representative, president of Harvard College, and author, was the most prominent member of the second generation in Massachusetts colony.

Increase Mather.  "Shifting Signs: Increase Mather and the Comets of 1680 and 1682"- [Early Modern Literary Society 1.3 (December 1995): 3.1-34] .

According to Mather's journal:  "The Lord broke upon my conscience with very terrible convictions and awakenings. I shut myself up . . . and wrote down all the sins which I could remember. . . . I brought them before God, and I cried to him for pardoning mercy. . . . at the close of the day, as I was praying, I gave myself up to Jesus Christ, declaring that I was now resolved to be his servant."

"Increase Mather." Historic World Leaders. Gale Research, 1994.


Kirtley F. Mather / Kirtley Fletcher Mather

Kirtley F. Mather (1888-1978) was a pioneering field geologist who searched successfully for oil deposits in places as varied as the American West and mountains of Bolivia. The report on his Bolivian expedition, which he gave to the Geological Society of America in 1921, led to his thirty-year appointment as a teacher at Harvard University.

Author: Old Mother Earth, Harvard University Press, 1928; Science in Search of God, Holt, 1928; Sons of the Earth, Norton, 1931; (With W. W. Atwood) Physiography and Quaternary Geology of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (monograph), U.S. Geological Survey, 1932; (With C. J. Roy) Laboratory Manual of Physical and Historical Geology, Appleton-Century, 1934; (With Dorothy Hewitt) Adult Education: A Dynamic for Democracy, Appleton, 1937; (With Shirley L. Mason) A Source Book in Geology, McGraw, 1939, reprinted, Hafner, 1964, published as A Source Book in Geology: 1400-1900, Harvard University Press, 1970; Enough and to Spare, Harper, 1944; Crusade for Life, University of North Carolina Press, 1949; A Laboratory Manual For Geology, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Volume 1: (with C. J. Roy and L. R. Thiesmeyer) Physical Geology, 1950, Volume 2: (with C. J. Roy) Historical Geology, 1952; (Contributor) Harlow Shapley, editor, Science Ponders Religion, Appleton, 1960.

The World in Which We Live, Pilgrim Press, 1961; The Earth Beneath Us, Random House, 1964, revised edition, 1975; (Contributor) Jerry R. Tompkins, editor, D-Days in Dayton: Reflections on the Scopes Trial, Louisiana State University Press, 1965; Source Book in Geology: 1900-1950, Harvard University Press, 1967. When Mather was in his eighties he summed up his ideas about the relationship between religion and science in the book The Permissive Universe. Left among his papers at the time of his death, the manuscript was edited by his daughter Florence and her husband and was published in 1986.

Kennard B. Bork.  "A Scientist Concerned About Society: Kirtley F. Mather (1888-1978)," Denison University Department of Geology and Geography, Granville, OH 43203.

Reprinted from GSA Today, July 1996,


John Mathwig

(Born March 18, 1944).  Biologist, entomologist, educator.  Member faculty College of Lake County, Grayslake, Illinois, 1970-present, Professor biology and entomology, 1976-present, Assistant Chairman Biological and health sciences division, 1979-83, curator insect collection, 1970; Director Entomology Research Lab., Lake Villa, Illinois, 1982; mosquito control consultant, Director quality control and environmental assessment Protection Unlimited, Lake Villa, 1982; President WillowPoint Industries, Mundelein, Illinois, 1984; Principal investigator-mosquitos Des Plaines River Wetlands Demonstration Project, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Research Program, 1985; aquatic Consultant, 1975.  Education: BS, University of Wisconsin, 1966; Ph.D., Kansas  University, 1971.

Member: National Association Biology Teachers, American Association Mosquito Control, Illinois Mosquito Control Association, Presbyterian.

Author: Biology Lab Manual, 1973, Environmental Biology, 1977, 3d edit., 1986, Insects and Common Pests, 1987; author, editor: The Environ Newsletter, 1982; Contributor of articles in field to newspapers.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli / Pierandrea Mattiolo *** Not in Gale

(1501-1577).  Italian-born physician, chemist, botanist, pharmacologist, geographer.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In 1544 Mattioli published Di Pedacio Dioscoride anazarbeo libri cinque, which through revisions and expansions, made him famous. It is a practical scientific treatise intended for daily use by physicians, herbalists, and others. Cappelletti insists that the commentary on Dioscorides is also the work of a dedicated student of botany. Before this he had published De morbi gallici curandi ratione, dialogus (Bologna, 1530), a traditional examination of the origins and treatment of syphilis (in which he was either the first or one of the first to recommend mercury as a cure), and later Epistola de bulbocastaneo (Prague, 1558), another work in botany. He published as well a series of writings on various medical subjects.  In 1558 he translated Ptolemy's Geography into Italian.

During his stay in Trentino (1528-1539), he became an intimate friend, adviser, and physician to Cardinal Clesio, bishop of Trento, who developed a great esteem for him. Mattioli published an account, in poetry, of the Cardinal's palace, Il magno palazzo.  He was royal physician first at the court of Ferdinand I and then at that of Maximilian II. Ferdinand, who was an avid collector, while Archduke of Tyrol, influenced the publication of the commentary on Dioscorides. He employed illustrators to make the engravings, and later he arranged to have the work translated into Czech.

Mattioli wrote a short treatise on the method of distillation.

Mattioli was a friend of Ghini (with whom he exchanged plants) and of Gesner.  Stannard speaks of an extensive correspondence with other naturalists. His letters to Aldrovandi were published by Fantuzzi and Raimondi.  He also carried on acrimonious disputes with Anguillara and Lusitanus.

Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cinque (1544) served as one of the bases for the development of modern botany.


Edward Walter Maunder *** Not in Gale

(1851-1928). The English astronomer who first identified the period from 1645 to 1715, now known as the Maunder minimum, during which the recorded number of sunspots and auroras was extremely low.

Edward Walter Maunder, The Astronomy of the Bible: An Elementary Commentary on the 
Astronomical References of Holy Scripture (New York: Mitchell Kennerley,  ca. 1908.


Pierre Louis de Maupertuis

(1698-1759).  A mathematician, biologist, and astronomer, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis was a strong proponent of Sir Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation, helped confirm Newton's theory on the exact shape of the earth, and formulated the principle of least action in physics. Born in Saint Malo, France, Maupertuis had a wide range of scientific interests. As a biologist, he wrote Systéme de la Nature, in which he provided the first accurate scientific record of a dominant hereditary trait transmitted among humans. He also introduced the theory of the survival of the fittest in his Essai de Cosmologie, a theory that Charles Darwin later expounded to wide acceptance.


Francesco Maurolico / Marul / Marol *** Not in Gale

(1494-1575).  Italian mathematician, astronomer, optician, mechanic, musician, geographer, military engineer, instrument-maker.  Catholic.

"Maurolico is described by Sarton as one of the most remarkable men of the Renaissance. He made major contributions to the fields of astronomy, mathematics, optics, music, and geodesy (see Arnaldo Masotti, DSB, IX, pp. 190-94)."

The Galileo Project,

Maurolico received orders in 1521. When he became abbot of S. Maria del Parto in 1550, he probably took the Benedictine vows. This was the only benefice he ever held.

Photismi de lumine et umbra was completed in manuscript form in 1521 but published only in 1622, with his Diaphana, which was also an early work.  Maurolico made extensive plans and preparations for the publication of the major works of classical Greek geometry, correcting earlier editions which he found highly defective. With one exception he was not able to carry these plans all the way to publication, although a number of the works were published from his manuscripts after his death.

He published a Cosmographia (Ptolemaic, in the same year as Copernicus' De revoutionibus) and observations of the new star of 1572.  He also published an edition of Aristotle's Mechanical Problems, and a work on music.

Toward the end of his life he compiled a summary of Ortelius's Theatrum orbis terrarum and a geographical work on the islands of the world.

In1541, at the request of Jacopo Gastaldo he made a map of Sicily (published 1575).  He published on the construction of the astrolabe and on astronomical instruments in general.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Francisco Maurolico,"

The Maurolico Project.

Pier Daniele Napolitani. Description of the Maurolico Project.

"Francesco Maurolico (1494-1575) was one of the main mathematicians of 16th century Europe. He spent most of his life in Messina and in Sicily, a marginal location with respect to the main cultural centers of the time: Roma, Venezia, Firenze, Urbino. This fact did not prevent him from devising a huge program of restoration and recovering of classical mathematics. In 1575, at the end of his life, he had accomplished editions, compendia, commentaries of the treatises of Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius, Serenus, Theodosius, Menelaus, Ptolemaeus, Autolycus. In addition to the works on those authors, presented ex traditione Maurolyci and hence philologically very approximative, he completed a series of original treatises in several domains of mathematics (optics, arithmetic, statics, gnomonics, astronomy): results and proof-methods can be found in them going beyond the most advanced results and refined proof-methods of classical antiquity."



Rhabanus Maurus *** Not in Gale

(c776-856) Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological and pedagogical writer of the ninth century.  His chief pedagogical works are: "De universo", a sort of encyclopedia in 22 books, based on the Etymologies of Isidore; "De computo ", a treatise on reckoning; "Excerptio de arte grammatica Prisciani", a treatise on grammar, etc. Other important works are: "De ecclesiastics discipline"; sermons, treatises, a martyrology, and a penitential.


Matthew Fontaine Maury

The American naval officer and oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) is remembered chiefly for his The Physical Geography of the Sea of 1855, now recognized as the first textbook of modern oceanography.

The Fontaine-Maury Society,

William Maury Morris II.

William Maury Morris II.

William Maury Morris II.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


James Clerk Maxwell

The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) formulated important mathematical expressions describing electric and magnetic phenomena and postulated the identity of light as an electromagnetic action.

Baptist., or

"A Visit to James Clerk Maxwell's House,"

Books by James Clerk Maxwell:

"While we look down with awe into these unsearchable depths and treasure up with care what with our little line and plummet we can reach, we ought to admire the wisdom of Him who has so arranged these mysteries that we can find first that which we can understand at first and the rest in order so that it is possible for us to have an ever increasing stock of known truth concerning things whose nature is absolutely incomprehensible." From

James Clerk Maxwell

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Christian Mayer *** Not in Gale

Moravian astronomer (1719-1783), appointed Professoressor of mathematics and physics in the University of Heidelberg. In 1755 he was invited by the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore to construct and take charge of astronomical observatory at Mannheim. Here as well as at Schwetzingen, where he had also built an observatory, he carried on his observations which led to numerous memoirs, some of which were published in the "Philosophical Transactions" of London.


John Mayow / John Mayouwe / John Mayo

(1641-1679). English physiologist and chemist. Known for work on atmospheric composition, respiration, chemistry of combustion, and muscular action; his investigation (1674) of part played by spiritus nitroaerus in combustion is sometimes considered as discovery of oxygen.

Mayow, a member of a well-established family in Cornwall, studied at Oxford from which he received a bachelor's degree in 1665 and a doctorate in civil law in 1670. He also studied medicine, and although he received no degree in the field, Mayow entered medical practice for a short time after leaving Oxford. He spent much of the 1670s in London where he became acquainted with Robert Hooke, who recommended Mayow's election as fellow of the Royal Society in 1678.

The Galileo Project,

John Mayow (1640-1679). Excerpts from Tractatus Quinque Medico-Physici (1674), translated as Medico-Physical Works (Oxford, 1926)


Carla Killough McClafferty

(Born 1958).  Radiologic technologist.  Author.  Rebsamen Memorial Hospital, staff radiologic technologist, 1978-83; part-time work in orthopedic clinics, 1983-present. Women's Sunday School Teacher, Victory Missionary Baptist Church, 1998-present. Education: Graduate of Baptist Medical Center School of Radiologic Technology, 1978.

Memberships: Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators, Authors Guild, American Society of Radiologic Technologists, American Registry of Radiologic Technicians.  Baptist.

Honors: Work-in-progress grant, Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators, 1997; New York Public Library List, and Children's Book Council selection for Outstanding Science Trade Book, both 2002, both for The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: The Weird, Wacky, and Wonderful X-Ray.

Author: Forgiving God: A Woman's Struggle to Understand When God Answers No, Discovery House (Grand Rapids, MI), 1995; The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: The Weird, Wacky, and Wonderful X-Ray, Farrar, Straus & Giroux (New York, NY), 2001.

Contributor to periodicals, including Cricket, German Life, and Radiologic Technologist.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Robert Henry McCafferty 

(Born 1956).  U.S. computer scientist. While a student at the University of Virginia, Mr.McCafferty worked as a research project engineer at the Scott Paper Co. in Philadelphia, 1979 - 1980.  After taking Bachelor's [1979] and Master's degrees of Mechanical Engineering [1980] as well as a Master of Computer Science [1982] from the University of Virginia. Mr. McCafferty cut his teeth in semiconductors with equipment and process control - including adaptive control implementation - at IBM, Burlington [Senior Associate engineer, 1981-1987].  This was followed by assignment to the Corporate Staff [1988], before he finished his career with the Company managing efforts to optimize circuit design against the effects of manufacturing variability.  From there he spent a half-decade in wide-ranging consulting assignments for a subsidiary of Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), which eventually became part of Brooks Automation, specializing in semiconductor and pattern recognition assignments.  Mr. McCafferty now operates the North American branch of Curvaceous Software Limited, a UK technology firm specializing in multi-dimensional data visualization and analysis combined with Geometric Process Control and alarm management, having started up the Company's U.S. operations in 2000.

From Biomedical Computing Interest Group.

Biography at Curvaceous Technologies:, notes that McCafferty is "an expert in the application of adaptive control, process optimisation and pattern recognition in semi-conductor manufacturing and has experience across other industries including steel, chemicals, power generation, paper and refining."

Curvaceous Technologies, based in the UK and US are the proud recipients of The European Process Safety Centre (EPSC) Award for The 'Biggest Contribution to Improving Plant Safety 2003'.


Dr. John McCall *** Not in Gale

Veterinarian.  Professor of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia.

BS, University of Georgia, 1963; MS, University of Georgia, 1966; Ph.D., University of Georgia, 1970.

Faculty webpage, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia,

Publications, PubMed:[AU]


Alfred McCann / Alfred Watterson McCann

(1879-1931).  Nutricionist, journalist, reformer.  During his youth Alfred McCann suffered from an ailment that he believed was remedied by proper diet. This experience marked the beginning of his life-interest in food. After attending Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, he was graduated from Pittsburg College of the Holy Ghost (now Duquesne University) in 1899, remained there as an instructor in English, mathematics, and elocution, and studied nutrition in his spare time. He was soon engaged to write advertisements for various food concerns, including Francis H. Leggett & Company.  He wrote for the New York Globe series after series of sensational articles against manufacturers who used coal tar dyes, bleaches, inert fillers, and injurious preservatives, and against public officials who condoned such abuses. The Globe provided him with a laboratory and stood behind him in the ensuing law suits. He wrote for the New York Evening Mail after the Globe suspended publication in 1923, and established the Alfred W. McCann Laboratories, Inc., in New York, whence issued a stream of endorsements of special brands of everything from chickens to cigars.

In 1913 he published Vital Questions and Answers Concerning 15,000,000 Physically Defective Children and Starving America. In 1917 he produced a war emergency food book, Thirty Cent Bread, which urged the advantages of using cornmeal, of dehydrating instead of canning fruits and vegetables, and of killing off grainconsuming steers. These suggestions were the basis of an article in the Forum (October 1917) severely criticizing the United States Food Administration. He insisted continually on the value of the mineral salts in food in This Famishing World (1918; revised as The Science of Eating, 1919) and in The Science of Keeping Young (1926). After publishing a violent antievolution book, God-or Gorilla (1922) -- in which he focused primarily on critiquing the various fossils which were then used to support the ape-human evolution scenario-he received the degree of LL.D. from Fordham University. His Greatest of Men-Washington (1927) was a laudatory volume written to inspire young people.

In 1928 he began to broadcast food talks over the radio. In the late 20's and early 30's McCann's Pure Food Hour exposed the dangers of food additives and the illegal practices of some manufacturers. In addition, McCann discussed the virtues of a healthy diet. His influence was so great that the consumption of whole wheat bread in New York City increased dramatically during his reign.

After McCann Senior.'s death in 1931, McCann Jr. took over his father's legacy. McCann Jr.'s show focused less on breaking open the indiscretions of the food industry and more on the art of good food and wine. In 1975 Patricia McCann, Alfred Jr.'s daughter, hit the airwaves continuing the family tradition.

