Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (O)


 Thomas Coughlin O'Brien

(Born 1943).  Microbiologist.  Biotechnologist.  Strategist DuPont Co., Wilmington, Delaware, 1983.  Previously Dep. Associate Director, chief Science programs br. National Eye Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 1977-79; staff scientist U.S. House of Reps. Science and Tech. Co., Washington, 1979-80; Technical analyst National Bureau. Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1980-83; biotechnical consultant State of N.J., 1983, Delaware, 1987; Senior Assistant scientist, div. biologics standards NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 1969-71, head immunoserology unit, 1971-72, health scientist administrator, National Eye Institute, 1972-73, Medical technology consultant.  Chief caries grant program br. National Institute Dental Research, 1973-77.  AB in Biology, Catholic University of America, 1965, MS, 1967, Ph.D. in Microbiology, 1969.

Author: books in field; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Member: Advisory group National Academy of Science, 1978, AAASEPA, 1982, OSTP, 1983, AAAS, Sigma Xi. Roman Catholic.


Frederick Louis Odenbach, S.J.

(1857-1933).  Clergyman Roman Catholic, Meteorologist, Astronomer, Seismologist. In the autumn of 1892 he joined the faculty of Saint Ignatius College, which in 1923 became John Carroll University, Cleveland, Ohio. For the first ten years he was professor of physics and chemistry, and thereafter professor of astronomy and meteorology. Together with George E. Rueppel, S.J., who followed him to Cleveland in 1894 from Canisius College, he laid plans for a meteorological observatory. The first observations were made in 1896. In 1899 he designed and built the first ceraunograph. It was an adaptation of the Branly coherer to the detection and continuous recording of the static disturbances that are commonly associated with thunderstorms. A year later he began a seismological observatory. For this purpose he designed and built a horizontal pendulum with a Hengler-Zöllner type of suspension. He also built an accelerograph consisting of a suspended mass resting at its sides against two pairs of carbon microphones in the cardinal points of the compass. In 1909 he conceived and proposed a plan for a cooperative seismological program in which all the Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States and Canada were invited to participate. As a result of his enthusiastic sponsorship the Jesuit Seismological Service was formed and eighteen Wiechert seismographs of the smaller type were purchased and put into operation under his general direction. He thus became the founder of Jesuit seismological activity in the United States.

Excerpted from James B. Macelwane.

 "Frederick Louis Odenbach."Dictionary of American Biography, Supplements 1-2: To 1940. American Council of Learned Societies, 1944-1958.


Gioanbatista [Giovan or Giovanni Battista] Odierna [Hodierna] *** Not in Gale

(1597-1660).  Italian optician, astronomer, astrologer, natural historian, meteorologist, microscopist, physicist, botanist, anatomist, entomologist, natural philosopher, cartographer, navigatrion specialist.  Catholic priest, ordained in 1622.

The Galileo Project,

Odierna observed the three comets of 1618-1619, which spurred the famous polemic that culminated in Galileo's Saggiatore. Many years later Odierna published De systemate orbis cometici, 1654. His studies on the satellites of Jupiter were published in Medicaeorum ephemerides (1656), and he wrote a pamphlet on Saturn. His astronomy seems always to have verged toward astology, and titles on astrology bulk large in his corpus of work.

After studying the passage of light through prisms he offered a vague explanation of the rainbow and of the spectrum. His Thaumantia junonis nuntia praeconium pulchritudinis (1647), was followed by Traumantiae miraculum (1652).

In natural history his explanation of the structure and function of the retractile poison fangs of vipers anticipated the work of Redi.  Odierna developed an early microscope and studied the eyes of flies and other insects with it.  He pursued meteorological studies--cyclones, thunder, and springs.

His first published work Physiotheorica, 1629, was on natural philosophy in general. He also published Empedocles redivivus, 1655, and he seems to have dabbled a bit in corpuscular philosophy.  He devised some sort of microscope--called a camera obscura in one source--that magnified 2000 times (it says), and with it Odierna studied the structure of the eyes of insects and the poisonous glands of vipers.  He composed a manuscript on the longitudes and latitudes of a number of places in Italy.

