Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (N)


Samuel Milton Nabrit

(1905-2003).  Embryologist.  Biologist.  Administrator.  Samuel Milton Nabrit is known for his research into animal regeneration, the ability of body parts to regrow or repair themselves after injury, and for his academic career as a promoter of science instruction among young African Americans. The first black Ph.D. from Brown University, Nabrit served as chairman of the biology department and as Dean of the graduate school of arts and sciences at Atlanta University, and as president of Texas Southern University.

Interim Director Atlanta University Center, 1989-91.  Executive Director, Southern Fellows Fund, 1967-1981; commr., U.S. AEC, 1966-1967; President, Texas Southern University, 1955-1966; Professor, Atlanta University, 1932-1955; Professor, Morehouse College, 1928-1931; instructor zoology, Morehouse College, 1925-1927.  Education: BS, Morehouse College, 1925; MS, Brown University, 1928; Ph.D., Brown University, 1932.

Member: Fellow, AAAS; member, Institute Medicine-NAS, Societe d'honneur Francaise, American Society Zoology, National Institute Science (President 1945), National Association Research Science Teaching, Society Development Biology, Sigma Xi, Pi Delta Phi, Phi Beta Kappa.
Honors: Named to Hall of Fame, NSF, Sayles Hall of Fame, Brown University. Distinguished Award Achievement Medal, 1982; science bldgs named in honor, Texas Southern University and Morehouse College.


Joseph Vincent Nabholz

(Born November 3, 1945 in Memphis, Tennessee, United States).  Biologist, ecologist.  Senior biologist, EPA, Washington, 1979.  Reviewer NSF and professional journals, 1973, Standards Methods Committee, American Water Works Association, Denver 18th through 21st editions; evaluator Office Experimental Learning University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 1984-86.  Education: BS, Christian Bros. University, Memphis, 1968; MS, University Georgia, 1973; PH.D., University Georgia, 1978.

Member: AAAS, American Institute Biological Sciences (life), Association Southeastern Biologists, International Association Ecology, Ecological Society America (life), Society Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Phi Kappa Phi (life). Board of Directors Comty. Association Rollingwood Village (4th section), Woodbridge, Virginia, 1981-90, v.p. 1981-82, President 1983-90, maintainence Chairman 1990.

Honors: Decorated Army Commendation medal with oak leaf cluster, U.S. Army, Vietnam, 1969, '70.

Author: ECOSAR computer program to predict aquatic toxicity of chemicals, 2002; co-author: Methods of Ecological Toxicology, 1981, Testing for Effects of Chemicals on Ecosystems, 1981; author: Estimating Toxicity of Industrial Chemicals to Aquatic Organisms Using Structure Activity Relationships, 1988, 94; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Jerôme Nadal, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1507-1580).  Jesuit scientist, specialist on perspective art and composition of place.


Dr. Luke Naeher / Luke Peter Naeher *** Not in Gale

Environmental Health Scientist. Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 7/01-present. Area of Specialty: Environmental epidemiology, Human exposure assessment and epidemiological investigations relating to hazardous substances in the environment, Focus on indoor and outdoor air pollution, pesticides and other agriculture-related exposures, Diet-related exposures to persistent organic pollutants and metals. Previous: Environmental Epidemiologist, National Center for Environmental Health, Health Studies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 9/98-6/01; Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 1/95-8/98; Project Consultant (under the direction of Dr. Brian Leaderer (Yale) and Dr. Kirk Smith (UC Berkeley)), Division of Diarroeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, World Health Organization (WHO) Xela, Guatemala, 9/93-1/96; Industrial Hygiene Intern, Health Services Department, Exxon Company U.S.A., Houston, TX , summer 1993.

Education: B.S., Biology, Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Ithaca, NY, January 1989; M.S., Marine Environmental Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook, NY, December 1998; M.S., Harvard University, School of Public Health Boston, MA, June 1994; Ph.D., Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences New Haven, CT , October, 1998.