Alfred W. McCann.  "This Famishing World,", published 1918.


William Frederick McCormick

(Born 1933). Forensic pathologist, neuropathologist. Retired. Diplomate American Board of Pathology.  Deputy chief medical examiner, State of Tennessee, 1987; Assistant chief medical examiner, State of Tennessee, 1985-87; Professor, head forensic pathology, James H. Quillen College Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 1989; Professor pathology, neuropathology, James H. Quillen College Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 1985; Clinical Professor pathology, University of Texas Medical Br., Galveston, 1985-89; Professor pathology, neurosurgery and neurology, University of Texas Medical Br., Galveston, 1973-84; Chairman surgery Dept. Review Committee, University of Iowa, 1968-69; Professor, University Iowa, 1968-73; Associate Professor, University of Iowa, 1964-68; spl. Fellow, instructor neuropathology, Columbia University, 1961-62; Deputy chief medical examiner, Tennessee, 1961-63; member Executive Committee, basic medical sciences, University of Tennessee, 1963-64; Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee, 1960-64; instructor, University of Tennessee, 1960; Assistant in pathology, University of Tennessee, 1957-60; Resident in pathology, University of Tennessee, 1957-60; Intern, Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, 1956. Research interests: Non-metric variables, specific human decay rates (chemical, microscopic, and gross changes), age and sex related changes. BS, University Chattanooga, 1953; MD, University of Tennessee, 1955; MS, University of Tennessee, 1957.

Member: AAAS, AMA, American Society Human Genetics, American Society Experimental Pathology, Association American Medical Colleges, American Association Pathologists, American Association Neuropathologists, National Association Medical Examiners, N.Y. Academy of Sciences, Texas Medical Association, American Association Physical Anthropologists, American Academy of Neurologists, Academy of Forensic Science, Sigma Xi.

Honors: Named Milton Helpern Memorial Lecturer, 1985; recipient Outstanding Contribution award for neuropathology rev. course, Armed Forces Institute Pathology, 1990.

Author: (with W. E. Bell) Increased Intracranial Pressure in Children, 1972, 2d edit., 1978, Neurologic Infections in Children, 2d edit, 1981, (with S. S. Schochet, Jr.) Syllabus of Neuropathology, 1973, Atlas of Cerebrovascular Disease, 1976, Neuropathology Case Studies, 1976, 3d edit., 1984, Essentials of Neuropathology, 1979; Contributor (with S. S. Schochet, Jr.) of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Faculty webpage, Forensic Anthropology Center, The University of Tennessee,


Raymond McLeod, Jr.

(Born 1932).  Marketing representative, management information systems specialist, computer scientist, manager, educator.  International Business Machines Corp., Dallas, Texas, marketing representative, 1957-65; Lifson, Wilson, Ferguson & Winick, Dallas, consult, 1965-67; Recognition Equipment, Inc., Dallas, marketing manager, 1967-69; Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, assistant professor of business administration, 1973-80; currently affiliated with College of Business Administration, Texas A & M University, College Station.  Education: Baylor University, B.B.A., 1954; Texas Christian University, M.B.A., 1957; University of Colorado, D.B.A., 1975.

Member: Methodist. Military/Wartime Service: U.S. Air Force, 1954-56; became captain.

Author: (With I. H. Forkner) Computerized Business Systems, Wiley, 1973, 2nd edition, 1982; Management Information Systems, Science Research Associates, 1979, 3rd edition, 1986; Case Book in Management Information Systems, Science Research Associates, 1979, 3rd edition, 1986; Decision Support Software for the IBM Personal Computer, Science Research Associates, 1985; (With Alan Mazursky) Decision Support Software for the IBM Personal Computer: Lotus Edition, Science Research Associates, 1986; Introduction to Information Systems: A Problem-Solving Approach, Science Research Associates, 1989; Information Systems, Macmillan, 1990; Information Systems Concepts, Maxwell Macmillan, 1994; Systems Analysis and Design: An Organizational Approach, Dryden, 1994.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

"Author Ray McCloud, Jr.," or  "During his almost 30 years as a professor Ray has taught over 8,000 students, and his MIS text has probably been used by more students around the world than any other. Just like the IBM decision in 1957, the teaching decision in 1969 proved to be the right one. Ray feels fortunate that he has been able to share his experiences in the computer field with so many students."


Darlene E. McCown

Nursing educator.  Professor of Human Development and Family Studies, Director of Health Services, Professor of Nursing, Northeastern Seminary at Roberts Wesleyan College.  Areas of Special Interest: Grief, Death and Loss; Family; Human Growth and Development; Faith Development; Health; Research; Therapeutic Touch. Previous: Associate Professor, University Rochester, N.Y., 1988; Professor, Azusa Pacific University, L.A., 1985-88; Associate Professor, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, 1974-85; Assistant Professor, Seattle (Washington) Pacific University, 1971-72; Assistant Professor, Virginia Medical College, Richmond, Virginia, 1967-70. Dr. McCown holds two graduate degrees and is a frequently sought after speaker and consultant. Her earned degrees include: B.S., Seattle Pacific University, 1964; B.S.N., University of Washington, 1964; M.N., University of Washington, 1967; Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1982.
Member: National Association Pediatric Nurse Association Practitioner, Association Death Education and Counselors (certified), National League Nursing (site visitor), Sigma Theta Tau.
Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Faculty webpage, Northeastern Seminary at Roberts Wesleyan College, Faculty, Staff and Administration,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Michael Leon McCollough

(Born 1953).  Astronomer.

 Laboratory instructor, Auburn (Ala.) University, 1974-75, graduate Assistant, 1975-77, lab. technician, 1977-78; Associate instructor Indiana University, Bloomington, 1978-86; ops. astronomer Computer Sciences Corp., Balt., 1988-90, science planning and scheduling system dep. br. chief, 1990-92; data processing and distbn. manager U.S. ROSAT Science Data Center, 1992-93; Assistant system manager BATSE Data Analysis System, 1993; Visiting Lecturer Oklahoma State University, 1986-87; Visiting Assistant Professor University of Oklahoma, 1987-88. B.S., Auburn University, 1975, M.S., 1981; Ph.D., Indiana University, 1989.

Honors: Recipient Achievement award Space Telescope Science Institute, 1990, 91, Public Service Group Achievement award NASA, 1991, Cert. Recognition, 1991, 93.

Member American Astron. Society, Royal Astron. Society, Astron. Society Pacific, American Physics Society, Sigma Xi (Associate), Sigma Pi Sigma. Baptist.


Carl Nimitz McDaniel

(Born June 9, 1942).  Biologist.  Educator.  Instructor, U.S. Naval Academy, 1969; postdoctoral fellow, Yale University, New Haven, 1973-75; Assistant Professor biology Rensselaer Poly. Institute, Troy, N.Y., 1975-80, Associate Professor, 1981-87, Professor 1987.  Education: A.B., Oberlin College, 1964; M.A., Wesleyan University, 1966, Ph.D., 1973.

Member: George Washington School District Board, Brunswick, N.Y., 1980-81; board trustee 1st Presbyterian Church, Troy, N.Y., 1979-82, 83-86, Chairman endowment committee, 1980-85. Served to Lt. U.S. Navy, 1966-70. Grantee NSF, U.S. Department of Agt., NIH. Member Society Development Biology, American Society Plant Physiologists, Botanical Society of America.

Consulting editor: Encyclopedia of Science & Technology in Development Biology, 1982. Contributor of chapters to books and articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Faculty webpage, Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic: Environmental sciences, developmental biology

Home page,


James McDivitt / James Alton McDivitt

(Born 1929).  Pilot.  Astronaut.  Defense and aerospace executive.  Flew on Gemini 4, 1965; Apollo 9, 1969.  Retired Senior Vice President strategic management, Rockwell International, Arlington, Virginia.

James McDivitt's education credits include a BSc in Aeronautical Engineering from University of Michigan, 1959; D, University of Michigan, 1965; DSc, Seton Hall University, 1969; DSc, Miami University, 1970; LLD, Ea. Michigan University, 1975.  He joined the U.S. Air Force in 1951, advancing through grades to Brigadier General until his retirement in 1972. He flew 145 missions during the Korean War.  He graduated the USAF Experimental Test Pilot School (1960) and the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School (1961). NASA selected him to be an astronaut in 1962. In June 1965, he was the Command Pilot of Gemini 4, the first 4 day mission by NASA which was highlighted by his Pilot Ed White's first American EVA.  In March 1969, he was the Commander of Apollo 9, the first manned test of the Lunar Module(LM) during an earth orbital mission. McDivitt was named Manager, Lunar Landing Operations at JSC in May 1969, and named Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program overseeing all lunar operations from Apollo 12 through to Apollo 16 in August 1969. In 1972 he resigned NASA and the U.S. Air Force to become Executive Vice-President, Corporate Affairs, Consumer Power Co.  In March 1975, he joined Pullman Inc., as Executive Vice-President & Director, becoming President of the Pullman Standard Division in October of that year. In January 1981, joined Rockwell International as Senior Vice-President of Government Operations and Strategic Planning.

Member:  Advisory council, University of Michigan College of Engineering, 1988, University of Notre Dame College of Engineering, 1975-88, Fellow Society Experimental Test Pilots (Kinchloe award 1969).

James A. McDivitt (Brig. General, USAF Ret.). or (In German)


Ephraim McDowell

(1771-1830).  Pioneered in abdominal surgery; performed first ovarian operation in U.S. in Kentucky, 1809.

Ephraim McDowell Regional Medical Center.

McDowell House Museum, Inc.


Murray J. McEwan *** Not in Gale

(Not Murray McEwan of Balance Agri-Nutrients Limited.)

Interstellar chemist.  Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. M.Sc.(Hons.), Ph.D.(Cant.), F.R.S.N.Z., F.N.Z.I.C.

Faculty webpage, University of Canterbury,

Marsden Fund Newsletter, n. 26, December 2003.

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Andrew McIntosh, DSc, FIMA, CMath, FInstE, CEng *** Not in Gale

Mathematics.  Professor of Thermodynamics and Combustion Theory, University of Leeds, England.

D.Sc. in mathematics from the University of Wales, 1998; Ph.D. in the theory of combustion from the Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1981; B.Sc. with first class honors in applied mathematics from the University of Wales, 1973.

Author of over 80 research papers. Contributor to 10 textbooks dealing with combustion theory.

Biography, or

Faculty webpage, University of Leeds:

Curriculum vitae:

Inaugural lecture, University of Leeds, "Burning, Frizzling or Fizzling,"

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Robert Gilmore McKinnell

(Born 1926).  Biologist.  Researcher.  Educator.  Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA, research associate in embryology, 1958-61; Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, Assistant Professor, 1961-65, Associate Professor, 1965-69, Professor of biology, 1969-70; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Professor of genetics and cell biology, 1970-present. Visiting scientist at Dow Chemical, Freeport, TX, 1976. Conference organizer of Third International Conference on Differentiation, Minneapolis, 1978; participant in Princess Takamatsu cancer symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 1980; guest of Institute of Developmental Biology, Academia Sinica, Peking, China, 1980; guest of Department of Histopathology, Oxford University, Oxford, England, 1980.  Education: University of Missouri, B.A., 1948; Drury College, B.S., 1949; University of Minnesota, Ph.D., 1959.

Memberships: International Society of Differentiation (secretary), American Association for Cancer Research, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Society for Developmental Biology, Environmental Mutagen Society, Linnean Society of London, Sigma Xi. Presbyterian. U.S. Naval Reserve, Supply Corps, 1944-47, 1951-53; became lieutenant.

Honors: Excellence in teaching award from Tulane University, 1970; NATO senior science fellow, 1974; distinguished alumni award from Drury College, 1979.

Author: Cloning: Nuclear Transplantation in Amphibia, University of Minnesota Press, 1978; Cloning: A Biologist Reports, University of Minnesota Press, 1979; (Editor with Marie A. DiBerardino, Martin Blumenfeld, and Robert D. Bergad) Differentiation and Neoplasia, Springer-Verlag, 1980; Cloning of Frogs, Mice, and Other Animals, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolic, MN), 1985; (With others) The Biological Basis of Cancer, Cambridge University Press (New York), 1998. Contributor of more than fifty articles to scientific journals., including Science, Cancer Research, and Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Associate editor of Gamete Research; member of editorial board of Differentiation.

McKinnell told Contemporary Authors: "I cherish the fact that I was born during the great American Depression in southwest Missouri, which was not a particularly affluent region at the time. Those circumstances, it seems to me, helped to provide an appreciation of lasting personal relationships and the capacity to endure the stress and difficult times that come to all people. I relied during that period on the joy of family and friends instead of plastic toys and the companionship of electronic devices. Placing value on human relationships instead of material goods freed me in later years to attempt biological research, which ultimately led to writing. The writing has been as much a source of satisfaction as the research which led to it, and I am grateful to my somewhat austere origins and the warm memories of family and friends that made it all possible."

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Grenetta McKinstry

(Born 1947). Environmental scientist. President, Senior microbiologist Gene Amplification, Inc., 1989-present. Previous positions: Researcher, Eli Lilly Pharmaceutical Co., Indpls., 1970-72; tech. Assistant dept. microbiology Ohio State University, 1972-76, Teaching Assistant, 1976-79; tutor European Molecular Biology Organization, University Erlangen-Nurnberg (West Germany), 1979; postdoctoral Associate Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, West Berlin, 1979, Ohio State University, 1979; microbial geneticist Abbott Labs., North Chicago, Illinois, 1980-85; Senior microbial geneticist Oak Ridge Research Institute, 1985-87; Senior microbiologist PEER Consultant, 1987-89. Education: AB cum laude, Biology, Stillman College, 1968; MA (NDEA Fellow) in Microbiology, Indiana University, 1970; Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1979.

Member: American Society for Microbiology, Association for Women in Science, AAAS, N.Y. Academy of Sciences, American Phytopath. Society, Sigma Xi.  Baptist.

Honor: Recipient Presidential award, 1982. 

Contributor of articles on microbial genetics to science publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Gene Amplification International, Environmental Consulting Agency,

Grenetta McKinstry and Arthur L. Koch.  Department of Microbiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; "Interaction of Maltose Transport with the Transport of Glucose and Galactosides,"  Journal of Bacteriology, 1972 January; 109 (1): 455-458.


Victor McKusick

(Born October 21, 1921 in Parkman, Maine, United States).  Geneticist, educator, physician.  Certification: Diplomate American Board Internal Medicine.  Victor A. McKusick has been called the "father of medical genetics" due his major contributions to the field that have spanned the second half of the twentieth century. From cardiologist, to geneticist, to educator, administrator, and author, McKusick has had an impact on nearly every major milestone in modern genetics. It has been suggested that through his writing and teaching he has probably influenced all geneticists in the world today.

Chief div. Medical genetics, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1957-73, 85-89; University Professor medical genetics, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1985; physician-in-chief, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1973-85; Chairman Dept. of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1973-85; William Osler Professor medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1978-85; Professor epidemiology, biology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1969-78; Professor medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1960-85; chief division Medical genetics, Dept. of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1957-73; Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1957-60; Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1954-57; instructor medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1951-54; tng. in clinical medicine, laboratory school, Johns Hopkins University/USPHS, 1946-52.   Member School advisory committee National Foundation, 1959-78; member advisory Board Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1967-83; committee mapping and sequencing of human genome National Academy of Science, 1986-88; President International Medical Congress, Ltd., 1972-78; member National Advisory School Resources Council, 1970-74; member Board science advisors Roche Institute Molecular Biology, 1967-71; trustee Jackson Laboratory, 1979; founding member American Board Medical Genetics, 1979-82; President 8th International Conference Human Genetics, Washington, 1991; member human genome advisory committee NIH, 1988-92, NIH/DOE work group on ethical, legal and societal implications of Human Genome Project, 1990-95; co-Chairman Centennial of Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1989-90; co-founder, co-Director Annual short course in Medical and Experimental mammalian genetics, Bar Harbor, Maine, 1960, European School Medical Genetics Sestri Levante and Bertinoro, 1988; Chairman committee on DNA tech. in forensic science NRC/NAS, 1989-92, advisory update committee, 1993-96; member science advisory Board Celera Genomics, 1998; founding fellow American College Medical Genetics.Education: Student, Tufts College, 1940-43; MD, Johns Hopkins University, 1946; DSc, N.Y. Medical College, 1974; MD, Liverpool University, 1976; DSc, University Maine, 1978; DSc, Tufts University, 1978; DSc, University Rochester, 1979; DSc, Meml. University, Nfld., 1979; DMCh, University Helsinki, 1981; D, Medical University S.C., 1979; MD, Edinburgh University, 1984; DSc, Aberdeen University, 1988; DSc, Medical College Ohio, 1988; DSc, Bates College, 1989; Ph.D., Tel Aviv University, 1989; MD, Zurich (Switzerland) University, 1990; DSc, Colby College, 1991; DSc, University of Chicago,1991; DSc, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1992; DSc, Medical College Wisconsin, 1998; DSc, Rockefeller University, 2002.