His work on the satellites of Jupiter were directed toward the use of them to determine longitude at sea.

He wrote an enthusiastic appraisal of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. Apparently through Castelli Odierna got a manuscript copy of Galileo's Bilancetta, which Odierna published for the first time in his Archimede redivivo, 1644.  In Palermo he was acquainted with Carlo Varia Ventimiglia, and perhaps he participated in the Accademia dei Riaccesi in Palermo. He knew Schott who taught then in the Jesuit college in Palermo.

He corresponded with Huygens about 1656.  Corresponded also with Caramuel, when he was in Italy at the end of his life, and with Severino in Naples.


Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie

(Born 1936).  Science writer, educator.  Phoenix Union High School, Phoenix, AZ, teacher, 1959-61; St. Andrew's College, Tanzania, teacher, 1961-62; Portland State University, Portland, OR, Assistant Professor of the history of science, 1971-75; Oscar Rose Jr. College, Midwest City, OK, adjunct instructor in American history, 1975-76; University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, visiting Assistant Professor of the history of science, 1977-83; Oklahoma Baptist University, Shawnee, OK, adjunct Assistant Professor of the history of science, 1979-80, Assistant Professor of natural science, 1980-85, Associate Professor of natural science, 1985-91, also chair of the division of natural sciences and mathematics; University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, Associate Professor of bibliography, 1991-1994, adjunct Associate Professor of science, 1991-94, curator of the history of science collections, 1991-present, professor of the history of science and of bibliography, 1994-present.

Member: History of Science Society, American Association of University Professors (secretary, treasurer, and local chapter vice president, 1981-present), British Society for the History of Science, American Library Association, Association of College and Research Libraries, Phi Sigma, Beta Phi Mu, Sigma Xi, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Beta Kappa.  Methodist.

Author: Women in Science: Antiquity through the Nineteenth Century, A Biographical Dictionary with Annotated Bibliography, 1986; (with K.L. Meek) Women and Science: An Annotated Bibliography, 1996; (with C.J. Choquette) A Dame Full of Vim and Vigor: A Biography of Alice Middleton Boring, Biologist in China, 1999; (ed., with J. Harvey) The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives from Ancient Times to the Mid-twentieth Century, 2000. Contributor to anthologies and periodicals.

"Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie." Writers Directory, 20th ed. St. James Press, 2004.

University of Oklahoma College of Liberal Studies,,%20Marilyn%20L.htm


Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh

(Born September 30, 1962 in Uromi, Edo, Nigeria).  Pharmacologist, educator. Certified pharmacologist, molecular biologist.  Senior Lecturer, University of Zaria, 1996; from Assistant Lecturer to Lecturer II to Lecturer I, University of Zaria, 1988-96; sales rep., Mobell Pharmacy, Benin, Nigeria, 1983-84; Research fellow, International Center. for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnical, New Delhi, 1996-98. Visiting fellow Biotechnical Institute, New Delhi, 1996-99; acting Principal investigator WHO Malaria Research Project, Zaria, 1993-96; acting head pharmacology dept. University of Zaria, 1994, Consultant malariologist, 1994; Senior scientist Malaria Research Program, Zaria, 1988-96.  Education: BS, University Ibadan, Nigeria, 1983; MS, University Ibadan, Nigeria, 1987; Ph.D., Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 1993.

Member: AAAS, International Society for Study of Xenobiotics, West African Society Pharmacology, N.Y. Academy Sciences.  Religious leader Charismatic Renewal Ministries, Zaria, 1995-96; Director for membership Full Gospel Businessmen's Fellowship, Zaria, 1989-94; spiritual advisor Fellowship of Christian Pharmacy Students of Nigeria, 1994-96; Member Organization African UnityScience, Technology and Research Commission.

Honors: Fellow UN Indsl. Development Organization, 1996; grantee Roche, 1994, Organization African UnityScience, Technical and Research Commission, 1996, others.