Member: International Society for Exposure Analysis, American Thoracic Society, American Industrial Hygiene Association, International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), American Scientific Affiliation (ASA), the University of Georgia, Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute (BHSI), Faculty, the University of Georgia, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program (ITP), Georgia Environmental Health Association (GEHA). Member, National Children's Study, Workgroup on Exposure to Chemical Agents (9/01-present), AIHA, Occupation Epidemiology and Exposure Assessment Strategies Committees (9/01-present), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institutional Review Board "A" (1/00-present), American Thoracic Society, Assembly on Environmental and Occupational Health, Program Committee (5/00-present), Advisory Group for the American Thoracic Society's World Lung Health Committee (7/00-present).

Honors: Department of Health and Human Services, Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service: as a member of the Lower Manhattan Community Assessment Team - recognition for rapid assessment of the critical needs and health effects in communities surrounding the World Trade Center after the attacks of September 11, 2001, 2002; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Honor Award: as a member of the Lower Manhattan Community Assessment Team - recognition for rapid assessment of the critical needs and health effects in communities surrounding the World Trade Center after the attacks of September 11, 2001, 2002; American Red Cross, Certificate of Appreciation: for volunteering at American Red Cross Respite Centers setup in lower Manhattan at Ground Zero to help emergency workers stationed at the World Trade Center after the attacks of September 11, 2001, 2002; Nominated for American Thoracic Society, Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly, David Bates Award, 1999; Recipient of American Schools of Public Health/CDC, National Center for Environmental Health Fellowship, 1998, et al.

Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute,


Curriculum Vitae


John Napier, 8th Laird of Merchiston

The Scottish mathematician John Napier (1550-1617) invented logarithmic tables in 1614 and effectively introduced the modern notation of decimal fractions.  Calculated abbreviated method of multiplication using numbered rods, "Napier's bones." With that device one could perform multiplication and division by mechanical means, and thus it was a distant forerunner of slide rules and analog computers. Its details were disclosed in a two-volume work, Rabdologiae; seu Numerationes per Virgulas libri duo (1617), published the year he died. Three hundred years later, in 1914, the 300th anniversary of the publication of the Descriptio was commemorated by the Royal Society of Edinburgh. P. Hume Brown wrote that Napier's most notable achievement "has given him a high and permanent position in the history of European culture." In his inaugural address, Lord Moulton lauded Napier as one who "stands prominent among that small band of thinkers who by their discoveries have substantially increased the powers of the human mind as a practical agent." In 1964 Napier University, named for the mathematician, was founded in Edinburgh. Among its campuses is one at Merchiston, which houses courses in science, technology, and design.  Presbyterian.

John Napier.

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson

The Galileo Project. or


Ernest G. Neal / Ernest Gordon Neal

(1911-1998).  Biologist.  Educator.  Author.  Neal is remembered for his work with badgers, earning him the nickname "the Badger Man." His studies of the animal were captured in books as well as in a 1952 movie, which became the first film ever made about badgers in their natural habitat. Rendcomb College, Cirencester, England, senior biologist, 1934-44; Taunton School, Taunton, England, head of science department, 1945-60, second master, 1960-1998. Somerset Trust for Nature Conservation, chair, 1964-1998.  Education: University of London, M.Sc., and Ph.D.

Member: Society of Authors, Ecological Society, Mammal Society of British Isles (council).

Honors: Stamford Raffles Award from the Zoological Society of London. In 1976 he was appointed a Member of the British Empire.

Author: Exploring Nature with a Camera, Elek, 1942; The Badger, Collins, 1948, 2nd edition, 1962; Woodland Ecology, Heinemann, 1956; Topsy & Turvey: My Two Otters, Heinemann, 1961; Uganda Quest: African Wildlife After Dark, Taplinger, 1971; The Natural History of Badgers, Facts on File (New York, NY), 1986.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Michael Neander *** Not in Gale

(1529-1581).  Bohemian mathematician, physician, astronomer, educator.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Education: Wittenberg, M.A.; Jena, M.D.; University of Wittenberg. B.A., 1549; M.A., 1550; University of Jena. M.D., 1558.