Member: Fellow AAAS (chair Medical sciences section 1991), American Academy Orthopedic Surgeons (hon.), Royal College Physicians (London), Hastings Center, American College Medical Genetics (hon.); National Academy of Science (James Murray Luck award 1982), American Philos. Society (v.p. 1996, Benjamin Franklin medal for Distinguished achievement in sciences 1996), American Society Human Genetics (President 1975, Wm. A. Allan award 1977), Association American Physicians (Kober medal 1990), American Society Clinical Investigation (v.p. 1967), Human Genome Orgn. (founder President 1988-89), American Academy Arts and Science, Little People of American (hon. life), Academy National Médecine (France; corr.), Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Omega Alpha, Johns Hopkins Club, West Hamilton St. Club, St. Andrew's Society Balt.  Presbyterian (elder).

Honors: Named honorary citizen of Genoa, 1997; named to International Pediatrics Hall of Fame, 1987; recipient Distinguished Achievement award, Modern Medicine, 1965, John Phillips award, ACP, 1972, Silver medal, University Helsinki, 1974, Gairdner International award, 1977, Premio Internazionale Sanremo per le Ricerche Genetiche, 1983, Col. Saunders award, March of Dimes, 1988, Distinguished Alumnus award, Johns Hopkins University, 1983, Alumnus Service award, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 1989, Passano award, 1989, Distinguished Service award, Miami Biotech. Winter Symposium, 1991, Frank Bradway Rogers Info. Advancement award, Medical Libr. Association, 1991, Silver Columbus medal, Comune di Genova, 1992, Maine prize (with twin), 1993, Mendel medal, Villanova University, 1995, Big "M" award, Maine State Society Washington, D.C., 1995, Coriell medal, Coriell Institute, Camden, N.J., 1997, Lasker award for lifetime achievement in Medical science, 1997, City of Medicine award, Durham, North Carolina, 1997, James P. McGovern Compleat Physician award, 2000, Albert Lasker award for Special Achievement in Medicine, Lasker Foundation, 2000, National medal of science, 2002, School Achievement award, American Heart Association, 2002.

Author: Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue, 1956, 60, 66, 72, 93, Cardiovascular Sound in Health and Disease, 1958, Medical Genetics, 1958-60, 1961, Human Genetics, 1964, 69, On the X Chromosome of Man, 1964, Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 1966, 68, 71, 75, 78, 83, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 98, Medical Genetics Self-Instruction Guide, 1993, (with others) Osler's Textbook Revisited, 1967, Genetics of Hand Malformations, 1978, Medical Genetic Studies of the Amish, 1978, A Model of its Kind, 1989, Osler's Legacy, 1990, A Century of Biomedical Science at Johns Hopkins, 1993; author, editor: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 1985; editor-in-chief Medicine journal, 1985; founding co-editor-in-chief Genomics journal 1987; editor Medical textbook.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

McKusick, "Father of Genetic Medicine," To Get National Medal of Science,"

"In 1972 McKusick received the John Phillips Award of the American College of Physicians for distinguished contributions in Internal Medicine. The recipient of numerous honorary doctorates, McKusick has also received the Gaidner International Award (1977), the William A. Allan Award of the American Society of Human Genetics (1977), the James Murray Luck Award from the National Academy of Sciences (1982) and the Sanremo International Prize for Genetic Research (1983). He has been inducted into the International Pediatrics Hall of Fame (1987) and has received the Passano Award (1989), the George M. Kober Medal (American Association of Physicians, 1990) and in 1997 received the prestigious Albert Lasker Award for Special Achievement in Medical Science. More recently, McKusick was honored with the Ellen Browning Scripps Medal and the John P. McGovern Compleat Physician Award. McKusick has served in distinguished positions on numerous advisory boards and editorial boards and within professional organizations."

The news release from the National Science Foundation:

Previous Medal of Science recipients:


Ellen Winnie McLaughlin

(Born August 17, 1937).  Biologist.  Educator.  Instructor biology Converse College, Spartanburg, S.C., 1960-63; Assistant Professor biology Samford University, Birmingham, Alabama, 1967-70, Associate Professor, 1970-75, Professor, 1975. faculty v.p. Samford University, 1986-87, President, 1987. Emory University Fellow, 1965; Samford University research grantee, 1988, 1993. Education: BS, SUNY-Albany, 1958; MA, University N.C., 1962, Ph.D., Emory University, 1967.

Member: AIBS, Alabama Academy of Science, Association So. Biologists, American Science Affiliates, Phi Kappa Phi, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Affiliation of Christian Biologists, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly American Society of Zoologists), American Malacological Union.

Author: Laboratory Guide for General Biology, 1992, Histology Laboratory Manual, Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Development of Freshwater Snail Eggs, 1989. American Zool. 29:112A. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation and Water Depth on Development of Freshwater Snail Embryos, 1992. American Zool. Effects of Near-, Mid-, and Far-U.V. Radiation on Snail Development, 1995.  Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Honors: Beta Beta Beta Biological Honor Society Advisor; The National Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi #140 Chair, Fellowship Committee 1989-97; President 1992-93; Hypatia Honor Society for Women at Samford University, Advisor; Advisory and Review Board on the Status of Women at Samford University.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Faculty webpage, Samford University,

"Dr. Ellen McLaughlin has taught in the Samford University Department of Biology since 1967, longer than anyone else in the department.   She has served three times as acting chair of the department, and is best known for her development of the Cornerstone interdisciplinary science course and her ongoing research with ultra-violet radiation effects on snail embryos.  She is presently serving as chairman of the Biology Faculty Building Committee for the new Samford Science Center."


Tom McLeish *** Not in Gale

Polymer physicist.  Tom McLeish is Professor of Polymer Physics and, since 1993, Head of the Polymers and Complex Fluids Group (incorporating the Leeds branch of the Polymer IRC) in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds University.  Prevously, he was a Lecturer at the University of Sheffield from 1989 to 1993. His research has developed within the field of Soft Condensed Matter Physics, concentrating on Polymeric Dynamics, but also encompassing related problems in other complex fluids, including peptide self-assemblies and protein dynamics. His own contributions have been mostly theoretical, but he has frequently initiated collaborations with experimentalist physicists, engineers and chemists.  He is currently an EPSRC Senior Fellow and Director of the IRC in Polymer Science and Technology and of the White Rose Life Science Interface Doctorla Training Centre.  He also has an active interest in the Public Understanding of Science and Theology.

From "Society of Rhaeology Author Profile,"

Tom McLeish studied for a BA and Ph.D. in theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge.

"TCB McLeisch," Faculty webpage, Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds,

His research falls into three distinct but related strands:

Molecular Polymer Rheology - focussing on the special dynamics of branched entangled polymers, and the Mupp Project.

Dynamics of Phase Separation in Polymeric Fluids - especially structure formation and control.

Self-Assembled and Biological Complex Fluids- including wormlike micelles, peptide nanotapes (amyloid fibrils) and protein physics.

Professor Tom McLeish webpage, .The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK's main agency for funding research and related postgraduate training in engineering and the physical sciences - from maths to materials science, and from information technology to structural engineering.  EPSRC is a non-departmental governmental public body (NDPB), funded by the Government through the Department of Trade and Industry's (DTI) Office of Science and Technology (OST).

Dr. Tom McLeish, ITP & Leeds.  "Non-Relativistic Brownian Strings: A Common Motif in Nature,"

Don Connigale. "Life: Cosmic Cheese,"

Tim Radford. "'Science cannot provide all the answers'
Why do so many scientists believe in God?" The Guardian, Thursday September 4, 2003.,13026,1034872,00.html

"Should physics go to bed with biology?"

Tom McLeish.  "Risk in the Scientific Process ,"

Tom McLeish.  "Facing up to the mystery of God,"

Review: April 2001 of  Faith, Science and Understanding by John Polkinghorne.


Ronald E. McNair / Ronald Erwin McNair

(1950-1986).  Physicist.  NASA astronaut, 1978-1986.  Lecturer physics, Texas Southern University, Houston, 1983-86. Staff physicist, Hughes Research Labs., Malibu, California, 1976-78. Ronald McNair became the second black astronaut in space and the first black to lose his life while in flight. His outstanding academic achievements and expertise in physics and the specialized fields of chemical and high-pressure lasers led him to be selected in 1979 as a shuttle mission specialist for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He became known as a member of the crew for the ill-fated manned spacecraft Challenger launched in 1986.  Graduated from Carver High School, Lake City, South Carolina, in 1967; received a bachelor of science degree in Physics from North Carolina A&T State University in 1971 and a doctor of philosophy in Physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976; presented an honorary doctorate of Laws from North Carolina A&T State University in 1978, an honorary doctorate of science from Morris College in 1980, and an honorary doctorate of science from the University of South Carolina in 1984.

While at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. McNair performed some of the earliest development of chemical HF/DF and high-pressure CO lasers. His later experiments and theoretical analysis on the interaction of intense C02 laser radiation with molecular gases provided new understandings and applications for highly excited polyatomic molecules.

In 1975, he studied laser physics with many authorities in the field at E'cole D'ete Theorique de Physique, Les Houches, France. He has published several papers in the areas of lasers and molecular spectroscopy and has given many presentations in the United States and abroad.

Following graduation from MIT in 1976, McNair became a staff physicist with Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California. His assignments included the development of lasers for isotope separation and photochemistry, utilizing nonlinear interactions in low-temperature liquids and optical pumping techniques. He also conducted research on electro-optic laser modulation for satellite-to-satellite space communications, the construction of ultrafast infrared detectors, ultraviolet atmospheric remote sensing, and the scientific foundations of the martial arts.

He first flew as a mission specialist on STS 41-B, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 3, 1984. He logged a total of 191 hours in space. Dr. McNair was a mission specialist on STS 51-L, which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 11:38:00 EST on January 28, 1986. The STS 51-L crew died on January 28, 1986 after Challenger exploded 1 minute 13 seconds after launch.

From "Ronald E. McNair (Ph.D.), NASA Astronaut,"

Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Optical Society, the American Physical Society (APS), the APS Committee on Minorities in Physics, the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics Board of Trustees, the MIT Corporation Visiting Committee, Omega Psi Phi, and a visiting Lecturer in Physics at Texas Southern University.

Honors: Graduated magna cum laude from North Carolina A&T (1971); named a Presidential Scholar (1967-1971), a Ford Foundation Fellow (1971-1974), a National Fellowship Fund Fellow (1974-1975), a NATO Fellow (1975); winner of Omega Psi Phi Scholar of the Year Award (1975), Los Angeles Public School System's Service Commendation (1979), Distinguished Alumni Award (1979), National Society of Black Professional Engineers Distinguished National Scientist Award (1979), Friend of Freedom Award (1981), Who's Who Among Black Americans (1980), an AAU Karate Gold Medal (1976), five Regional Blackbelt Karate Championships, and numerous proclamations and achievement awards.

McNair Magnet School.

About Ronald E. McNair...

The U.C. Berkeley McNair Scholars Program, named after the late Dr. Ronald E. McNair, is a federally funded TRIO program with 158 sites at universities across the country.

East Tennessee State University.  "Who was Donald E. McNair?"


Mead, Margaret

(1901-1978). American anthropologist, writer. Assistant curator of ethnology, American Museum of Natural History (1926-42); associate curator (1942-64), curator (1964-69). Adjunct professor, Columbia (from 1954). On field trips to Samoa (1925-26, 1928-29), New Guinea (1931-33), Bali and New Guinea (1936-39); known also as popular and controversial lecturer on contemporary social issues.  Education: Attended DePauw University, 1919-20; Barnard College, B.A., 1923; Columbia University, M.A., 1924, Ph.D., 1929.

Member: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Anthropological Association (fellow; past president), American Association for the Advancement of Science (past president; past chair of board), Institute for Intercultural Studies (secretary), American Association of University Women, Society of Applied Anthropology (past president), American Ethnological Society, Society of Woman Geographers (fellow), American Orthopsychiatric Association (fellow), World Society of Ekistics (past president), Scientists Institute for Public Information (past president), Society for General Systems Research (past president), Institute for Intercultural Studies, World Federation of Mental Health (past president), American Council of Learned Societies (past vice-president), New York Academy of Science (fellow), Phi Beta Kappa, Delta Kappa Gamma, Sigma Xi.  Episcopalian.

Honors: Honorary degrees from Wilson College, 1940, Rutgers University, 1941, Elmira College, 1947, Western College for Women, 1955, University of Leeds, 1957, Kalamazoo College, 1957, Skidmore College, 1958, Goucher College, 1960, Temple University, 1962, Lincoln University, 1963, Columbia University, 1964, and University of Cincinnati, 1965. National achievement award, Chi Omega, 1940; gold medal award, Society of Women Geographers, 1942; one of outstanding women of the year in science, Associated Press, 1949; Viking Medal in anthropology, 1958; medal of honor, Rice University, 1962; Women's Hall of Fame, Nationwide Women Editors, 1965; William Proctor Prize for Scientific Achievement, Scientific Research Society of America, 1969; Arches of Science Award, Pacific Science Center, 1971; Kalinga Prize, UNESCO and government of India, 1971; Wilder Penfield Award, Vanier Institute of the Family, 1972; Lehmann Award, New York Academy of Sciences, 1973; Omega Achievers Award for Education, 1977; Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1979.

Author: Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), Growing Up in New Guinea (1930), Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), Balinese Character (with Gregory Bateson, 1941), And Keep Your Powder Dry (1942), Male and Female (1949), Childhood in Contemporary Cultures (with Martha Wolfenstein, 1955), New Lives for Old (1956), Anthropology (1964), Continuities in Cultural Evolution (1964), Culture and Commitment (1970), Blackberry Winter (autobiography, 1972).

"Dr. Mead was not only an anthropologist and ethnologist of the first rank but also something of a national oracle on other subjects ranging from atomic politics to feminism," wrote Alan Whitman in the New York Times obituary. As a professional she altered the scope and approach of her science; as a human being she embodied passionate concern and sensible humanism; as a celebrity "she lent her support to dozens of causes," wrote Boyce Rensberger, "above all, to the cause of greater understanding and human harmony."

Margaret Mead was an authority on more than a dozen aspects of human science, any one of which would be sufficient to occupy the attention of most individuals. "She did many things simultaneously--but she did them all well," John Willey, Mead's editor at Morrow for thirty years, told Publishers Weekly. As Newsweek's Elizabeth Peer noted, "the obsession that ruled such diversity was to learn how people cope with change." John Thompson of Harper's summed up Mead's career as a continual study of "man's cultural evolution, particularly as it is marked in the successive adaptations of generations." She was concerned not only with the "generation gap" but with gaps in general. She was an arbiter, a peacemaker, trying to defuse emotionally laden conflicts with facts and common sense. Life described her as "the cool anthropologist, rational grandmother, symbol of common sense to millions of Americans."

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

"Margaret Mead,"

"Margaret Mead,"

"Margaret Mead,"

"Margaret Mead,"


Barbara Mearns / Barbara Crawford Mearns

(Born 1955).  Scottish psychologist, biologist.  Crichton Royal Hospital, Dumfries, Scotland, occupational therapist in child psychiatry department, 1976-80; Carnsalloch Cheshire Home, Dumfries, occupational therapist, 1982-83; Crichton Royal Hospital, occupational therapist, 1984-85; biohistorical researcher and writer, 1985-present; A Rocha Trust (Christians in Conservation), U.K. administrator, 1997-present.  Education: Attended Astley Ainslie College of Occupational Therapy, 1973- 75, and Bible Training Institute of Glasgow, 1980-81.
Member: Baptist.

Author: (With husband, Richard Mearns) Biographies for Birdwatchers: The Lives of Those Commemorated in Western Palearctic Bird Names, Academic Press, 1988; (With husband, Mearns) Audubon to Xantus: The Lives of Those Commemorated in North American Bird Names, Academic Press, 1992; (With husband, Mearns) The Bird Collectors, Academic Press, 1998.