Contributor of articles to professional publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Marvin Olasky

(Born 1950). Professor, Journalism Dept., University of Texas at Austin (1993 - present). Lecturer, San Diego State University, 1976-77; Assistant Professor, The University of Texas at Austin, 1983-88; Associate Professor, The University of Texas at Austin, 1988-93.  Marvin Olasky teaches journalism history, sports writing and journalism and religion.  Marvin Olasky received his B.A. (cume laude) from Yale University (1971). He then earned M.A. (1974) and Ph.D. (1976) degrees in American Culture from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Before joining The University of Texas at Austin faculty in 1983, Olasky worked as a reporter for the Bend, Oregon Bulletin (1971 - 1972) and for the Boston Globe (1970 - 1971, 1973), and as an executive speech writer and public affairs coordinator at the DuPont Company in Wilmington, Delaware (1978 - 1983).

Olasky is editor-in-chief of World magazine, the fourth most-read newsweekly in the United States, for which he writes a weekly column. He also writes a bi-weekly column for the Austin American-Statesman (1996 - present) and a weekly syndicated column for Creators Syndicate.

He is a senior Fellow of the Wilberforce Forum and of the Action Institute, an elder at Redeemer Presbyterian Church, a board member of City School, and faculty adviser for Reformed University Fellowship.
Olasky is the author of 13 books, including Compassionate Conservatism, 2000; The American Leadership Tradition, 1999, 2000; The Tragedy of American Compassion, 1992, 1995; and Central Ideas in the Development of American Journalism, 1990; along with 14 other monographs or co-authored books including More Than Kindness, 1990. He has published more than 800 articles on journalism, history, poverty-fighting, religion, sports, and other matters.

Faculty webpage, Journalism Dept., University of Texas at Austin,



Professional vita:

Marvin Olasky.  "ABCs of Political Action,"

Marvin Olasky.  "Marxism and Me," The American Enterprise, 1995

Marvin Olasky.  "God and Sinner Reconciled,"  Testimony. "My communism was based on atheism, and when I was no longer an atheist I quickly resigned from the Party, although I thought I was leaving the eventually winning side. Not until 1976 did I become a Christian, however. The steps down that path were hesitant, and included activities such as watching classic westerns (with their strong sense of right and wrong) and reading Christian existentialists.

Two activities that I did not choose helped to put me on solid ground. To satisfy a Ph.D. language requirement I had to improve my Russian, and one evening, just for reading practice, I plucked from my bookcase a copy of the New Testament in Russian given to me two years before as a novelty item and never even opened. To my surprise, the words had the ring of truth. (It helped that I had to read very slowly.)

An assignment to teach a course in early American literature also helped, since my preparation involved reading... Puritan sermons. Those dead white males spoke truth. Later, the writings of C.S. Lewis and Francis Schaeffer showed me that Christian hearts and brains could coexist in the twentieth century as well."

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus Olbers

(1758-1840). German physician and astronomer. Devised method of determining the orbit of a comet (1779); discovered 5 comets (the one of 1815 with a period of 72 years being named after him), rediscovered the asteroid Ceres, and discovered the asteroids Pallas (1802) and Vesta (1807); advanced Olbers's hypothesis accounting for origin of asteroids by explosion of a primordial planet.


Henry Oldenburg *** Not in Gale

(c. 1618-1677).  German-born scientific organizer and communicator.  Lutheran, then Calvinism, Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Oldenburg made a profession of scientific administration. He founded a system of records in the Royal Society that is still followed, created an international correspondence of scientists, and founded the first scientific journal in 1665, Philosophical Transactions.

Member: Royal Society, 1661; Secretary, 1662-77. Oldenburg was not at the meeting in Nov. 1660 at which it was decided to organize a society. His name was mentioned there, however, as one likely to be interested. He became a member in Jan. 1661.  Informal Connections: Connection with John Dury, Samuel Hartlib, John Milton, and Thomas Hobbes, beginning in 1653.  Friendship with Boyle, John Wilkins, and Oxford philosophical club, beginning in 1656.  Correspondence with Huygens, Spinoza and many others.