From 1551-8, Neander taught in the hohe Schule in Jena.  In 1558, when the school became a new Protestant university, he became a professor in the faculty of arts.  From 1560-81, Neander was Professor of Medicine, University of Jena.


Walter Jim Neidhardt
(1934-1993).  Religion editor, physics educator. Physics Department, Newark College of Engineering. 

W. Jim Neidhardt was Associate Professor of Physics at New Jersey Institute of Technology. His professional interests were in quantum physics; systems theory; and the integration of scientific and Judeo-Christian theological perspectives, both being forms of personal knowledge as ably pointed out by the scientist philosopher, Michael Polanyi. He was a member of the American Physical Society, American Association of Physics Teachers, Sigma Xi, and a Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation. He had published forty-five professional papers. He was also interested in the problems of educationally deprived college-bound students and taught a college level integrated physics-calculus course for Newark high school seniors.

Author: (with other) The Christian Frame of Mind, 1989, (with James E. Loder) The Knight's Move-The Relational Logic of the Spirit in Theology and Science, 1992; contributor articles to professional journals.

W. Jim Neidhardt. "Biblical Humanism: The Tacit Grounding of James Clerk Maxwell's Creativity," From: PSCF 41 (September 1989): 137-142.

W. Jim Neidhardt. "Pollard Anticipated by Kuyper,"

W. Jim Neidhardt. Theology and Science: At the Frontiers,


Harrison Allen Nelson

(1913-2000).  Chemist.  Construction executive.  President, Wickford Corp., Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1979; Manager technical development, The Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1956-77; Senior scientist, The Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1950-56; Research scientist, The Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1943-50; plant supervisor, Imperial Magnesuim Powder Plant, Glens Falls, N.Y., 1941-43; Research chemist, Imperial Paper and Color Co., Glens Falls, N.Y., 1939-41. Education: postgraduate, Brown University, Providence, 1933; postgraduate, University of R.I., 1938; postgraduate, Rice University, Houston, 1939.

Memberships: American Chemical Society, Kalamazoo Board Realtors.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.; inventor numerous patents on steriod and antibiotic fermentation and processing.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Thomas Charles Nelson

(1923-1985).  Forester, mining congress executive.  Biologist, Michigan Conservation Dept., Munising, Michigan, 1949-50; numerous positions U.S. Forest Service, 1950-70, deputy chief, Washington, 1970-80; Assistant to President American Mining Congress, Washington, 1980; advisory board Rene Dubose Institute, N.Y.C., 1985. Education: B.S., University of Wisconsin, 1943; M.S., Michigan State University, 1947, Ph.D., 1950.

Member county committee Republican Party, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1982-84, precinct Chairman, 1982-83. Served to lt. USNR, 1943-46.

Honors: Recipient Certified of Merit USDA, 1956, 1970, Superior Service award, 1970, Conservation award American Motors Corp., 1980. Fellow Society American Foresters; Member Society of Mining Engineers. Presbyterian. Club: Capital Hill (Washington).

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Paul Nelson / Paul A. Nelson *** Not in Gale

Paul Nelson is a philosopher of biology, specializing in evo-devo and developmental biology.  Dr. Nelson received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Chicago Department of Philosophy (1998).  His  research interests include the relationship between development biology and our knowledge of the history of life, the theory of intelligent design, and the interaction of theology and science.

He has published articles in such journals as Biology & Philosophy, Zygon, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, and Touchstone, and chapters in the anthologies Mere Creation (Intervarsity Press), Signs of Intelligence (Brazos Press), Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics (MIT Press), and Darwin, Design, and Public Education (Michigan State University Press). His monograph, On Common Descent, critically evaluates macroevolutionary theory in light of recent developments in embryology and developmental biology.  He edits the journal Origins & Design.

He is married to Suzanne Nelson, M.D., M.P.H., an Assistant Professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University.

Webpage, Access Research Network,

Member: Senior Fellow of the Center for Science and Culture of the Discovery Institute (Seattle, WA). He is also a Fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design.