Barbara Mearns told Contemporary Authors: "The twelve-year period up to 1997 was dominated by biohistorical research and writing for the three books my husband and I wrote on early naturalists. By the time The Bird Collectors was finished, I was ready for a change of direction, and was fortunate to be asked to work for the A Rocha Trust. A Rocha is an international organization of Christians in conservation, with a well-established Field Study Centre in southwest Portugal. Since 1997, a small team has been working in conservation and environmental education at the Aammiq Marsh in Lebanon, the last major wetland in that country, and there are new projects beginning in France and Kenya, with plans for development in Canada and England. This is, therefore, an exciting time to be working as the U.K. administrator, and the role brings together my lifelong interest in wildlife, my desire as a Christian to help the church become more actively involved in caring for God's world, and my experience in writing."

Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001.


Pedro de Medina *** Not in Gale

(c. 1493-c. 1567).  Spanish cartographer, navigation expert, mathematician, cleric.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Medina taught navigation and mathematics to pilots.  In 1549, named "cosmografo de honor" to the kings.

He was consulted by two juntas convened by the Council of the Indies (in 1554 and 56) to determine the position of the Philippines and other Pacific islands in relation to the dispute with Portugal.


Paul Martin Mehrle, Jr.

(Born December 13, 1944).  Biochemist.  Physiologist, National Fishery Research Lab, Columbia, Mo., 1971-81, chief biologist, 1981.  Education: B.A., Southwestern University, Memphis, 1967; M.A., University of Missouri., 1969, Ph.D., 1971.

Member: Chairman, Zoning Adjustment Board, 1981-82; Member Mayor of Columbia Task Force on Drug Abuse, 1983. Member American Fishery Society (editor water quality reports 1981, Associate editor transactions, 1981-83), American Chemical Society, Society Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Presbyterian. Lodge: Rotary.

Recipient Special Achievement award, U.S. Department of Interior, 1975, 77, 78, 81.

Co-author science publications and books on environmental toxicology.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004. 


Colin Melbourne *** Not in Gale

Colin is an English veterinarian and zoologist who was "saved" in 1988 at a Spirit-filled Baptist fellowship, whilst back-packing around New Zealand. You can read his salvation testimony here.  He moved to Southeast Asia as a missionary in 1990.

Colin Melbourne, English Missionary in Asia.  "Sox & The Meaning of Life," "An English veterinarian and his Muslim girlfriend 'living life to the full' discover Real Life in the Lord Jesus Christ. The true story of how a cynical scientist, and a real life James Herriot becomes a born again Spirit-filled missionary, after a lady washed his sox [sic]."

Colin Melbourne.  "All Creatures Great and Small : James Herriot Remembered," "But the biggest thrill in my life has not been treating all creatures great and small like Mr. Herriot (UK vets don't like to be called 'Doctor', it's something we have to get used to working outside the UK.) The greatest joy I've had is Meeting The One who made them all. His name is The LORD Jesus Christ. You can read what happened, and how He sent me to become a Missionary in Asia here."

Website, "Born Again Christian Info,"


Francisco de Mello *** Not in Gale

(1490-1536).  Portuguese mathematician, cartographer.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Mello wrote extensively on mathematics, including Euclid's optics and Archimede's hydrostatics.


Johann Gregor Mendel

(1822-1884). Austrian botanist. The science of genetics can trace its origins to biologist Gregor Mendel. In meticulous studies with pea plants, Mendel acquired the experimental data necessary to formulate the laws of heredity.  Entered order of Augustinians at Brunn (1843); ordained (1847); taught in technical high school (1854-68); abbot (1868). Known for breeding experiments with peas in monastery garden (from 1856); discovered Mendel's laws of segregation and of independent assortment, based on his inference that heritable characteristics are paired units and that their appearance in hybridized offspring obeys statistical laws; his work was published by natural history society of Brunn (1866) but not widely recognized until brought into prominence by De Vries and others. (1900). (in French) (in German)

National Genome Research Project. Listen to a detailed explanation.  Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, discusses Johann (Gregor) Mendel.

Mendel | Johann Gregor | 1822-1884 | Austrian biologist and botanist,

Gregor Mendel.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Pietro Mengoli *** Not in Gale

(1625-1686).  Italian mathematician, astronomer, musician, optician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Mengoli was ordained as a priest and served a parish in Bologna from 1660 to his death in 1686.

Mengoli's mathematics was superficially conservative, and he was in fact quickly forgotten. Recently, however, he has been rediscovered and is increasingly recognized as a transition between Cavalieri's indivisibles and Leibniz's differentials.

He wrote Novae quadraturae arithmeticae, 1650, significantly extended early work in infinite series.  Geometriae speciosae elementa, 1659, contained a theory of limits.  Circolo, 1672, found the value of pi/2 as an infinite product. There were also other mathematical works.

Mengoli was also interested in astronomy. He wrote a book on atmospheric refraction, and he published one on musical theory.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Pietro Mengoli,"

After Cavalieri died in November 1647, Mengoli had been appointed to his chair at the University of Bologna. Mengoli held a number of chairs at the University of Bologna where he taught all his life. He was professor of arithmetic from 1648 to 1649, then professor of mechanics from 1649 to 1668 and, finally, professor of mathematics from 1668 until his death in 1686. In addition to these chairs he was also a priest in the parish of Santa Maria Maddelena in Bologna from 1660.

Other work by Mengoli included astronomy, refraction in the atmosphere and a book Speculazioni musicali (1670) on the theory of music. In this Mengoli's criticizes the theory of resonance set out by Galileo.


David N. Menton *** Not in Gale

Cell biologist.  Associate Professor of Anatomy at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Biomedical research technician at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota in the Department of Dermatology (1960-62); Associate Professor of Anatomy at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (1966-2000); Associate Professor Emeritus of Anatomy at Washington University School of Medicine (July 2000). His Ph.D. degree (Biology) was received from Brown University in 1966, with a B.S. from Mankato State University in 1959.

Consulting editor in Histology for Stedman's Medical Dictionary, a standard medical reference work.

He has authored over 18 technical publications in professional journals. He is a member of Sigma Xi, American Association of Anatomists and other scientific societies. President of the Missouri Association for Creation. Technical Advisor for the Institute for Creation Research in San Diego CA.
Honors: Silver Award from the American Academy of Dermatology; Named "Teacher of the Year" in 1979 at Washington University School of Medicine.

Profile at

 "Who Is Dr. David Menton?"

David N. Menton, Ph.D "The Origin of Life," Originally published in St. Louis MetroVoice, August 1993, Vol. 3, No. 8

David N. Menton, Ph.D. "The Dating Game," or Originally published in St. Louis MetroVoice, August 1994, Vol. 4, No. 8.

Technical/In-depth Papers,


Margaret Young Menzel

(1924-1987).  Biology educator.  University service Professor, Florida State University, 1986-87; Associate Chairman graduate affairs, Florida State University, 1972-73; Professor biol. science, Florida State University, 1968-86; Associate Professor, Florida State University, 1963-68; research Associate dept. biol. sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, part-time, 1955-63; research geneticist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, 1962-63; plant geneticist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Tallahassee, 1956-62; instructor agronomy, Texas Agricultural Expt. Station, College Station, 1949-54; Instructor chemistry and bacteriology, Lamar College, Beaumont, Texas, 1944-45. Visiting research scientist Texas A&M University, College Station, 1974-75.  Education:  B.A. magna cum laude, Southwestern University, 1944; Ph.D. (Blandy fellow 1945-49), University Va., 1949.

Member: American Genetic Association, American Society Plant Taxonomists, American Society Cell Biology, Association Tropical Biology, Association Southeastern Biologists (v.p. 1967-68, Research prize 1950, Meritorious Teaching award 1985), Bot. Society America, Genetics Society America, Crop Science Society America, Sigma Xi (Chapter President 1971-73), Society Study Evolution.  Methodist.

Contributor of articles to various publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

In Memoriam:  Dr. Margaret Y. Menzel, Professor Emerita, 1924-1987.



Michele Mercati

(1541-1593). Italian physician and naturalist. Director of Vatican botanical garden (from 1561); physician to Pope Clement VIII; established natural history museum in Vatican and wrote a description of it in Metallotheca Vaticana (1574). Also wrote Istruzione sopra la peste (1576), Degli obelischi di Roma (1589).

The Galileo Project,


Gerard Mercator / Gerhadus Mercator / Gerhard Kremer

The Flemish cartographer Gerhardus Mercator (1512-1594) was among the first makers of modern atlases and is best known for his great world map, or chart, using the projection that has acquired his name. Lunar features Crater Mercator and Rupes Mercator named in his honor.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. "Gerardus Mercador,"


Christopher Merrett / Christopher Merret *** Not in Gale

(1614-1695).  English natural historian, botanist, physician, chemist, pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

Merrett's major work was Pinax rerum naturalium britannicarum, 1667, which was planned to replace How's Phytologia. The preface to Pinax emphasizes the utility of the book for pharmacology.  However, Merret was not a field naturalist, but a compiler of the information in books and from a couple of field people. The book included the first attempt to construct a British fauna. It also contains a good deal on geology, fossils, and minerals. In regard to the last, Merrett also published an article in the Philosophical Transactions on the tin mines of Cornwall.

Merrett did contribute articles on vegetable physiology to the Philosophical Transactions.  He published one medical work in 1682.  Also wrote The Art of Glass, 1662, contains a great deal about the preparation of chemical materials for glass.

Merrett's translation of Neri's book into The Art of Glass, with Merrett's considerable additions to it, is said to have helped the glass industry in England and indeed (through translations) elsewhere in northern Europe. Even though Merrett was not engaged personally in glass making, he made himself familiar with the operations in London glass works. He was also interested in metallurgy, and published an article on refining in the Philosophical Transactions.

Member: Royal Society, 1660--one of the original group. Earlier he had been one of the group in London, the misnamed "Invisible College," generally taken as the precursor to the Royal Society.  Medical College.  Informal Connections: Friendship with Harvey, 1640s-1657. Friendship with Boyle.  Royal College of Physicians, 1651-1681. Gulstonian lecturer, 1654; Censor seven times between 1657 and 1670.


Marin Mersenne

Had it not been for the tireless efforts of French Minimite friar Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), communication describing the discoveries in science would have never been dispersed to the far corners of the mathematical and scientific worlds during the 17th century.  Mersenne was a monk, astronomer, physicist, mathematician, scientist, and philosopher known for his development of the Mersenne primes, which have played a significant role in number theory for several centuries. He is also known as the father of acoustics.

From "Marin Mersenne." Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

He was a fellow pupil of Descartes; entered mendicant order of Minims (1611); taught at Nevers (1614-20), Paris (from 1620); defended Descartes and Galileo against clerical critics; discovered Mersenne numbers (1644).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Marin Mersenne,"

Mersenne Primes: History, Theorems and Lists.

Marin Mersenne (1588 - 1648), "Harmonie Universelle" (1636), Livre Quatriesme (propositions V-VI-VII),

Rodney S. Karjala.

41st Known Mersenne Prime Found!! (in German)


Jean Mery *** Not in Gale

(1645-1722).  French anatomist, surgeon, physiologist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Most of Mery's work was comparative-anatomical and pathological. His pathological research was mostly concerned with human developmental malformations.  After 1684, he became associated with the comparative-anatomical work led by C. Perrault and Duverney.  In 1693, Mery was embroiled in a controversy over the traditional interpretation of mammalian fetal circulation. He based his theory on preserved and dry specimens which yielded inconsistent findings. Nevertheless, Mery held his views until his death.

Among his other anatomical works were his research on the ear following Lami; his description of the urethral glands before Cowper; and his description of the eustachian valve preceding that of Winslow.

He entered into the discussion of the vacuum.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1684-1722.  Correspondence with Pascal. He had several disputes with Pascal on the existence of a vacuum. But later in his Gravitas he honored Pascal for his role in developing an experiment to produce a vacuum within a vacuum.


Alex Metherell, Ph.D., M.D. *** Not in Gale

Medical Doctor.  Visiting Research Specialist, Institute for Software Research, University of California at Irvine. He is working on his primary research interest of muscle biophysics. He is specifically interested in the mechanism by which muscle generates force and contracts. Alex is using theoretical modeling to analyze different models to better understand how muscle contracts. He is also developing a novel computerized music score display for choral works and healthcare informatics.

Faculty webpage, Institute for Software Research, University of California at Irvine,

Biography: [Presbyterian] Elder Alex F. Metherell, M.D., Ph.D.

Born in the Far East, Alex grew up in Australia and England. After graduating from college, Alex received his Ph.D. in Engineering three years later from Bristol University in England. Two days later he married his Scottish wife Pamela (whom he met two years earlier while flying in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve during his doctoral program) and a week after that immigrated to the United States.

After doing extensive published work in engineering at the University of Minnesota and McDonnell Douglas where he rose to Division Director, he went to medical school at the University of Miami, Florida, where he earned his M.D. degree in only two years. He is Board Certified in Radiology and helped pioneer the clinical use of MRI imaging in Southern California. He co-founded a medical transcription company, which after several mergers now serves over 200,000 physicians and numerous hospitals throughout the U.S. and Canada. Over the years he has held various Professorships at UCLA and UCI.

Alex Metherell taught Bible studies and has become known as an authority on the medical and physical aspects of the Crucifixion and Resurrection. His commentaries have been published and televised worldwide. He contributed to a chapter on the subject in the multi-million-copy best seller, The Case for Christ,  by Lee Strobel.

He is a Reasons to Believe Science Scholar. Reasons To Believe is an independent Christian non-profit organization that shows how recent scientific discoveries confirm the existence of the God of the Bible.


Adriaan Metius *** Not in Gale

(1571-1635).  Dutch mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, instrument-maker, engineer, cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

De Waard says that he spent a lot of time pursuing the philosophers' stone.  Metius published on the astrolabe and on surveying.  He assisted his father for a time as a military engineer.

His teaching at Franeker was especially geared toward the training of Frisian surveyors.  He manufactured astronomical instruments.  He developed a special form of Jacob's Staff which was useful in surveying.  (in Italian) (in French)


Jacob Metius *** Not in Gale

(Birthdate unknown-1628).  Dutch instrument-maker, specializing in grinding lenses.

The Galileo Project,

Metius is a co-discover of the telescope; one of the first to bring together a concave and a convex lens in a tube. He applied for a patent in 1608, but could not establish priority over H. Lippershey, who applied a few months previously.  He made several different inventions, but was extremely secretive about them, and burned all of his instruments before he died.


Angela Meyer *** Not in Gale (Not the nursing educator)

Horticulture Scientist.

Has spent years as a research scientist at Hort Research, Mount Albert Research Centre in New Zealand. Holds a B.S. in botony from the University of Auckland, an M.S. with first class honors in botony from the University of Auckland, and a Ph.D. in horticultural science from the University of Sydney. Dr. Meyer has published 11 refereed papers in the area of seasonal effects on fruit production and in 1994 was awarded the New Zealand Science and Technology bronze medal for excellence in kiwi fruit research and service to science.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


John R. Meyer*** Not in Gale

(Not entomologist John R. Meyer)

Chemist, zoologist, biophysicist.  Meyer is Professor of Biology at Master's College in Los Angeles (formerly Los Angeles Baptist College) and is a member of the Board of Directors of the Creation Research Society.  Meyer has B.A. in biology and chemistry, Kearney State College, Kearney, Nebraska, 1962 and received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the State University of Iowa, 1969. He served as a Post-doctoral Fellow at the University of Colorado and as Assistant Professor of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Louisville Medical School.  He was formerly Director of the Van Andel Creation Research Center, Creation Research Society, Chino Valley, Arizona.

John R. Meyer. "The Van Andel Creation Research Center, A Unique Creationist Resource,", CRSQ 36(2): 68-71.


Stephen C. Meyer *** Not in Gale

Physicist.  Geologist. Associate Professor of Philosophy at Whitworth College, Senior Research Fellow at the Discovery Institute (Seattle), Director and Senior Fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture. Formerly a geo-physicist with the Atlantic Richfield Company.  Stephen C. Meyer received his Ph.D. in the History and Philosophy of Science from the University of Cambridge in 1991 for a dissertation on origin-of-life biology and the methodology of the historical sciences.

He is a past recipient of a Rotary International Scholarship, the American Friends of Cambridge scholarship (administered by the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust) and a Templeton Foundation science-religion teaching grant.