Henry Oldenburg, born in 1619 in Bremen, Germany, first came to England as a diplomat on a mission to see Oliver Cromwell. He stayed on in England and in 1662 became the Secretary of the Royal Society, and its best known member to the entire learned world of his time. Through his extensive correspondence, now published, he disseminated the Society's ideals and methods at home and abroad. He fostered and encouraged the talents of many scientists later to be far more famous than he, including Newton, Flamsteed, Malpighi, and Leeuwenhoek with whom, as with many others, he developed real friendship. He founded and edited the Philosophical Transactions, the world's oldest scientific journal.
His career sheds new light on the intellectual world of his time, especially its scientific aspects, and on the development of the Royal Society; his private life expands our knowledge of social mobility, the urban society, and the religious views of his time.


John W. Oller / John William Oller, Jr.

(Born 1943).  Linguist.  Hawthorne/Regents Endowed Professor (2004), Professor of Communicative Disorders, Head of Department of Communicative Disorders, and Director, Doris B. Hawthorne Center for Special Education and Communicative Disorders, at the University of Louisiana (1997 - present).  Oller is the principal author of the Applied Language and Speech Sciences Ph.D. Program at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette featuring theoretical semiotics as its cornerstone. Previously taught at University of California, Los Angeles, Assistant Professor, 1969-72, Associate Professor of English, 1972-73; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Associate Professor, 1973-80, Professor of linguistics 1980 - 1997, chairman of department, 1973-76.

Education: B. A., California State University; Fresno, California; majors in Spanish and French, minor in education, 1965 (Magna Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa); G. S. C., General Secondary Teaching Credential, California State University; Fresno, California, 1966; M.A., University of Rochester; Rochester, New York; General Linguistics, 1968; Ph. D., University of Rochester; General Linguistics, 1969 (NDEA Fellowship).

He joined the faculty at UCLA where he became the youngest tenured Associate Professor at that university system in 1971. A year later, he founded and became Chair of the Linguistics Department at the University of New Mexico. He was a member of the Examiner's Committee for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) from 1971-1976 and six of his 13 books and about a third of his 215 published articles are on the subject of language testing and related measurement issues. Since joining the faculty at UL Lafayette, he keynoted the 20th Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, Monterey, California, March 12, 1998 and published 11 papers on measurement and testing. Having won the Modern Language Association Mildenberger Medal in 1984, an award also granted to two of his Ph.D. students (Krashen and Richard-Amato), Oller has continued to break new ground in second language acquisition and applied linguistics. In December 1999, Oller gave the opening keynote address on second language acquisition and teaching at the Chulalongkorn University International Conference in Bangkok, Thailand . At the invitation of domestic and foreign agencies and governments Oller has lectured in England, Denmark, Spain, Germany, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Mexico, Quebec, Cyprus, Canada, and throughout the United States.

Member: Linguistics Association of Canada and the United States, Linguistics Society of America, Modern Language Association of America, American Association of Applied Linguistics, Organization of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Author: Coding Information in Natural Languages, Mouton & Co., 1971; Focus on the Learner: Pragmatic Perspectives for the Language Teacher, Newbury House, 1973; Language in Education: Testing the Tests, Newbury House, 1978; Language Tests at School: A Pragmatic Approach, Longman, 1979; Research in Language Testing, Newbury House, 1980; (Co-author) Measuring Affective Factors in Language Learning, SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, 1982; (Editor) Issues in Language Testing Research, Newbury House, 1983; (Co-editor) Methods that Work: A Smorgasbord of Ideas for Language Teachers, Newbury House, 1983; (Editor) Language and Experience: Classic Pragmatism, University Press of America, 1989; (Co-author) Language and Bilingualism: More Tests of Tests, Bucknell University Press, 1991;(Co-author) Teaching all the Children to Read: Concentrated Language Encounter Techniques, Open University Press, 1992; (Co-author and Editor) Cloze and Coherence, Associated University Presses, 1994; (Co-author) Images that Work: Creating Successful Messages in Marketing and High Stakes Communication, Quorum, 1999; The Language Factors: More Tests of Tests, Newbury House, in press. Upon a Scarlet Beast (upcoming). Consulting editor for Modern Language Journal.