Profile.  International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design,


Thomas Newcomen

(1663-1729). English blacksmith and inventor. In association with John Calley (or Cawley), invented (1705) the first practical steam engine, in which steam admitted to a cylinder was condensed by a jet of cold water and the piston driven by atmospheric pressure; entered partnership with Thomas Savery, whose primitive steam engine for pumping water from mines (patented 1698) he improved and built into a practical working engine in common use in collieries (from 1712). The improvements and experiments begun by Newcomen, while primitive compared to James Watt's engines of the late 1700s, paved the way for steam power to lead the industrial revolutions of Europe and later the United States.


John Alexander Reina Newlands

(1837-1898).  British chemist who preceded Dmitri Mendeleyev in formulating the concept of periodicity in the properties of chemical elements, although his ideas were not accepted at the time.

 Noted patterns in atomic weights of chemical elements of similar properties and published (1864) a table of elements illustrating his "law of octaves"; contributed to development of true periodic table by Mendeleyev.


Antonio Neri *** Not in Gale

(1576- c. 1614).  Italian chemist, alchemist, iatrochemist, pharmacologist, Catholic priest (ordained before 1601).

The Galileo Project,

Neri is remembered only for L'arte vetraria (1612), a little book in which many of the closely guarded secrets of glassmaking were printed for the first time.  He was known in the 17th century also as an alchemist, and his patron, Don Antonio Medici, is known to have been deeply involved in alchemy.  Neri also called himself a cultivator of the Spagyrical art. (in Italian)


Thomas Newcomen

(1663-1729). English blacksmith and inventor. In association with John Calley (or Cawley), invented (1705) an engine in which steam admitted to a cylinder was condensed bya jet of cold water and the piston driven by atmospheric pressure; entered partnership with Thomas Savery, whose primitive steam engine for pumping water from mines (patented 1698) he improved and built into a practical working engine in common use in collieries (from 1712).  The improvements and experiments begun by Newcomen, while primitive compared to James Watt's engines of the late 1700s, paved the way for steam power to lead the industrial revolutions of Europe and later the United States.

The Galileo Project,

The Newcomen Society for the Study of the History of Engineering and Technology.  The Newcomen Society is the world's oldest learned society devoted to the study of the history of engineering and technology. The Society is based in London and is concerned with all branches of engineering: civil, mechanical, electrical, structural, aeronautical, marine, chemical and manufacturing.

The Newcomen Society of the United States.

Britannica: British engineer and inventor of the atmospheric steam engine, a precursor of James Watt's engine.


Dr. Robert C. Newman *** Not in Gale

Astrophysicist and theologian.  Dr. Newman received his under-graduate degree in physics from Duke University and his doctorate in theoretical astrophysics from Cornell University. He has done scientific research for the U.S. Weather Bureau and the Franklin Institute. Robert C. Newman is Professor of New Testament at the Biblical Theological Seminary of Hatfield, Pennsylvania (a suburb of Philadelphia) and Director of the Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute there. As a theologian he has earned the degrees of Master of Divinity and Master of Sacred Theology. Dr. Newman is co-author of four books and has published numerous articles in magazines and scientific and theological journals.

Access Research Network, "Dr. Robert C. Newman," webpage,

Robert C. Newman, Ph.D. "A Designed Universe,"

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.  "My scientific background helps me to understand God's power and wisdom, and it enlarges my ability to present a scientifically credible apologetic for His existence.  I'm convinced that the God who made the stars uses His mighty wisdom and power to guide each one of us into the career that is the most satisfying and the most constructive way of life."


Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was an English scientist and mathematician. He made major contributions in mathematics and theoretical and experimental physics and achieved a remarkable synthesis of the work of his predecessors on the laws of motion, especially the law of universal gravitation.  Lunar Crater Newton named in his honor.

Isaac Newton, from Query 31 of Opticks (London, 1704): "All these things being consider'd, it seems probable to me, that God in the Beginning form'd Matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable Particles, of such Sizes and Figures, and with such other Properties, and in such Proportion to Space, as most conduced to the End for which he form'd them; and that these primitive Particles being Solids, are incomparably harder than any porous Bodies compounded of them; even so very hard, as never to wear or break in pieces; no ordinary Power being able to divide what God himself made one in the first Creation."