He has contributed to several scholarly books and anthologies, including The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition: An Encyclopedia, Darwinism: Science or Philosophy, Of Pandas and People: The Central Question in Biological Origins, The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidence for an Intelligent Designer, Mere Creation: Science, Faith & Intelligent Design, and Facets of Faith and Science: Interpreting God's Action in the World.

Discovery Institute profile,

Stephen C. Meyer.  "A Scopes Trial for the '90s,"

From The Wall Street Journal, December 6, 1993.  Meyer discusses the dismissal of Dean Kenyon, a biology professor at San Francisco State University.

Home page, Access Research Network,

Interviewed in The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God, by Lee Strobel.  Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2004.  ISBN 0-310-24144-8, (hardbound), ISBN 0-310-24050-6 (paperback).


Pier' Antonio Micheli *** Not in Gale

(1679-1737).  Italian botanist, natural historian, paleontologist, mineralogist, geologist, zoologist, pharmacologist, metallurgist, agriculturalist.  The father of mycology - the study of fungi.

The Galileo Project,

In his major work, Nova plantarum genera (Florence, 1729), Micheli considered some 1900 species, of which nearly 1400 were new. The work remained unfinished at the time of his death (in the sense that he continued to collect more material), and a considerable amount of the data that he had gathered was never incorporated into it.

Micheli was an outstanding representative of a new phenonenon, the specialist in certain groups of plants--for Micheli the ombrellifers, gramineae, mosses, fungi, and marine algae.  In addition to his botanical studies, he was also concerned with zoology (especially fish or, better, sea life), paleontology, and geology. He was the first to recognize Monte Amiata as an extinct volcano far from regions still active volcanically. He explored the minerals of Tuscany.

In his early expeditions around Florence, apothecaries (whom Micheli had consulted about questions of plants) used him to gather medicinal plants for them.  In 1708 the Grand Duke sent Micheli north of the Alps specifically to learn how the Germans made tinplate [sic], and also to collect for the garden in Pisa. Micheli wrote a description of how tinplate was made.

He was nominally employed in a herbal garden.  Micheli drew up catalogues of fruits produced in Tuscany and of vines everywhere and the conditions in which they flourished. In 1723 he published a work on a weed that was damaging vegetables in Tuscany, with advice on how to eliminate it.

Micheli was the first (and for a long time the only) person to attempt scientific study of fungi. He did studies "sowing" fungal spores on a medium, and showing that the same kind of fungus grew there (this in opposition to the idea of "spontaneous generation"). And he also did very nice microscopic work distinguishing very tiny genera. (in Italian)

"History of Mycology"


Famiano Michelini *** Not in Gale

(1604-1665).  Italian physician, pharmacologist, hydraulics specialist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Michelini was ordained in 1636.  Although he did not have a medical degree, Michelini was interested in medicine, to which he applied the experimental method and helped to pave the way for Redi's experiments and Borelli's theories. Michelini urged the use of citrus juices and control of weight.  In 1664 he published Della direzione de' fiumi, a subject to which he had given major attention all his life.

At least during an epidemic Michelini ministered to the sick. Certainly he gave medical advice in general and composed Discourses on Health, which remained unpublished. Especially he advised the use of citrus juices as a medicine.

Through most of his career in Florence, Michelini was consulted on issues of hydraulics, such as the courses of the Chiana and Arno rivers and problems of drainage of the plain at Pisa. He advised boxes or bulkheads filled with stone to protect the banks of rivers. He also gave advice about the silting up of the lagoon at Venice.

Trattato della direzione de fiumi nel quale si dimostrano da' suoi veri principi i modi più sicuri, e meno dispendiosi di riparare a' danni, che sogliono farsi dall' acque. Florence Nella stamperia della Stella 1664.

In this book Michelini deals with techniques for altering the course or flow of a river, problems of drainage, and placement of stones to protect the banks of rivers. Although he had an interest in medicine and mathematics, the main focus of his attention was hydraulics. He is known for a long-standing controversy with Toricelli on a number of issues dealing with hydraulics; many questions regarding this controversy remain unanswered, as well as why he was never invited to join the Accademia del Cimento.  Michelini (1604-65) taught mathematics at Florence and at the University of Pisa where he was acquainted with Galileo. He lived at court and also taught astronomy to Prince Leopoldo di Medici, who financed the publication of the present work. As tutor to Leopoldo, Michelini was among a number of scientists and philosophers close to the prince that ultimately became the prototype of the Accademia.


Marco Severo Milani-Comparetti

(Born May 15, 1926 in Florence, Italy).  Italian geneticist, bioethicist.  Director Medical School, Institute Biology & Genetics, Ancona, 1974-97; Associate Professor human genetics and bioethics, Ancona (Italy) University Medical School, 1980; Assistant Professor, Ancona (Italy) University Medical School, 1972-79; Assistant Professor, Rome University Medical School, 1970-71; geneticist, The Gregor Mendel Institute, Rome, 1956-69; Director international school, American Institute Mgmt., N.Y.C., 1953-56. Member permanent committee International Congresses of Human Genetics, 1961, Assistant sec. gen., 1961-91; science Director International Institute for Ethical-Juridical Studies of New Biology, Milazzo, Italy, 1986-92; science sec. Olympic Games Science Committee, Rome, 1960; academician Accademia delle Muse, Florence, Italy; Board member, Terra Foundation, Lucca, Italy.  Education: Ph.D., Rome University, 1969

Member:  AAAS, Italian Society Bioethics (President 1994), American Society Human Genetics, European Society Human Genetics, Italian Association Medical Genetics, N.Y. Academy of Sciences, Rumanian Academy Medical Sciences, Lions. Forza Italia.  Roman Catholic.

Author and co-author several books; co-editor International Journal Bioethics 1992-97; Associate editor Acta Geneticae medicae et Gemellogiae; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Raymond H. Medley, Jr.

(Born August 10, 1932).  Mathematics and computer science educator.  Professor of Mathematics, computer science, Chairman dept. Belmont College, Nashville, 1964; teacher Fisk University Pre-College Center, Nashville, 1964-67.  Education: B.S., Peabody College, 1957, M.A., 1959, Ph.D., 1975; postgrad. University Evansville, Clarkson University Teacher Hillsboro High School, Nashville, 1957-64.

Member, Association for Computing Machinery, Mathematics Association America, National Council Teachers Mathematics, National Hemophilia Found. (Chairman Board directors Cumberland Chapter), National Geographic Society, Tennessee Hist. Society Hist. Belmont Society, Tennessee Mathematics Teachers Association, Middle Tennessee Mathematics Teachers Association Democrat. Baptist.

Honors: Recipient Outstanding Professor award Belmont College, 1976; NSF fellow, 1962-64.

Author: basic algebra study guide.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


John Bruce Millar

(Born 1942 in England).  Australian speech pathologist. Research Assistant University Keele, 1967-68, Research Fellow, 1968-70; Research scientist, Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1970-73; Fellow Australian National University, Canberra, 1973; Senior Academy Associate University Melbourne, Australia, 1988-98; Associate Director Research school of information sciences and engineering Australian National University, 1999.

Education: B.Sc. with honors, University of Liverpool, England, 1964; Ph.D., University Keele, England, 1968.

Member: Elder, Belconnen Baptist Church, Canberra, 1982; v.p. Parents and Citizens Association Belconnen High School, Canberra, 1985.  President Australian Speech Science and Tech. Association (foundation secretary); member Advisory council International Speech Committee Association; Board member Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australia, Permanent council for Organization of International Conferences on Spoken Language Processing (General tech. chair 1994-98).

Editor directory Speech Research in Australia, 1972-84; editorial Board Speech Communication, 1987. Contributor of articles to professional publications.

Patentee speech processor.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Hugh Miller

(1802-1856). Scottish geologist and man of letters. Accountant in bank at Cromarty; contributed to Mackay Wilson's Tales of the Borders; wrote Scenes and Legends in the North of Scotland (1835); editor of The Witness, organ of nonintrusionists (1840-56), in which he began geological articles collected asThe Old Red Sandstone (1841). Presented anti-evolutionary interpretation of fossil record. Pioneer in popularizing of geology by means of chief works Footprints of the Creator (1847), The Testimony of the Rocks (1857), Sketch Book of Popular Geology (1859); wrote First Impressions of England and its People (1846) and My Schools and Schoolmasters (1854).


Dr. Karl V. Miller *** Not in Gale

Entomologist.  Karl V. Miller is Professor of Wildlife Ecology and Management at the D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, 2000 - present; Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Forest Resources, Clemson University, 1999 - present; Associate Professor of Wildlife Ecology and Management, D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, 1996-2000; Associate Research Scientist. D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia. 1995-1996; Assistant Research Scientist, D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia. 1990-1995. Dr. Miller's research focuses on the physiology, habitat requirements and management of white-tailed deer and on the impact of forest management practices on deer and other wildlife species. Education: Doctor of Philosophy in Forest Resources, University of Georgia, 1985. Dissertation: 'Social and biological aspects of signpost communication in white-tailed deer.' Master of Science in Entomology, Ohio State University, 1981. Thesis: 'The biology, host preference, and functional response of Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Bachelor of Science in Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, 1979.

Member: The Wildlife Society, Certified Wildlife Biologist, Forest Wildlife Committee, Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (1991-present), Wildlife Publication Award, The Wildlife Society (2000-2004), Reaccreditation Review Committee, Southeast Section of The Wildlife Society (1998-present), Publications Awards Committee, Southeastern Section, The Wildlife Society, (1994-present), American Society of Mammalogists, Southern Weed Science Society Forest Plant ID Subcommittee, Southern Weed Science Society (1995-present).

Author: (with J. J. Miller) Forest Plants of the Southeast and Their Wildlife Uses, 1999; editor (with R. L. Marchinton) Quality Whitetails: the Why and How of Quality Deer Management. Stackpole Books, Inc., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 322 pp., 1995.  Contributor to over 150 other professional reports, publications, and book chapters.

Faculty webpage, School of Forest Resources,


Samuel Miller

(1769-1850). Author, Clergyman Presbyterian, Educator, Horticulturist.

In 1803 Miller produced his best-known work, A Brief Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century, the first significant intellectual history written by an American. Although the book was largely derivative, it surveyed with remarkable breadth developments in the sciences, agriculture, medicine, philosophy, art, literature, and education. Despite his criticisms of the philosophes, Miller affirmed their talents and achievements. A Brief Retrospect rejoiced in the scientific progress as well as the diffusion of knowledge brought by the eighteenth century and predicted greater triumphs in the nineteenth, but the book also warned against confusing progress with human perfectibility or scientific advance with moral improvement.


Thomas Millington *** Not in Gale

(1628-1704).  English physiologist, anatomist.

The Galileo Project,

Millington was a leading physician, active in the Oxford group of physiologists, pursuing both anatomical and physiological investigations.

Member: Medical College, Royal Society (original member).  Informal Connections: Close connection with Boyle, Wallis, Wilkins, Willis and Wren in the circule in Oxford. Sydenham praised him as a practicing physician.  Royal College of Physicians, 1672; Censor, 1678, 1680, 1681; Harveian Orator, 1679; Treasurer, 1686-9; Elect, 1691; Consilarius, 1691, 1695; President, 1696-1704.


Edward Arthur Milne

Mathematician, astronomer and astrophysicist Edward Arthur Milne (1896-1950) was known for his important theoretical analyses of the conditions on the surface and of the atmospheres of stars. He also developed his own competing theory to Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity called "kinematic relativity." Cambridge University, director of Solar Physics Laboratory and instructor, 1920-c. 25; Manchester University, Chair of Applied Mathematics, mid-1920s-c.29; Oxford University, Rouse Ball Chair of Mathematics, 1929-50.

Honors: Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1935; the Royal Medal of the Royal Society, 1941; and the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1945.

Author: The White Dwarf Stars: Being the Halley Lecture, Delivered on 19 May 1932, Clarendon Press, 1932;

Relativity, Gravitation and World Structure, Clarendon Press, 1935; Kinematic Relativity: A Sequel to Relativity, Gravitation and World Structure, Clarendon Press, 1948; Vectorial Mechanics, Interscience Publishers, 1948.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.

Arthur Milne Bibliography.


Forrest M. Mims, III / Forrest Marion Mims, III

Forrest M. Mims, III (born 1944) is a writer, teacher, and amateur scientist. He received a Rolex Award for developing a miniature instrument that measures the ozone layer and has contributed projects to "The Amateur Scientist" column in Scientific American. His scientific publications have appeared in Nature and other scholarly journals. Served in the U.S. Air Force, photo-intelligence officer in Vietnam, 1967-68; development engineer in Laser Division of Air Force Weapons Laboratory, 1968-70, leaving the service as a captain; free-lance writer, 1970-present; editor, Science PROBE!, 1990-present.


About Forrest M. Mims, III:

Forrest M. Mims regarding controversy over his Christian faith:


Scott Minnich *** Not in Gale
Geneticist.  Microbiologist.  Dr. Minnich is Associate Professor of microbiology at the University of Idaho and is a Fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design. Previously, Dr. Minnich was an Assistant Professor at Tulane University. In addition, he did postdoctoral research with Austin Newton at Princeton University and with Arthur Aronson at Purdue University. Dr. Minnich's research interests are temperature regulation of Y. enterocolitca gene expression and coordinate reciprocal expression of flagellar and virulence genes. Scott Minnich holds a Ph.D. from Iowa State University.

Scott Minnich is widely published in technical journals including Journal of Bacteriology, Molecular Microbiology, Journal of Molecular Biology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Microbiological Method, Food Technology, and The Journal of Food Protection.

Faculty webpage,

Intelligent Design URC.


Colin Ware Mitchell

(1927-1996).  English geographer. Government of Sudan, Ministry of Agriculture, soil surveyor in research division, 1952-55; soil survey team leader, Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1956-63; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, ministry of defense research Fellow, 1963-67; University of Reading, Reading, England, Lecturer in geography, 1968-1996. Consultant to government, business, and the United Nations. Military service: Royal Air Force, 1945-48.

Author: Terrain Evaluation, Longman, 1973; The Case for Creationism, Autumn House Limited (Alma Park, Grantham, UK), 1994.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Maria Mitchell

(1818-1889). First woman astronomer in the U.S.  Librarian of Nantucket Atheneum (1836-60); working alone, established orbit of a newly discovered comet (1847), for which she became first woman elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1847); on staff of American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (1849-68); Professoressor, Vassar College (1865-88).  Quaker.

"Maria Mitchell - American Astronomer."

"Maria Mitchell,"

"Maria Mitchell,"


Silas Weir Mitchell

(1829-1914).  American physician and author.  Practiced, Philadelphia; surgeon in Union army in Civil War; specialized in study and treatment of neurological disorders. Author of Gunshot Wounds (1864), Wear and Tear (1871), Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences (1872), Fat and Blood(1887), etc.

Literature, Arts and Medicine Database: Silas Weir Mitchell.

Portrait of Silas Weir Mitchell.

Silas Weir Mitchell on His Rest Cure.

"Silas Weir Mitchell."


Thomas Moffett / Moufet / Mouffet / Muffet / Muffett *** Not in Gale

(1553-1604).  English natural historian, entomologist, physician, iatrochemist, pharmacologist, agriculturalist.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

While in Basle, Moffet published several medical treatises, and later Nosomantica, 1588, a book on diagnosis.

He became a Paracelsian and published De jure et praestantia chemicorum medicamentorum dialogus apologeticus, 1584. Either with De jure or at much the same time, Epistolae quinque medicinales. Both of these were iatrochemical, Paracelsian works; both were included in Zetzner's Theatrum chemicum.

He is best known for Theatrum insectorum, which was published only well after his death, in 1634. He was also the author of The Silkewormes and their Flies, 1599, an effort to promote the planting of mulberry trees and the raising of silkworms in England.

Raven has a very low opinion of Moffett as a naturalist. The book on insects, his best production as a naturalist, was the work of Gesner, Edward Wotton, and Thomas Penny, which Moffett received from Penny and put into its final form.

Health's Improvement, 1655, was also posthumous. It is mostly about diet. It includes some natural history.

Moffett participated in the College of Physicians' project to compose a pharmacopoeia.

Member: Royal College of Physicians, 1588-1604; Censor 1588.  Informal Connections: Studied medicine at Cambridge under John Caius. Intimate friendship and cooperation with Penny.  Studied medicine at Basle under Felix Platter and Theodor Zwinger.

Moffet added a number of descriptions and drawings from his own observations to Conrad Gesner's unpublished book, Theatrum Insectorum.