Faculty webpage, Professor, Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Louisiana, Lafayette,

John W. Oller, Jr., Ph.D., Hawthorne Regents Professor, personal webpage,

Curriculum vita, University of Louisiana:

Curriculum vitae, ICR:

John W. Oller, Jr., Hawthorne/Regents Endowed Professor, Department of Communicative Disorders 

(CODI) The University of Louisiana at Lafayette,

John W. Oller, Jr., Ph.D. "A THEORY IN CRISIS,"  Impact, No. 180, June 1988.

John W. Oller, Jr. told Contemporary Authors: "I believe in Jesus rather than in 'religion' because I find myself in need of a personal savior. My own attempts at self-reformation fall far short of what even I regard as 'right,' much less am I able to measure up to God's requirements. I accept the testimony of the ancient Hebrew prophets concerning the Messiah. Jesus fulfills these prophecies to the last detail-except those which are still future-see Hal Lindsey's writings, and also those of Josh McDowell. In particular, he was born, died on a cross, and rose from the dead as foretold by the prophets." May 6, 2001. Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God,, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Kenneth H. Olsen / Kenneth Harry Olsen

(Born February 20, 1926 in Bridgeport, Connecticut, United States).  Entrepreneur, computer manufacturing executive.  Founder, president, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1957-92.  Olsen and his Digital Equipment Corporation developed the first successful minicomputer. Digital also developed the MicroVAX which placed a minicomputer structure on a single microchip. (1990) 

National Inventors Hall of Fame, inducted 1990 .

"Kenneth H. Olsen, described by Fortune magazine in 1986 as the 'most successful entrepreneur in the history of American business,' invented vital computer components and cofounded Digital Equipment Corporation, developer of the minicomputer.

Born in Stratford, Connecticut, Olsen began his career working summers in a machine shop. Fixing radios in his basement gave him the reputation of a neighborhood 'Edison.'

After serving in the Navy between 1944 and 1946, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned a B.S. (1950) and an M.A. (1952) in electrical engineering. During his studies at MIT, the Office of Naval Research of the Air Force recruited Olsen to help build a computerized flight simulator. Also while at MIT he directed the building of the first transistorized research computer.
In 1957, Olsen, along with Harlan Anderson, an MIT colleague, formed the Digital Equipment Corporation with a $70,000 investment from General Georges F. Doriot at the American Research and Development Corporation. Digital began producing printed circuit logic modules used by engineers to test electronic equipment. The company also started developing the world's first small interactive computer.
In 1960 Digital produced the Programmed Data Processor or PDP-1, a computer that used a cathode ray tube monitor. In 1965, after two more generations of PDP computers, Digital brought out the PDP-8, the world's first mass-produced minicomputer. Later, using integrated circuits, the PDP-8/1 proved cheaper and faster than transistor-driven machines. In 1970 Digital produced the PDP-11, which became the most popular minicomputer line in history.
In the 1960s Olsen received patents for a saturable switch, a diode transformer gate circuit, magnetic core memory, and the line printer buffer."

Honors:  Mr. Olsen is a Fellow of the IEEE and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including: Eta Kappa Nu's Young Electrical Engineer of the Year Award (1960); Bay State Business World's Businessman of the Year (1970); Executive of the Year, of the Society for the Advancement of Management, Boston Chapter (1970); the first President's Award of the New England Chapter of the Electronic Representatives Association (1970); the New Englander of the Year Award of the New England Council (1977); elected to the Entrepreneurial Hall of Fame of Babson College, and received the Business/Statesman Award of Columbia Business School Club of Boston (1978); received the Vermilye Medal of the Franklin Institute (1980); Founders Award, National academy of Engineering, (1982); the New England Award of the Engineering Societies of New England (1986); a recipient of the first IEEE Engineering Leadership Award (1986); the first IEEE Computer Society Entrepreneur Award, and the Yale School of Management Award for Entrepreneurial Excellence (1986); the John Ericsson Award of the American Society of Swedish Engineers, and the American Manager of the Year Award of the National Management Association (1988); inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame (1990); received the MCI Communications Information Technology Leadership Award for Innovation by the Computerworld, Smithsonian Awards (1992).