The Galileo Project,

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.  "Sir Isaac Newton," or

Professor R. W. Picard. "Newton-Rationalizing Christianity, or Not?"

Ann Lamont.  "Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), A Scientific Genius," for Creation 12(3):48-51, June-August, 1990.

Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?", Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57-80, 1997) 

"Isaac Newton,"

Disclaimer: Claimed by Universalists but from doubtful sources which will not be accepted as authoritative.


Jean-François Niceron *** Not in Gale

(1613-1646).  French optician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In 1632 he entered the Order of the Minims.

In his short life Niceron occupied himself with the study of optics. In 1638 he published his first work on optics, La Perspective curieuse. The latin version was published in 1646 under the title of Thaumaturgus opticus. Though Niceron was aware of the latest theoretical developments, he concentrated primarily on the practical applications of perspective, catoptrics, dioptrics and the illusory effects of optics mostly associated with natural magic.

On the two occasions that he was sent to Rome, Niceron conducted experiments with other scientists in Rome suggested by the works of Galileo. He shared the latest developments of French scientists with their counterparts in Italy and returned to France with the scientific news from Italy.

Niceron (1613-1646) studied under Mersenne in Paris and then entered the Order of Minims; he was appointed professor of mathematics at their convent in Rome. He was also an artist of some note and executed a large anamorphic wall painting (now lost) in the convent of Sta. Trinita de' Monti. He, and his Minim colleague Maignan were interested in the uses of anamorphosis in religious art. He was a member of the circle of Mersenne and acquainted with Fermat, Descartes, and Roberval in France and Cavalieri, Kircher, Maignan, and others in Rome. 'He collaborated with a group of scientists in Rome (including Magiotti, Baliani, Kircher, Ricci, and Maignan) in conducting experiments suggested by the work of Galileo' (ibid.).


Nicholas of Cusa / Nikolaus Kryffs / Krebs

(1401-1464).  German geometer, theologian, philosopher, and prelate.  He advocated that the earth revolved on axis around sun, before Newton and Copernicus. While Nicholas led a life of service to the Roman Catholic Church, rising to the position of cardinal (1448-64), he wrote several important philosophical works, including mathematical treatises, that profoundly influenced Western thought. Nicholas studied law and mathematics at the University of Padua, receiving his doctorate in Canon Law. Although better known as a philosopher than a mathematician, his interest in mathematics, far from being purely academic, reflected his passionate desire to understand the universe and situate it in the context of his mystical conception of God.

J. J. O'Connor and E F Robertson., or  Excerpt:

"He was ordained in 1440 and became a cardinal in 1448 and then became the bishop of Brixon (now Bressanone) in 1450. (The 'cardinal' was a title, while the 'bishop' was an office.)

He was interested in geometry and logic. He contributed to the study of infinity, studying the infinitely large and the infinitely small. He looked at the circle as the limit of regular polygons and used it in his religious teaching to show how one can approach truth but never reach it completely.

In 1444 he became interested in astronomy and purchased sixteen books on astronomy, a wooden celestial globe, a copper celestial globe and various astronomical instruments including an astrolabe.

His interest in astronomy certainly led him to … claim that the Earth moved round the Sun … that the stars were other suns and that space was infinite. He also believed that the stars had other worlds orbiting them which were inhabited. He got so much right that perhaps this will also be found to be true one day!"

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Nicholas of Oresme / Nicole d' Oresme

The French Clergyman scientist, economist, and translator Nicholas of Oresme (ca.1320-1382) is best known for his treatise on money, De moneta, and for his services to King Charles V of France. Catholic.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Niels Christian Nielsen

(Born July 24, 1942 in Madison, Wisconsin, United States).  Research geneticist, agronomy educator.  Achievements include research in plant molecular biology, characterization of 11 S proteins and genes of soybeans, flavor improvement of soybean products via elimination of seed lipoxygenases. Visiting scientist, CSIRO Division Plant Industry, Canberra, Australia, 1996; Visiting scientist, Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge, England, 1984-85; from adj. Assistant Professor to Professor agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1978-85; school geneticist USDA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1978; Visiting Assistant Professor agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1977-78; Associate instructor biochemistry and biophysics, University of California, Davis, 1974-77; postdoctoral Associate Genetics Institute, University Copenhagen, 1972-74.  Education: BS, University of Wisconsin, 1966; Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1972.