Georg Mohr *** Not in Gale

(1640-1697).  Danish-born mathematician.

Mohr was born in Copenhagen. His only original contribution to geometry was the proof that any geometric construction which can be done with ruler and compass can also be done with compasses alone. He published his proof in the book Euclides Danicus, Amsterdam, 1672.

The Danish Mathematics competition is named in honour of Georg Mohr.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. Georg Mohr  Mascheroni, who is credited with proving that all Euclidean constructions can be carried out with compasses alone, did not prove this until 125 years after Mohr's book was published. Mohr proves in the book that a line segment can be divided in golden section with compass alone, and the historical and pedagogical importance of this theorem is discussed by Zühlke in [8].

Mohr spent part of his life in Holland and part in Denmark. He fought in the Dutch-French wars around 1672 and became a prisoner of war. Mohr corresponded with a number of mathematicians including Leibniz who had received a work written by Mohr on root extraction. It had been sent to him by Oldenburg, the secretary of the Royal Society in London, in 1675 and Leibniz replied to Oldenburg in the following year praising Mohr's skill in geometry and analysis. Mohr was back in Denmark around 1681 but, having decided not to accept a post from King Christian V as supervisor of his shipbuilding, he returned to Holland in 1687.


Abraham de Moivre / Abraham Demoivre

(1667-1754).  French mathematician in England (from 1688). Despite being persecuted for his religious faith and subsequently leading a somewhat unstable life, he pioneered the development of analytical trigonometryfor which he formulated his theorem regarding complex numbersdevised a means of research into the theory of probability.  Early contributor to the mathematics of life insurance, and a successful proponent of the calculus of Newton and Leibniz.  He was a friend of Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley.

Author of The Doctrine of Chances (1718), which advanced knowledge of probability; Miscellanea Analytica (1730), also on probability; works on calculus, annuities, etc. Discovered Stirling's formula, introduced complex numbers in trigonometry. Member of Royal Society (1697).

Abraham Demoivre.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Abraham de Moivre,"


Joseph Privat de Molières *** Not in Gale

(1677-1742).  French physicist, mathematician, natural philosopher.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

A major figure in the protracted struggle against the importation of Newtonian science into France, de Molières devoted his career to developing and improving Cartesian physics. In the Mémoires of the Académie and in several entries of the Journal de Trevoux, de Molières presented his emended Cartesian program. His Lecons de mathematiques (1726) explained and demonstrated the principles of algebra and calculus in a well-ordered fashion. The following work, Lecons de physique (1734-1739), appeared in four volumes and was the published version of his lectures at the Collège Royal.

De Molières offered a vortex hypothesis that was intended to be a reconciliation between Cartesian and Newtonian ideas. He even extended his system to explain electrical and chemical phenomena. With his emended Cartesian program, de Molières hoped to incorporate Newtonian calculations and techniques which would lead to agreement between theoretical findings and experimental and observational data.

Upon the death of his elder brother, his family looked to him to carry on the family affairs. Against his family's wishes de Molières embraced an ecclesiastical life. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory around 1699.


Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1721-42; Royal Society, 1729-42.  1721-29, adjoint mecanicien in Académie.  1729-42, associé in Académie.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. Joseph Privat de Molières (in French)


Juan Molina, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1740 to 1829).  Biologist.  The first scientist of Chile.  Theistic evolutionist, pre-Darwin.

Juan described an analogy between living organisms and minerals. He proposed an idea of the gradual evolution of human beings, thereby anticipating Darwin's theory of evolution. In an 1815 work on nature's three kingdoms (mineral, vegetable and animal) he describes the Creator's plan for a continuous seamless chain of life from mineral life to vegetable life to animal life with no discrete discontinuous steps. Crystalline minerals tend to gather together in preparation for the higher form of vegetable life which then evolve into animal life. John showed unusual insight as well as care to maintain the scientific method, basing his claims on scientific observations.


William Molyneux *** Not in Gale

(1656-1698).  Irish-English optician, astronomer, natural historian, natural philosopher, instrument-maker, engineer.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Molyneux's most important and best known work was Dioptrica nova, 1692. Questions of optics occupied much of his attention.  He began to make astronomical observations no later than 1681, when he obtained a telescope from Flamsteed. He continued to observe throughout his life, but he never wrote anything on astronomy. He did publish a few papers of observations in the Philosophical Transactions, as well as papers on optics, natural philosophy, and miscellaneous topics.

He collected materials on the natural history of Ireland for a "description of Ireland" for Moses Pitt's intended Atlas. This was never published. He read papers on natural history before the Dublin Philosophical Society.

Molyneux translated Descartes' Meditations into English. The problem of the blind man who gains sight, which he proposed to Locke, remains a topic that is discussed even in our day.

Molyneux designed a telescopic sundial and a new hygroscope.

With his father he experimented on gunnery and drew up a paper (unpublished) on the subject. There is no evidence that he drew plans of the principal fortress in Flanders, despite his commission to do so.

While he was Surveyor General, he restored Dublin Castle, though it appears that the plans were not his.

Memberships: Dublin Philosophical Society, Royal Society, 1685.  Informal Connections: Formed a Dublin Philosophy Society in 1683 and was elected the first secretary of the Society. In 1687 the Society collapsed. It was revived, 1693-7; Molyneux was a member but not very active during the second period.  He corresponded with the Royal Society and Oxford Philosophy Society.  Friendship and correspondence with Flamsteed and later Halley. The correspondence with Flamsteed is published in the General Dictionary. Lengthy correspondence with Locke from 1692 until Molyneux's death. Published in Some Familiar Letters (of Locke).


Nicolas Bautista Monardes *** Not in Gale

(1508-1588).  Spanish physician, pharmacologist, botanist, natural historian, mineralogist.

The Galileo Project,

Monardes is the best known Spanish physician from the 16th century. He was translated into Latin, English, Italian, French, German, and Dutch. Through him the materia medica from the new world first began to be known in Europe. Because of his tests on animals, he is considered as one of the founders of experimental pharmacology.  He gave the first scientific description of several species of plants.

He also described some animals, such as the armadillo, living specimens of which he did see. So also some of the minerals of America.  He wrote a book on iron that was famous; it included information of the working of iron and was not confined solely to its pharmacological uses.


Nell Irene Mondy, DNS

(Born 1921).  Nutritionist.  Chemistry educator.  Professor Emeritus of Nutrition, Cornell University.

Assistant Professor chemistry Ouachita University, 1943-44, Research Assistant in biochemistry Texas University, 1944-45; Research Associate in biochemistry Cornell University, 1945-46; instructor chemistry Associated Colleges Upper N.Y., 1946-47, Assistant Professor chemistry, 1947-48; instructor food and nutrition Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1948-51, Assistant Professor, 1953-57, Associate Professor, 1957-81, Professor nutrition, food science and toxicology, 1981; supervisory food specialist, food quality lab. USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, 1960-61; food consultant R.T. French, Rochester, N.Y., 1966-67; Visiting Professor Florida State University, 1969-70; food consultant Holmen Brenderi, Gjovik, Norway, 1972-73, S & B Shokuhin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1978-79, Nihon Kaken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1978-79, EPA, Washington, 1979-80, University Wisconsin, 1981, Proctor & Gamble, Cincinatti, 1985-present, Frito-Lay, Inc., 1988, Endico Potatoes, Inc., 1990, General Mills, Mlps., 1991; Birkett-Williams Lecturer Ouachita University, 1980; Visiting scientist International Institute Tropical Agricultural, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1983-84; Visiting scholar Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 1989; Lecturer African Potato Association Reduit, Maurities, 1990; consultant ETA, Britannica Brands, N.Z., 1991.  Education: M. BA in Chemistry summa cum laude, Ouachita University, 1943, BS in Chemistry summa cum laude, 1943; MA in Biochemistry, University of Texas, 1945; Ph.D. in Biochemistry, Cornell University, 1953.

Member: Fellow AAAS (consortium affiliates for International programs 1983-98, Committee on agr., food and renewable resources 1984-98), Institute Food Technologists (Elizabeth Steir award 1997), Institute Chemists; member AAUW, Graduate Women in Science (hon. life, National Director 1985-90, rep. to AAAS, 1984, National President 1983-84, National archivist 1978-83, fellowships Committee 1970-74, chair International rels. Committee 1989-97), Potato Association American (hon. life; International relations Committee 1984, Director physiology Committee 1983-85, secretary utilization Committee 1982-84), AAUP, American Chemical Society, N.Y. Academy of Sciences, American Home Econsultant Association, European Association Potato Research, American Dietetics Association, N.Y. State Hort. Society, Empire State Potato Association, American Society Plant Physiologists, International Platform Association, Society Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Washington Women's Network, Sigma Xi, Iota Sigma Pi, Sigma Delta Epsilon, Phi Kappa Phi, Omicron Nu, Pi Lambda Theta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Tau Sigma (charter).  Baptist.

Honors: Sigma Xi Fellow, 1951-53; recipient NATO award, 1960; Distinguished Alumna award Ouachita Baptist University, 1960, Centennial Achievement award, 1986; NSF award, 1959; Danforth award, 1954, 58; named to National Women's Hall of Fame.

From Nell I. Mondy Professor Emeritus, DNS, Cornell College of Human Ecology, Division of Nutritional Sciences,

"I serve as a reviewer of manuscripts for the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry and the American Journal of Potato Research. I am active in the Institute for Food Technologies (IFT), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and national Graduate Women in Science (GWIS). I serve on the Agriculture, Food and Renewable Resources Committee of AAAS as well as on the Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs. I am a Fellow of IFT and AAAS.

Recipient of the Outstanding Alumni Award of the Cornell College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, the Elizabeth Stier Award of IFT and the National Recognition Award of GWIS. A plaque is on the wall at the National Women's Hall of Fame honoring my accomplishments and special place in women's history.

Current Research Activities
Research interests involve the study of plant biochemistry as it relates to human nutrition and food-more specifically the study of factors affecting the nutritive value and quality of potato tubers, a very important vegetable with regard to nutritive value and extent of cultivation around the world. Potato constituents studied are ascorbic acid, protein, lipids, minerals, phenols, and glycoalkaloids. The effect of fertilizer constituents such as boron, zinc, magnesium, potassium and nitrogen are studied as well as the effect of storage conditions, sprout inhibition, irradiation, processing, and packaging on quality are included. Other research interests include the study of food safety as influenced by naturally-occurring toxicants such as glycoalkaloids and nitrates."

Selected Publications / Books: Mondy, N.I. 2001. You Never Fail Until You Stop Trying: The Story of a Pioneer Woman Chemist. 240 pages. Dorrance Publishing Co. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Susan Lang. "Nell I. Mondy Laboratory of Human Performance is dedicated in MVR,"  "A laboratory in the new west wing of Martha Van Rensselaer Hall (MVR) at Cornell was named the Nell I. Mondy Laboratory of Human Performance in honor of Nell I. Mondy, professor emerita of nutrition, food science and toxicology, May 30. June 12, 2003."

"Guide to the Nell Mondy Papers,1932-2001. Collection Number: 23\14\2663. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library,"

Susan S. Lang  "Pioneering Cornell female chemist tells her story in new autobiography, FOR RELEASE: May 31, 2001 ,"


Daniel Milton Monroe, Jr.

(Born September 4, 1943 in Memphis, Tennessee, United States).  Biologist, chemist.  Achievements include development of diagnostic enzymeliposome immunoassays, immuno-optrodes, disposable biosensing devices, antibody production, vaccines. Research Associate, University of Tennessee, Memphis, 1975; Research Assistant, University of Tennessee, Memphis, 1967-75; Laboratory Assistant, Christian Bros. College, Memphis, 1963-65. Consultant in field.  Education: BS, Christian Bros. College, 1965.

Member: American Institute Chemists (certified professional chemist, 1982). Cited for continuing medical laboratory education. American Society Clin. Pathologists, 1989.
Contributor of chapters to books, articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Nelson C. Montague

(Born 1929). Physical scientist.  Electrical engineer.  Defense Documentation Center, Defense Logistics Agency. 1984 retired; National Bureau of Standards, electrical engineer, 1951-68. Education: BS Electrical Engineering, 1952.

Member: Member Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers Inc 1950's; Fairfax NAACP; treasurer N Virginia Baptist Association 1968-present; member executive Board NVB Association; vice President Commission on Human Rights & Commission Relations, Vienna Virginia; Mayor's Advisory Committee 1966-70; coach Little League Virginia 1972-73; financial secretary Northern Virginia Baptist Ministers & Laymen's Union 1985-94; life member, NAACP, 1994.

Honors: Recipient Group Award National Bureau of Standards 1964; Outstanding Performance Rating QSI Defense Documentation Center 1974; Achievement Award Arlington Branch NAACP 1986; Faithful Service Award Fairfax NAACP Branch, 1988.

"Nelson C. Montague." Who's Who Among African Americans, 17th ed. Gale Group, 2004.


Geminiano Montanari *** Not in Gale

(1633-1687).  Italian astronomer, physicist, natural philosopher, physiologist, meteorologist, optician, engineer, cartographer, instrument-maker, hydraulics expert.  Catholic.

Montanari (1633-87) was a prominent Galilean who was involved in controversies over the atomistic interpretration of physics.

The Galileo Project,

After Count Malvasia interested him in astronomy, Montanari did a map of the moon for Malvasia's ephemerides of 1662. To map the moon, Montanari developed a reticule for his telescope. Montanari published a volume of ephemerides and astronomical tables for himself in 1665. From 1669 he was involved with Cassini's sundial in San Petronio. He studied variable stars, and carried out lots of observations of comets.  He studied capillary phenomena, and he experimented with a megaphone and with sound.  He carried on a long campaign to discredit astrology.  Montanari did experimental studies in biology--aritifical incubation and blood transfusions.  He studied meteorological phenomena and tried using the barometer both to predict weather and to measure altitude.  He passed on an unpublished manuscript on hydraulics to his student Guglielmini.

Montanari was something of a polymath. He also worked on a pendulum clock. While in Bologna he made lenses which were considered excellent.  He developed what sounds like a sort of orrery, a machine he called a "Sferologio" that showed all of the movements of the heavenly bodies.  Montanari developed a level that used a telescope to achieve greater accuracy. The same telescope was equipped with a reticule intended to make it possible to measure distances directly.  He published a piece on the megaphone, which he understood could be used both to project the voice and to amplify sound arriving at the ear.  In Venice he advised strongly the diversion of all rivers away from the lagoon in order to keep it from silting up--in direct opposition to the position Castelli had taken. Montanari's advice was taken.  He published a manual for gunners and he composed an unpublished manuscript on fortification.

The Venetian state used Montanari for advice on the control of rivers and protections of the lagoon, on fortification, and on organization of the mint (which occupied much of the rest of Montanari's life).

In the mid 60's Montanari organized the Accademia della Traccia in Bologna, the precursor to the Accademia degli Inquieti and the Instituo. He was also a member of the Accademia gelati.

He engaged in a number of heated controversies, especially with the Jesuits and especially with Fabri. (in Italian)


Guidobaldo del Monte / Guidobaldo Marchese del Monte *** Not in Gale

(1545-1607).  Italian mechanic, mathematician, astronomer, optician, engineer, architect, hydraulics specialist, instrument-maker.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Guidobaldo del Monte wrote Liber mechanicorum, 1577--on statics, with a return to pure Archimedean principles in rejection of the quasi- dynamic analysis of Jordanus. Later, Paraphrase of Archimedes: Equilibrium of Planes, 1588, and De cochlea, 1615 (posthumous).  Guidobaldo left three manuscript treatises on proportions and on Euclid.  He composed two works on astronomy: Planisphaeriorum, 1579, and Problematum astronomicorum, 1609 (posthumous).

Guidobaldo del Monte was the author of what has been called the best Renaissance study of perspective, Perspectivae libri sex, 1600, and a manuscript on refraction in water.

He designed the ducal theater in Urbino. He left behind a treatise on the Archimedean screw to raise water.

In some sources it is asserted that he elaborated Commandino's instrument (a reducing compass) into the proportional compass, though apparently this is dubious. However, he did invent other mathematical instruments.  He invented machines and corresponded with Contarini about them.

In Urbino, Guidobaldo del Monte was the friend of Commandino and Baldi. He saw Commandino's Latin translation of Pappus through the press after Commandino's death.  He corresponded with the Venetian mathematician Barozzi (Barocius).  He was the patron and friend of Galileo, with whom he exchanged a few letters.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Guidobaldo Marchese del Monte," (in Italian)


Sy Montgomery

(Born 1958).  Naturalist.  Sy Montgomery's writings about the natural world extend from the ordinary to the exotic, from the common firefly of many North American backyards to the elusive man-eating tigers of Borneo.