Mr. Olsen was awarded the 1993 IEEE Founders Medal 'For technical and management innovation, and leadership in the computer industry.'"

From "Kenneth H. Olsen." Contemporary Newsmakers 1986, Issue Cumulation. Gale Research, 1987:

"Although DEC remains in the shadow of giant IBM as the second largest computer company in the world, Olsen has nevertheless astounded critics who wrote off both the company and his entrepreneurial management style when DEC floundered during the industry-wide slump of the early 1980s. Renowned in the 1970s for his informal, anti-hierarchical management technique, Olsen in the 1980s was able to rethink key organizational, manufacturing, and strategic issues and rebound as strong--perhaps stronger--than before.

A former MIT engineer who founded DEC on a shoestring budget in 1957, Olsen today takes his place among the business giants of the century. As Peter Petre wrote in a Forbes cover story, Olsen "is arguably the most successful entrepreneur in the history of American business. In 29 years he has taken Digital Equipment Corp. from nothing to $7.6 billion in annual revenues. DEC today is bigger, even adjusting for inflation, than Ford Motor Co. when death claimed Henry Ford, than U.S. Steel when Andrew Carnegie sold out, than Standard Oil when John D. Rockefeller stepped aside."

Behind this enormous success is a background in fundamental Christianity. "A rock-ribbed neo-Puritan and churchman, Olsen thinks about morality and religion far more frequently than about microcircuits or finance," said Petre. "He sometimes invokes hymns to make a point about management." He participates in regular prayer breakfasts and invokes the Puritans--the "toughest men the world has ever seen"--when applying his accept-responsibility-for-your-actions philosophy."

Positions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, electrical engineer at Lincoln Laboratory, 1950-57; Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, Mass., founder, president, 1957-present. Member of board of directors, Polaroid Corp., Cambridge, Mass., Shawmut Corp., Boston, Mass., and Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich. Member of President's Science Advisory Committee, 1971-73, and Massachusetts Governor's Task Force, 1979; trustee and member of corporation, Joslin Diabetes Foundation; member of corporation, Boston Museum of Science and Wentworth Corp., Boston; trustee of Gordon College, Wenham, Mass. Deacon, Park Street Church, Boston.

Holds patents on several magnetic devices. Magnetic Core Memory, Patent Number(s) 3,161,861.

Ken Olsen Interview, Conducted at Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital Historical Collection Exhibit;

Transcript of a Oral History Interview with Ken Olsen, Digital Equipment Corporation, Interviewer: David Allison, Division of Information Technology & Society, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, September 28, 29, 1988,


Roger L. Olsen *** Not in Gale

(Not the electrical company executive born February 24, 1935 in Ashland, Wisconsin, United States).

Geochemist.  Consulting engineer.  Roger Olsen is vice-president and senior geochemist for Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc., Denver, Colorado. He is responsible for project management and technical supervision of geochemical and hazardous waste investigations. His experience includes design of sampling and analytical programs; evaluation of risks and impacts; evaluation of treatment and disposal options; implementation of quality control procedures; and design and engineering of hazardous waste disposal and remediation programs. He has expertise in the mobility, degradation, and transport of metals and organic compounds in soil water systems. Dr. Olsen has worked at the Colorado School of Mines as an Instructor in Chemistry/Geochemistry, at Rockwell International as a Research Chemist, and at D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers/International Technology Corporation as a Project Geochemist. He received a B.S. in mineral engineering chemistry in 1972 and a Ph.D. in geochemistry in 1979 from the Colorado School of Mines. Dr. Olsen has made over 40 presentations at conferences and seminars and has published over 30 papers. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi and the Hazardous Materials Research Institute. Dr. Olsen is a recognized expert in the fields of geochemistry and environmental chemistry and has been an expert witness in 12 cases.