Member: American Society Plant Physiologists (editorial Board), American Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American Society Agronomy, International Society Plant Molecular Biology, Japanese Society Plant Physiology, American Oil Chemical Society (Archer Daniels Midland award 1986, 88), American Soybean Association (Meritorious Service award 1992), Delta Theta Sigma (faculty advisor 1982-84).  Lutheran.  Leader Boy Scouts of America, W. Lafayette, 1978-84. With USAR, 1960-68.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Bernard Nieuwentijt *** Not in Gale

(1654-1718).  Dutch mathematician, natural philosopher, chemist.  Calvinist, elder in the church at Purmerend.

The Galileo Project,

As a student Nieuwentijt was converted to Cartesianism; his medical thesis was a Cartesian, mechanistic exposition of the functioning of the body, with eclectic borrowings from other traditions such as iatrochemistry. Not too much later Nieuwentijt became disenchanted with Cartesianism, partly because he saw it as an avenue to atheism, and partly because he rebelled against its rationalism in favor of a strictly empirical, experimental approach to science.

Nieuwentijt was one of the early supporters of Newtonian science on the continent. He won early recognition for his microscopic observations.

In 1694-1700 he engaged in a dispute with Leibniz on the foundations of the calculus. His views are now beginning to be examined by philosophers with interest. His Analysis infinitorum was the first comprehensive exposition of the calculus.

One of his major works, Het recht gebruik, 1714, (in its English translation The Religious Philosopher, or the Right Use of Contemplating the Works of the Creator) was an enormous (1000 pages) demonstration of the existence of God and the correctness of Christianity by teleological arguments.

His other major work, The Foundations of Certainty, published posthumously, 1720, was an assault on Spinoza which insisted on the primacy of empiricism over rationalism. This work is now receiving serious attention.

In Het recht gebruik Nieuwentijt made it clear that he had a chemical laboratory and that he made frequent use of it.

In Purmerend, in the mid 90's, he organized a "college" (i.e., a society of some sort, evidently informal) of experimentation.

Bernard Nieuwentijt College.

Biography. (in Dutch)


Florence Nightingale

The English nurse Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was the founder of modern nursing and made outstanding contributions to knowledge of public health.  She invented the pie chart.

The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale Foundation.

Florence Nightingale Museum.

"Florence Nightingale,"

Tribute to Florence Nightingale.


By 16, the tall girl with the gray eyes and long chestnut hair had heard her first calling: "God spoke to me," she wrote, "and called me to His service." "Florence Nightingale." Historic World Leaders. Gale Research, 1994.


Etienne Noel *** Not in Gale

(1581-1659).  French natural philosopher, physicist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Noel entered the Society of Jesus in 1599 and completed his novitiate in Verdun.  His published works include Aphorismi physici (1646), Sol flamma (1646), Le plein du vide (1648) and Gravitas comparata (1649). The double perspective that characterizes all of his work is an adherence to Aristotelian physics and receptiveness to new ideas.

In 1646 he sent to Descartes his first published works.  He had several disputes with Pascal on the existence of a vacuum, but later in his Gravitas he honored Pascal for his role in developing an experiment to produce a vacuum within a vacuum.


Patricia Noller *** Not in Gale

(Born 1938).  Psychologist.  Educator. Emeritus Professor, School of Psychology, University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, on staff since 1980, beginning as tutor, and received tenurable lectureship in 1983. Visiting positions at University of Wisconsin; University of California, Los Angeles; Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, CA; University of Georgia, Athens, GA; University of Texas, Austin, TX.  Former Director of the University of Queensland Family Centre (1996 - 2003) and Past President of the International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships (1998-2000). Research Interests:  Marital communication, family communication, parent-adolescent relationships, family conflict, adult attachment, attachment and religion, sibling relationships.  BA (Hons), Ph.D. (Queensland), 1994.