Biography: or


Henri Louis Habert de Montmor  *** Not in Gale

(c. 1600-1679).  French natural philosopher, scientific organizer.

The Galileo Project,

Montmor's significance in the history of science lies in his patronage of scientists and philosophers. He was founder and patron of the Académie Montmor. He wrote a Latin poem on Cartesian physics, De rerum naturae, and was known as a propagator of Cartesianism.

Montmor provided his clients with "an infinity" of machines and instruments with which he had stimulated his own curiosity for thirty years, but he could not supply them with a forge, a laboratory, or an observatory, which would require the patronage of a sovereign. He made an implicit appeal to the king for the creation of an institution under royal patronage which alone could supply the more elaborate needs. The Académie Montmor is usually called the forerunner of the Académie royale des sciences. He was elected to the Académie Française in 1634.  On 30 April 1635 a group met at his town house on the Rue Sainte Aroye (?) (now 79 Rue du Temple). In the 40's he offered Descartes full use of his country house, but Descartes declined.  No document proves conclusively that regular scientific meetings took place at Montmor's residence before 1653. In 1653 Gassendi moved into his house in the Rue du Temple. Montmor encouraged him to write La vie de Tycho Brahe, and Gassendi dedicated it to him. Gassendi also made him the executor of his will and left Montmor all his books, manuscripts and the telescope Galileo had given him. When Gassendi died, Montmor arranged his funeral, and collected his writings and wrote a preface to the six-volume Latin edition published at Lyons in 1658.

Gassendi's presence in Montmor's household certainly contributed to the development of the meetings held there by the cultivated men who had previously gathered around Mersenne and who now assembled on the Rue du Temple. In those meetings some experiments were conducted. From the end of 1657 the weekly gatherings of what came to be called the Académie Montmor can be dated. At Montmor's request, Sorbière prepared a plan for the organization of meetings in the form of nine articles. The goals of the meetings "will not be the vain exercise of the mind on useless subtleties; rather, one should always propose the clearest knowledge of the works of God and the advancement of the conveniences of life, in the arts and sciences that best serve to establish them."

Among the members of the Académie Montmor were Chapelain, Sorbière, Montmor, Clerselier, Rohault, Pierre Huet, Roberval, and Huygens (when he was in Paris). Oldenburg also visited the house in the Rue du Temple when he stayed in Paris. According to Huygens' journal, he met Auzout, Frénicle de Bessy, Desargues, Pequet, Rohault, La Poterie, Sorbière, and Boulliau there.

The activities of the Académie Montmor during the first years included Chapelain's announcement of Huygens's discoveries (the pendulum clock, the first known satellite of Saturn, a diagram of his system of Saturn--planet and ring), Rohault's experiments on the magnet, Pecquet's dissertations, and Thevenot's presentation of his tubes.

Soon two currents appeared within the Académie Montmor: a tendency to seek natural causes, and a preference for observation and experiment. The problem worsened in the following years, and the Academy received various kinds of criticism. In response to all the criticism, the Academy attempted to reform itself. Experiments were tried there with an air pump constructed according to Huygens' plan. Nevertheless, as Huygens wrote to Moray in 1664, a widespread desire was felt to establish the academy on a new basis. Montmor, meanwhile, continued to receive scientists and to take an interest in philosophers.

Montmor was himself a good scholar. He assembled a very rich library in which the correspondence of important contemporaries, such as Gui Patin ands Chapelain had a major place.


Pierre Remond de Montmort *** Not in Gale

(1678-1719).  French mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Montmort became a canon at Notre Dame de Paris about 1700, but later gave up his clerical office in 1706.

His book on probability, Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard, (Paris, 1708), made his reputation among scientists and led to a fruitful collaboration with Nikolaus I Bernoulli. The greatest value of this book lay perhaps not in its solutions but in its systematic setting out of problems about games.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1716-1719; Royal Society, 1715-1719  He was elected fellow of the Royal Society when he was visiting London in 1715. The Académie made him an associate member the following year (he could not be granted full membership because he did not reside in Paris).

Montmort was taught by Malebranche and worked with Nicole. Nicolas Bernoulli once spent three months at his estate. Montmort corresponded with Leibniz, Halley, Craig, Taylor, Hermann, and Poleni.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Pierre Rémond de Montmort,"


John N. Moore *** Not in Gale

Biologist.  Retired Professor of Natural Science at Michigan State University, where he received his M.S. (Biology) and Ed.D. degrees. He was one of the original founders of the Creation Research Society, a Director of the CRS and has spent many years as Managing Editor of its Creation Research Society Quarterly. He has authored several booklets and articles on creationism and edited the first creationist biology textbook, Biology: A Search For Order in Complexity. Author: How To Teach Origins (Without ACLU Interference), (Mott Media, 1983).

Dr. John N. Moore. "A Check List on Fallacies of Reasoning to be Avoided by Scholarly, Rational Persons,"


Thomas Monroe Moody

(Born November 7, 1946).  Biologist.  Wildlife supervisor.  Certified law enforcement officer, New Mexico Conservation officer, New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Los Alamos, 1970-72, Fisheries Manager, Roswell, 1972-75, Hatchery Manager, Jemez Springs, 1975-77, Hatchery biologist, Santa Fe, 1977-79, Assistant chief hatcheries, 1979-84, Assistant chief law enforcement, 1984. B.S., New Mexico State University, 1968, M.S., 1970.

Honors: Recipient Big Horn Sheep award New Mexico State University chapter Wildlife Society, 1967. Member American Fisheries Society, American Fisheries Society (President Ariz.-New Mexico chapter 1982-83).

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Hong Mo Moon

(Born April 10, 1935 in Puyo, ChoongNam, Korea, came to U.S., 1962).   Health products executive, molecular biologist.  Achievements include research in mechanism of protein synthesis, procaryotic and eucaryotic peptide chain elongation mechanism, cytomegalovirus DNA and protein synthesis, purification of both mouse and human cytomegalovirus, elucidation of both mouse and human cytomegalovirus structural proteins, purification of neurofilaments and assembly mechanism.  President, Alpha Omega Lab., Inc., Parsippany, N.J., 1987; Senior v.p., Eugene Technology International, Inc., Ramsey, N.J., 1984-86; laboratory head, N.Y. State Institute for Basic Research, S.I., 1981-84; laboratory scientist, N.Y. State Institute for Basic Research, S.I., 1974-80; postdoctoral fellow, Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Nutley, N.J., 1970-73; postdoctoral fellow, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 1969-70; postdoctoral fellow, Yale University, New Haven, 1968-69. Visiting Professor Seoul National University, 1979; Adjunct Professor Cornell University Medical College, N.Y.C., 1983-87.  Education: BS, SungKyun Kwan University, Seoul, Korea, 1960; Ph.D., University N.C.

Member: Fellow National Academy Clin. Biochemistry; American Society Microbiology, Chemist's Club of N.Y.C.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Sir Robert Moray / Murrey / Murray *** Not in Gale

(c. 1608-1673).  Scottish chemist, scientific organizer.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Moray was primarily a public figure, a statesman and diplomat, and only secondarily a scientist. He was a central figure in the establishment of the Royal Society, interceding for it with the court, and he was described in his day as the soul of the Society.

He was a virtuoso in the style of the day, interested in everything but accomplished (in science) in nothing. However, he did experiment fairly extensively in chemistry and was known at the time as a chemist.

Member: Royal Society, 1660; President, 1660-2. Moray was one of the initial gathering in November 1660 that decided to organize the Society.  Informal Connections Correspondence with Bruce on scientific questions--and later (1660-70) with Huygens.  Moray was either the first or one of the first to be inducted into the freemasons in England (1641).


Henry More

(1614-1687). English philosopher and poet. Became a leading member of Cambridge Platonists; argued against Descartes and Hobbes; composed books in verse and prose under spiritual stimulus of one of his pupils, Anne, Viscountess Conway. Author of Psychozoia Platonica (verse, 1642), Philosophicall Poems (1647), Antidote Against Atheism (1652), Conjectura Cabbalistica (1653), Immortality of the Soul (1659), Explanation of the Grand Mystery of Godliness (1660), Enchiridion Ethicum (1667), Divine Dialogues (1668), Enchiridion Metaphysicum (1671).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Henry More,"


Martha Ann Morey

(Born August 8, 1923 in Sanford, Florida, United States).  Geneticist, educator.  Genetics instructor, Clinical Pediatric Genetics, University of Missouri Medical School, Kansas City, 1985; genetic counselor, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Mo., 1976; founder, Director day care Center, Liberty (Mo.) Christian Church, 1972-79; physical education teacher, Hart High School, Newhall, California, 1950-51; teacher science, Los Angeles Pacific College, 1948-50.  Education: AA, Chesbrough Seminary, 1941; AB, Greenville College, 1943; MS, University Rochester, 1949; RN, BS, Graceland College, 1980.

Member: AAUW, American Society Human Genetics.  Medical chair 10th Habitat for Humanity, Kansas City, 1986; Contributor of So. Poverty Law Center, Alabama; charter member National Museum Women in Arts.

Author numerous poems; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Robert Morison

(1620-1683). Scottish botanist. Fled as Royalist to France (1644); gardenerto Gaston, duc d'Orleans (1649); senior physician and botanist to Charles II and superintendent of royal gardens (1660); first professor of botany, Oxford (1669). Revived study of systematic botany in Praeludia botanica (1669), Historia plantarum (1680-99). The genus Morisonia was namedfor him.

The Galileo Project,

"Significant Scots: Robert Morison,"


Robert L. Morlan / Robert Loren Morlan

(1920-1985). A political scientist, educator, administrator, and author, Robert L. Morlan taught at University of Redlands, Redlands, CA, as instructor in political science, 1948-49; Assistant Professor, 1949-52, Associate Professor, 1952-56, professor of political science from 1956 until his death. Morlan read French, German, and Dutch, and among his other academic posts were Fulbright Lecturer at the University of Amsterdam from 1956 to 1957 and Smith-Mundt Professor at the College of Europe from 1959 to 1960. Other positions included Commissioner, California State Scholarship Commission, 1961-69; consultant to U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1967; president, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties Council of Churches, 1969-71. City councilman, Redlands, 1954-56, vice-mayor, 1956; president of Citrus Belt Division, League of California Cities, 1955-56. Military service: U.S. Army Air Forces, 1942-46.

Education: Denison University, B.A., 1942; University of Minnesota, M.A., 1947, Ph.D., 1949.

Member: American Political Science Association, American Association of University Professors, United Nations Association, World Federalists U.S.A., National Municipal League, Western Political Science Association (president, 1967-68), Southern California Political Science Association (president, 1955-56, 1962-63), Phi Beta Kappa, Omicron Delta Kappa (western states deputy, member of general council, 1954-85), Tau Kappa Alpha.

Honors: National Distinguished Service Award, Omicron Delta Kappa, 1970; Denison University Alumni distinguished achievement citation, 1972. The Morlan Award is awarded annually to the outstanding Faculty Secretary in Omicron Delta Kappa. Individual circles may nominate their Faculty Secretaries for the Outstanding Faculty Secretary of the Province. The thirteen Province nominations are then sent to a National committee which chooses the recipient of The Robert L. Morlan Faculty Secretary Award.

Author: Intergovernmental Relations in Education, 1950; Capitol, Courthouse, and City Hall, 1954, 4th edition 1972; Political Prairie Fire: The Nonpartisan League, 1915-1922, 1955; and American Government: Policy and Process, 1971, 2nd edition 1975. He was also co-author of The Fifty States and Their Local Governments, 1967.

Writer of pamphlets on the California ballot and public policy issues; contributor of about twenty-five articles on government and education to journals.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


J. P. Moreland *** Not in Gale

(Born 1948). Professor of Philosophy, Talbot School of Theology, Biola University, La Mirada, CA.

:B.S. in Chemistry (with honors), University of Missouri, 1970; Th. M. in Theology (with honors), Dallas Theological Seminary, 1979; M. A. in Philosophy (with highest honors), University of California, Riverside, 1982; Ph.D. in Philosophy, University of Southern California, 1985.

Member: Alpha Chi Sigma (Chemical Honorary Fraternity), American Scientific Affiliation, American Philosophical Association, Evangelical Philosophical Society, Evangelical Theological Society, Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute (Fellow), Society of Christian Philosophers, University Faculty for Life.

Author: Universals, Qualities, and Quality-Instances: A Defense of Realism (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985); Scaling the Secular City: A Defense of Christianity (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1987; Christianity and the Nature of Science: A Philosophical Investigation (Baker Book House, 1989); Eldercare for the Christian Family (with Jim Duncan, Tim Smick, Jeff Watson, Dallas: Word Books, 1990).

Faculty webpage, Biola University.

Faculty webpage, Talbot School of Theology.

Curriculum vitae:

J. P. Moreland.  "The Real Issue: Is Science a Threat or Help to Faith? A look at the concept of Theistic Science,"

"The Real Issue: Leader in the Voice for Intelligent Design, Profile of Dr. J. P. Moreland,"

Discovery Institute profile,

Ken Ham, Dr Carl Wieland and Dr Terry Mortenson. "Are (biblical) creationists 'cornered'?-a response to Dr J.P. Moreland; The Bible talks of 'the four corners of the earth.' Does this mean the days of creation could be non-literal, too?"

Interviewed in The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God, by Lee Strobel.  Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2004.  ISBN 0-310-24144-8, (hardbound), ISBN 0-310-24050-6 (paperback).


Louis Moreri

1643-1680. French Roman Catholic priest and scholar. Compiler of Grand Dictionnaire historique ou Melange curieux de l'histoire sacree et profane (1674).


Samuel Morland *** Not in Gale

(c. 1625, 1695).  English hydraulics expert, engineer, mathematician, inventor.  Calvinist, Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Much of Morland's effort after 1660 went into pumps and hydraulics.

Raising water was always Morland's central occupation. Early in the Restoration he tried to make a machine that exploded gunpowder (in effect the first internal combustion engine) to create a vacuum into which water would be sucked. Later he worked on a steam engine and at one point applied for a patent, but this also did not work out. However, he did construct a force pump using a piston that, among other things, raised water from the Thames to Windor Palace. The French did not choose to adopt his pump for the Versailles water works. He apparently did build a system, with his pump, to supply water to the garden of Lord Arlington, and he constructed the water works in his own garden.

Morland built two arithmetical machines and later a third machine to do trigonometric calculations. He also published tables to facilitate computations.

He designed a new capstan to weigh heavy anchors.

Morland translated a work on fortification, and he designed a new gun carriage.

He designed two different barometers--a balance barometer and a diagonal barometer intended to expand the scale for easier reading.

Sir Samuel Morland, the diplomatist, mathematician and inventor, was born in 1625 at Sulhamstead Bannister in Berkshire. He was the son of Thomas Morland, rector of the parish church there. He entered Winchester School in 1638 and, in May 1644 at the age of nineteen, entered as a sizar at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he became acquainted with Bishop Cumberland. He was elected a fellow of the society, on 30th November 1619, and his name figures as tutor upon the entry of Samuel Pepys to the college on 1st October 1650. In his manuscript autobiography, preserved in the library at Lambeth Palace, he states that, after passing nine or ten years at the university, where he took no degree, he was solicited by some friends to enter into holy orders but, not deeming himself "fitly qualified", he devoted his time to mathematical studies, which were the leading pursuit of his life. His last signature in the college books is dated 1653.

Edited from Leslie Stephens & Sidney Lee's Dictionary of National Biography, 1891.

"The Inventions of Sir Samuel Morland (1625-1695): From Megaphone to Steam Power!"

Sir Samuel Morland was one of the chief mechanicians of his time. Aubrey credits him with the invention of "drum cap-stands for weighing heavy anchors." It is admitted that he invented the speaking-trumpet - though Kircher disputed his claim - and two arithmetical machines, of which he published a description under the following title: 'The Description and Use of two Arithmetick Instruments' (1673). The arithmetical machines, originally presented to Charles II in 1662, were manufactured for sale by Humphry Adanson, who lived with Jonas Moore Esq. in the Tower of London. By means of them, the four fundamental rules of arithmetic were readily worked "without charging the memory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the operations to any uncertainty." This calculating machine appears to have been a modification of one constructed by Blaise Pascal about 1642. One of Morland's machines is now in the Science Museum in South Kensington. Pepys characterised one that he saw as very pretty but not very useful. A similar instrument seems to be indicated by No. 84 of the Marquis of Worcester's 'Century of Inventions.'