Juan de Ortega *** Not in Gale

(1480-1568).  Spanish mathematician.  Catholic Dominican.

The Galileo Project,

Author of Tractado subtilisimo d'aritmetica y de geometria, (Barcelona, 1516), a work largely of practical mathematics, of interest because it gives values for square roots that seem to indicate some method. The work was translated into French and Italian, and edition in Spanish in 34, 37, and 42.  Ortega also wrote Cursus quattuor mathematicarum artium liberalium, (Paris, 1516).

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Juan de Ortega,"

Ortega's book A Tractado subtilisimo d'arithmetica y de geometria published in 1512 covered commercial arithmetic and the rules of geometry. In the book he gives a method of extracting square roots very accurately using Pell's equation, which is surprising since a general solution to Pell's equation does not appear to have been found before Fermat over 100 years later.


Abraham Ortelius / Abraham Ortels

(1527-1598). A cartographer, geographer, and archæologist.  Flemish map maker and map seller Abraham Ortelius is known for his Theatrum orbis terrarum (Epitome of the Theater of the Worlde), the first modern atlas, published in 1570.   He accelerated the movement away from Ptolemaic geographical conceptions.  Ortelius corresponded with many learned men, including the French printer Christophe Plantin and the Flemish humanist Justus Lipsius.

The Galileo Project,

UBA Ortelius.

Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) may truly be assigned the title of "Father of Modern Cartography". He developed the idea of assembling a compendium of maps to form an atlas. Ortelius did so with extraordinary skill and success. Imagine the man was a resident of Antwerp, Belgium. Unlike us in our modern time, he had no FAX or telephone, no train, car, or plane. All he had were messengers on horseback to transport information and details of commercial contracts from one place in Europe to another.

Ortelius Atlas.

ORTELIUS: The database on higher education in Europe.  In the same way that the Flemish cartographer Abrahamus Orteliuscompiled the geographical information of his day into a singlebody of work back in the XVIth century, today, for the firsttime, the ORTELIUS Database has collected dispersed informationand given it a truly European perspective. The task of collectingdata at national level has been entrusted to a National Agencyin each Member State of the European Union. This data is thenpassed on to Florence where it is entered into the database.

The Database covers the higher education systems of the MemberStates of the European Union and provides details on specificinstitutions by describing their structure and composition (faculties,university departments, laboratories, libraries, computer centresetc.). The database also offers information which might be ofparticular interest to students (accommodation services, financialaid, student associations etc.).

The Database also includes detailed descriptions of study programmes,the qualifications they lead to, and theirrecognition at national and European level. The database alsoincludes a general description of the various higher educationsystems in each member state so that users can interpret thedata in the light of the national system it pertains to.


William Oughtred / William Owtred

(1574-1660). English mathematician, alchemist, and clergyman.

Oughtred is credited as the inventor of the slide rule in 1622 . He also introduced the "x" symbol for multiplication, as well as the abbreviations "sin" for sine and "cos" for cosine in his Clavis Mathematicae (1631), composed for instruction of his pupil, the son of the Earl of Arundel.  Oughtred was born at Eton, and educated there and at King's College, Cambridge, of which he became fellow.Being admitted to holy orders, he left the university about 1603, and was presented to therectory of Aldbury, near Guildford in Surrey; and about 1628 he was appointed by the earl of Arundel to instruct his sonin mathematics. He corresponded with some of the most eminent scholars of his time on mathematical subjects; and his house wasgenerally full of pupils from all quarters. It is said that he expired in a sudden transport of joy upon hearing the news of the vote at Westminster for the restoration of Charles II .

He published, among other mathematical works, Clavis Mathematicae (The Key to Mathematics), in 1631; a treatise on navigation entitled Circles of Proportion and the Horizontal Instrument, in 1632, which described the first slide rules and also sundials, works on trigonometry and dialling, and his Opuscula Mathematica, published posthumously in 1676 .