Member of Australian Psychological Society (recipient Early Career Award); Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia; President of the International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships 1999-2000; Fellow of the National Council on Family Relationships (USA); Foreign affiliate, American Psychological Association

Author: Nonverbal Communication and Marital Interaction, 1984; co-author: Adolescents in the Family, 1991, Communication in Family Relationships, 1993; editor: Perspectives on Marital Interaction, 1988, Adult Attachment, 1996, Becoming Parents, 2001, Personal Relationships Across the Lifespan, 2001, Understanding Marriage, 2002. Contributor articles to professional journals.  She is Founding Editor of
Personal Relationships: Journal of the Internal Society for the Study of Personal Relationships, 1994-98.
Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, Directory of Fellows,

Fathom: The Source for Online Learning,

Faculty webpage, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Robert Norman *** Not in Gale

(fl. Late 1500s).  English scientist specializing in navigation and magnetism.

The Galileo Project,

Norman is best known for his book, The Newe Attractive, 1581, a treatise on the loadstone which derives from his observations of the dipping phenomenon in the compasses he made.  The Safegarde of Saylers, 1590, was a book of sailing directions translated from the Dutch.

He made navigational instruments, including magnetic compasses with a wax counterbalance to counteract the dip.

fl. 1590. Robert Norman, hydrographer. (in German)


Richard Norwood *** Not in Gale

(1590-1676).  English specialist in navigation, mathematician, cartographer, engineering, instrument-maker, agriculturalist.  Anglican, Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

At the very beginning of his career, Norwood devised and used a primitive diving bell to retrieve a piece of ordnance that had fallen overboard. This led to his employment by the Bermuda company as an expert diver.

Norwood significantly forwarded the art of navigation, especially in his application of logs to navigational problems.  In addition to his surveys of Bermuda, he measured (in 1635) the length of the meridian from London to York in order to determine the length of a degree. Although his method was extremely crude, the care with which he applied it led to a good approach to the modern value. Using this value, he reknotted the log line with a knot at every 50 feet, corresponding to 60 nautical miles per degree.

His work, Trigonometrie, or, the Doctrine of Triangles, 1631, based on the logs of Napier and Briggs, was intended as a navigational aid. It explained the application of logs to navigational problems. Norwood emphasized great circle navigation.  Seaman's Practice, 1637, remained for a long time one of the basic works on navigation. His work forwarded the practice of mathematical navigation. Seaman's Practice continued to be republished into the 18th century. It also contained a section on surveying and mapping.

After the early years in Bermuda, Norwood was known in the Virginia Company as one expert in fortification, and he published Fortification in 1639.

In Bermuda he made olive oil and shipped a sample to London, leading the company to promote the planting of olive trees on the islands.

Trigonometrie, Or, The Doctrine of Triangles. Richard Norwood, described in the title as 'Reader of the Mathematicks in London' gives the first accurate guide to sailing in the middle latitudes, employing the England-Bermuda route to illustrate his methods (Norwood made the first survey of the Bermudas in voyages of 1616-1622 and eventually retired there.) The Trigonometrie is a comprehensive account of how to apply logarithms to plane and spherical trigonometry and problems of navigation, with the latter including original and successful solutions to difficulties using plane and Mercator charts.


Pedro Nuñez / Pedro Nuñez Salaciense *** Not in Gale

(1502-1578).  Portugese mathematician, instrument-maker, navigation expert, mechanic, astronomer.  Catholic, from a family of converted Jews.

The Galileo Project,

Nuñez is considered the greatest Portuguese mathematician.  He invented the first form of what came to be called the vernier--called the nonius (from the Latinized Nuñez).  He was the first to distinguish, in navigation, between the rhumb line of a flat map and a great circle on a globe.

Nuñez's appointment as professor of mathematics at Coimbra effectively established a new discipline in the university. He was not in any of the four established faculties. This provides some indication of the technological demands of navigation (which seem clearly to have stood behind the appointment) at the time. (in Portugese) or (in Portugese)

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

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