Morland's treatise on the speaking-trumpet is entitled: 'Tuba Stentoro-Phonica: An Instrument of excellent use, as well at Sea, as at Land' (1671). An advertisement states that the instruments of all sizes and dimensions were made and sold by Simon Beal, one of his majesty's trumpeters, in Suffolk Street. The tubes are stated in a French edition of the treatise published in London (1671) to be on sale by Moses Pitt for £2-5s each. One is still preserved at Cambridge University.

Morland's most important discoveries were in connection with hydrostatics, although the statement that he invented the fire-engine is untrue. He was only an improver of that machine. The problems connected with raising water to a height by mechanical means were receiving a great amount of attention during the middle of the seventeenth century, and to the discoveries made in this field (in which Morland bore an important part) are largely attributable the subsequent rapid development of the steam-engine and the accelerated rate of evolution in mechanical science generally. Morland may have had his attention drawn more particularly to this subject by Pascal's researches, which were then attracting attention in France, though Pascal's celebrated treatise 'Sur l'Equilibre des Liqueurs' was not published until 1663. It is certain that, from Morland's return to England in 1660, water-engines of various kinds occupied the bulk of his time and capital. On 11th December 1661, a Royal Warrant, was issued for a grant to Morland of the sole use, during fourteen years, of his invention for raising "water out of pits to any reasonable height by the force of air and powder conjointly".

Edited from Leslie Stephens & Sidney Lee's Dictionary of National Biography, (1891).


Edward Williams Morley

Originally trained for the ministry, Edward Williams Morley (1838-1923) decided instead in 1868 to pursue a career in science, the other great love of his life. At first he devoted himself primarily to teaching, but gradually became engaged in more original research. His work can be divided into three major categories: the first two involved the determination of the oxygen content of the atmosphere and efforts to evaluate Prout's hypothesis; his third field of research involving experiments on the velocity of light with Albert Michelson, are those for which his name will always be most famous.

All of his research work was characterized by great ingenuity in devising and constructing apparatus and by his ability to make precise and accurate measurements. He received honorary degrees from many institutions and was awarded the Sir Humphry Davy Medal by the Royal Society of London in 1907, the Elliot Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute, 1912, and the Willard Gibbs Medal from the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society in 1917. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1895 and of the American Chemical Society in 1899. He published or read fifty-five scientific papers.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


John D. Morris *** Not in Gale

Geological Engineer.  John D. Morris is Field Scientist for ICR, as well as Associate Professor in Earth Science and Apologetics for Christian Heritage College. He has the B.S. in Civil Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute (1969), the M.S. (1977) and Ph.D. in Geological Engineering (1980) from the University of Oklahoma. He worked several years as an engineer for the City of Los Angeles, and has taught at Oklahoma University. He was in charge of ICR's research expeditions to Mount Ararat in search of Noah's Ark, and has made extensive field studies of the Paluxy River footprints in Texas. He is author of three ICR books, Adventure on Ararat, The Ark on Ararat, and Tracking Those Incredible Dinosaurs.

Honors: Department of Health, Education & Welfare Mining and Mineral Fuels Fellowship, 1975-76; 1976-77; 1977-78; 1978-79. Phillips Petroleum Graduate Fellowship, 1979-80. Oklahoma Mining & Minerals Research Institute Research Grant, 1979-80; 81-82. Sun Oil Teaching Award, 1980; 1981.

John David Morris,

Curriculum Vitae,

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Jedidiah Morse

"The father of American geography," Jedidiah Morse (1761-1826), American geographer and clergyman, was most influential for his dissemination of geographical knowledge about the American continent.  Father of Samuel F.B. Morse.


Samuel F.B. Morse / Samuel Finley Breese Morse

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872), American artist and inventor, designed and developed the first successful electromagnetic telegraph system.

The Samuel Morse Historic Site.


John Morton *** Not in Gale

(Not John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1420-1500.)

(c. 1671-1726).  English natural historian, Anglican clergyman.

The Galileo Project,

Morton's only publication was The Natural History of Northamptonshire, 1712. In this work he followed Woodward's proposition that the delyde was responsible for the geological features of the county and for its fossils.

Member: Royal Society, 1703-26.  Informal Connections: Friendship with John Ray; correspondence with Sloane, Dr. Richardson, Dr. John Woodward, and Lhwyd.


Rosalie Slaughter Morton *** Not in Gale


(1876-1955). American surgeon, b. Lynchburg, Virginia, M.D. Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1897. She was the first woman faculty member of both the New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital (1912-18) and the College of Physicians and Surgeons (1916-18). During World War I she was active in hospital work, especially during the Salonica campaigns and in Serbia and France. For this work, and for her efforts that made possible the education in the United States of 60 Serbian students, she was decorated by foreign governments and the state of New York. After 1930 she engaged in private practice in Florida. She took part in public health and welfare activities, invented a number of surgical instruments and appliances, and wrote many articles, especially on gynecology and arthritis.

Rosalie Slaughter Morton Papers.


Jean Sloat Morton *** Not in Gale

(Born 1926).  Biochemist.  Dr. Morton holds five degrees from three institutions, District of Columbia Teachers' College, American University and George Washington University. Her Ph.D. from George Washington (1969) is in Cellular Studies, with her dissertation at Washington's Smithsonian Institution. She has taught biology at American University and George Washington University, and has served as a consultant in microbiology. Author: Science in the Bible (Moody, 1978), writer of numerous science instructional units for various grade levels.


Jean S. Morton, Ph.D. "GLYCOLOSIS AND ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION,", Impact, No. 90, December 1980

Jean S. Morton, Ph.D. "VIRGIL'S AENEID, BY CHANCE ALONE?", Impact, No. 146, August 1985


Roberto Landell de Moura *** Not in Gale

(1861-1928).  Physicist, chemist, priest. Roberto Landell de Moura performed the world's first public long-distance transmission of the spoken word without wires.  In 1902 he is recognized as the inventor of the wireless telephone in a full-page story published in the New York Herald.  In New York, Landell obtains the patent for the wave transmitter (radiophone), the wireless telegraph and telephone in 1904.   He conceived of transmission by means of light, thus foreseeing the principle of fiber optics.  In 1906 Landell discovered the human radioactive aura and photographed it, 30 years before Kirlian.


Born on January 21, 1861 in the City of Porto Alegre, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Ordained as  a Roman Catholic Priest in Rome, in the year of 1886. There, he also studied in the field of Physics and Chemistry Research, developing the first concepts about "Unity and Physics Forces" and
"Universal Harmony". These theories  would  guide him to his future inventions.
He also took interest in the "Physics and Science" and the "Medicine and Chemistry" fields. He conducted his first public experiment on June 03, 1900 in front of journalists and the General Consul of Great Britain, Mr. C.P.Lupton,  in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, reaching a distance of approximately 8 kms.
The points of transmission and reception were: the Santana Borough and Avenida Paulista in the downtown sector.

Father Landell researched that all bodies - animate and inanimate - were encircled by a coloured luminous energy halo, invisible to the naked eye. Some of his documents pointing to that discovery exist, dating from the year 1907. In fact, he photographed the effect in 1909, which  would be  known as "The Kirlian Effect",  due to the works of the Russian couple Semyon and Valentina Kirlian.
Father Landell passed away in Porto Alegre, on June 30, 1928.


Gabriel Mouton *** Not in Gale

(1618-1694).  French mathematician, astronomer.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

At four years of age he entered St. Paul's Church in Lyons as an enfant choeur. After taking holy orders he became vicaire perpetuel at St. Paul's Church. He is buried at the chapel there. He spent his whole life in Lyons fulfilling his clerical duties.

Mouton was a pioneer in research on natural and practical units of measurement. His Observationes diametrorum solis et lunae apparentium (1670) was the fruit of his astronomical observations and certain computational procedures he had developed. Mouton proposed to deduce the length of a terrestrial meridian from the variations of the length of a pendulum. A fraction of the terrestrial meridian would be adopted as the universal unit of length. The measuring procedures at the time were too unsatisfactory. The topic wouldn't be taken up again until 1790.

He determined with astronomical accuracy the apparent diameter of the sun at apogee.

He presented a very pratical computational device for completing ordered tables of numbers when the law of formation was known.

He constructed an astronomical pendulum remarkable for its precision.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Gabriel Mouton,"


Sebastian Muenster *** Not in Gale

(c. 1488-1552).  German-born geographer, mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, instrument-maker.  Catholic, then Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

"In 1505, Muenster entered the Minorite order. 1507, took his vows. 1512, became a priest.

1529, converted to Protestantism. This was in Basel, where he spent the rest of his career. I think this means we should call him Calvinist."

Münster did a map of Germany, and other maps including one of the area around Basel.  In order to compile his geography, Münster sent sets of instructions, including simple instructions for surveying, to various people throughout Germany (and Europe).  In 1525 Münster published a description of an instrument (which he called an Instrument of the Sun) for observations of the stars. (in German)

Sebastian Münster in Heidelberg (Vortrag von Hartmut Bobzin) (in German)

Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. - Verlag Traugott Bautz, Enthält umfangreiche Literaturangaben (in German)

Bilder aus dem Universitätsarchiv Heidelberg  (in German)


Stanley A. Mumma, Ph.D., P.E. *** Not in Gale
Architectural engineer.  Professor of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.  Prior to joining Penn State, Dr. Mumma was an engineer with the General Motors Corporation and on the faculty at Ohio State University and Arizona State University. Professor Mumma is a 1966 BS Mechanical Engineering graduate of the University of Cincinnati, and a MS Mechanical Engineering (1971) and Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering (1974)graduate from the University of Illinois. He is a registered professional engineer in 3 states, with over 35 years of design and research experience. He is an ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc) Fellow, and a recipient of several Society awards, including the E. K. Campbell Award of Merit-in recognition of outstanding service and achievement in teaching, the Willis H. Carrier Best Paper Award, the Distinguished Service Award and is currently one of the Societies Distinguished Lecturers. He joined ASHRAE as a graduate student in 1970, and has since served on numerous committees including Chair of R&T, Chair of TC 6.7, Tech. Council, Publishing Council, Standards, Program, Scholarship Trustees, and the ASHRAE Learning Institute. Dr. Mumma has published over 80 technical papers and articles.

From faculty webpage, Penn State College of Engineering,

Faculty advisor, Origins Club, Campus Crusade for Christ, The Schreyer Honors College

"Engineers Develop Economical Terrorist-resistant A/C Concept,"  "Penn State engineers have developed a terrorist-resistant A/C concept that they estimate costs less to install in new construction, is more energy efficient, and is cheaper to operate than the current industry standard. Dr. Stanley A. Mumma, P.E., Professor of architectural engineering and developer of the concept, says, 'Currently, if an anthrax-laden letter is opened in an office, a standard, forced air, cooling system can carry the airborne spores to other locations in the building. Forced air systems can also expose occupants throughout a building to odors and cold viruses or contribute to "sick building" problems.'" See

Endorses Creation's Tiny Mystery by Robert Gentry at

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Norma Frances Munson

(1923-1999).  Biologist, ecologist, nutritionist, educator.  Researcher, Nutrition, Arthritis, Alzheimer's, Hypoglycemia & MS, Libertyville, 1965; Teacher, Libertyville (Illinois) H.S., 1955-79; Teacher, Detroit Lakes (Minnesota) H.S., 1948-54; Teacher, Aitkin (Minnesota) H.S., 1946-48.  Education: BA, Concordia College, 1946; MA, University Mo., 1955; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1962; postgraduate, Indiana University, 1957; postgraduate, Western Michigan University, 1967; postgraduate, Lake Forest College, 1971, 72, 78; student, various foreign universities, 1964-71.

Member: Fellow American Biog. Institute Research, International Biog. Association; National Biology Teachers Association (Research in degenerate diseases, arthritis, hypoglycemia and obesity award 1971), AAAS, American Institute Biological Science, Illinois Environmental Council, National Audubon Society, Illinois Audubon Council, National Health Federation, International Platform Association, International Professional and Business Women, National Wildlife Federation, N.Y. Academy Sciences, Chicago Academy of Science, Parks and Conservation Association, Concerned Women for America Nature Conservation, Evanston North Shore Bird Club, Delta Kappa Gamma.  Ruling elder 1st Presbyterian Church, Libertyville, 1971-77; President Lake County Audubon Society, 1975-79, 82-86, 88-89, 97, Treasurer, 1990-95; President Libertyville Education Association, 1964-67; active Rep. Party Illinois, Citizens to Save Butler Lake, Citizens Choice, Defenders; Member U.S. Congressional Advisory Board, 1985; Board of Directors Holy Land Christian Mission International; Member Heritage Foundation, Citizens Lake County for Environmental Action Reform, Wilderness Society.

Honors: Recipient Hilda Mahling award, 1967, C. of C. award, 1971, Illinois Best Teacher award, 1974; Biology Teacher of Year award, 1971; NSF fellow, 1957, 58, 60-62, 70-71.

Author: Biology laboratory manual; Contributor of articles to professional journals.; news editor: Lake County Audubon Newsletter, 1972.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Sir John Murray

Scots naturalist (1841-1914) and one of the founders of oceanography, whose particular interests were ocean basins, deep-sea deposits, and coral-reef formation. (Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Online)


Claude Mydorge *** Not in Gale

(1585-1647).  French mathematician, optician, astronomer, cartographer, navigation expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Mydorge's work in geometry was directed to the study of conic sections. His work on the subject, first published in two volumes in 1631 and enlarged to four in 1639, was reprinted several times under the title De sectionibus conicis. His works on conic sections contain hundreds of problems published for the first time, as well as a multitude of ingenious and original methods that later geometers frequently used. According to Baillet, he succeeded Viète as the premier mathematician of his day.

He studied the properties and nature of light and refraction, and he studied vision.  He also carried out extensive astronomical observations.

He determined the latitude of Paris with great precision.

He was a member of the commission appointed to judge Morin's method of determining longitude.  Intimate friendship with Descartes. Mydorge met Descartes about 1625 and became one of his most faithful friends. In 1627 Mydorge spent more than 100,000 ecus to make various lenses and optical instruments for Descartes, to aid him in his search for an explanation of vision. He also played a role in the reconciliation between Descartes and Fermat after 1638.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. Claude Mydorge

'In his study of conic sections Mydorge continued the work of Apollonius, whose methods of proof he refined and simplified... Mydorge asserts that if from a given point in the plane of a conic section radii to the points of the curve are drawn and extended in a given relationship, then their extremities will be on a new conic section similar to the first. This statement constitutes the beginnings of an extremely fruitful method of deforming figures; it was successfully used by La Hire and Newton, and later by Poncelet and, especially, by Chasles, who named it déformation homographique.
'Mydorge posed and solved the following problem in [book] III: "On a given cone place a given conic section" - a problem that Apollonius had solved only for a right cone. Mydorge was also interested in geometric methods used in approximate construction, such as that of the regular heptagon. Another problem that Mydorge solved by approximation - although he did not clearly indicate his method - was that of transforming a square into an equivalent regular polygon possessing an arbitrary number of sides.
'Mydorge's work on conic sections contains hundreds of problems published for the first time, as well as a multitude of ingenious and original methods that later geometers frequently used, usually without citing their source' (DSB).
Mydorge (1585-1447) was a friend of Descartes, Fermat, and Mersenne. He was drawn to the study of optics by Descartes, for whom he designed lenses for Descartes' researches. 'Like Fermat, he belonged to that elite group of seventeenth-century scientists who pursued science as amateurs but nevertheless made contributions of the greatest importance to one or more fields of knowledge' (ibid.)."



Claude Mylon *** Not in Gale

(c. 1618-c. 1660).  French mathematician, scientific communicator.

The Galileo Project,

Mylon became interested in mathematics as early as 1645.  Mylon's importance in science derives from the service he provided by facilitating communication among many learned men from 1650-60. After the death of Pailleur, the director of the Académie Parisienne, Mylon had access to the papers of the society. He sent information on Fermat's and Frenicle's problems in number theory to Holland. He shared Fermat's and Pascal's problems on games of chance with Schooten. He was also in contact with Mersenne, Debeaune and Roberval.

In his correspondence, Mylon did attempt to enter into the mathematical exchange himself, without displaying outstanding qualities as a mathematician.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Claude Mylon," or

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]