The Galileo Project,

Oughtred also authored Easy Way of Delineating Dials by Geometry, composed c. 1598, published only in the English Clavis in 1647.  Trigonometrie, 1657.

Josten is explicit in naming Oughtred an alchemist.

The Oughtred Society,

"William Oughtred - The Inventor of the Slide Rule,"

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "William Oughtred,"


W. J. Ouweneel / Willem Johannes Ouweneel *** Not in Gale

(Born 1944).  Developmental biologist Willem J. Ouweneel is a Dutch creationist and CRSQ contributor. He acquired his doctorate in  three different specialist areas (Dr. rer. National Utrecht, NL, 1970; Dr. phil. Amsterdam, NL, 1986; Dr. theol. Bloemfontein, South Africa, 1993). He works as Lecturer in philosophy and theology to the Evangelist Hogeschool in Amersfoort (NL) and as Professor for philosophy and theology to the European School for Evangelical Theology in Heverlee/Leuven (Belgium).

A prolific author, he has written over 114 books, over 30 in German. Additionally, he participated in 39 other books and has written many hundreds of articles including a classic and widely cited paper on developmental anomalies in fruit flies ("Developmental genetics of homoeosis," Advances in Genetics, 16 [1976], 179-248).

From "The brothers movement de questionnaire," filled out by Willem J. Ouweneel on 8 May 2003. Interview.  (In German)

Dr. W.J. Ouweneel. "CREATIONISM IN THE NETHERLANDS,"  Impact, No. 56 February 1978.

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Nikita Ovsyanikov

(Born 1952 in Vienna, Austria).  Biologist.  Nikita Ovsyanikov is a senior research scientist for the Pacific Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences. His research focuses on wildlife ecology with special emphasis on the behavior of predatory Arctic animals, wolf management and environmental education. He holds a M.S. (with excellence) at Moscow Stae University, 1974, and a Ph.D. in zoology from the Severtzov's Institute of Animal Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1985.  Orthodox Christian.

Author: (Photographs by Dan Guravich) Arctic Foxes, Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers (New York, NY), 1995. Polar Bears: Living with the White Bears. Voyageur (Stillwater, MN), 1996; Polar Bears, Voyageur (Stillwater, MN), 1998.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Articles by Nikita Ovsyanikov. "Field Trip Earth,"


George Owen *** Not in Gale

(c. 1552-c. 1613).  Welsh geologist, geographer, cartographer, agriculturist, instrument-maker, engineer.

The Galileo Project,

Owen was first of all an antiquarian, who collected information on genealogy, heraldry, historic governmental structures, and the like of Wales. With this went an interest in the topography of Pembrokeshire and of Wales, and associated with his study of topography were very insightful observations of geological structures, in effect strata, though he did not use that word, of limestone and coal. These observations have earned him a reputation as the ancestor of British geology, though the observations were not part of a conscious theory of geology.

His manuscript "Description of Pembrokeshire" was ultimately published in 1892. He also composed a "Description of Wales" (as later ages have entitled it) and a "Description of Milford Haven."

His map of Pembrokeshire is considered a landmark in Welsh cartography. He also produced a map of Milford Haven, based on his own survey, and apparently a map of Wales (which does not survive).  He was an improving landlord, much intent on improving agricultural practice. He wrote a treatise (not published) on marl as a fertilizer.  He invented a new tool for cutting marl that (according to his account) increased efficiency fourfold.

Gwenn Ha Du.  "An Edinburgh Reviewer calls [Owen] the father of English geology."


Richard Owen

The English zoologist Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892) was one of the greatest comparative anatomists of the 19th century.


Jacques Ozanam *** Not in Gale

(1640-c. 1717).  French mathematician, cartographer, military engineer.

The Galileo Project,

Ozanam's contribution consisted of popular treatises and reference works on useful and practical mathematics, and an extremely popular work on Mathematical recreations, Recreations.

In addition to many purely mathematical works, Ozanam wrote Méthod de lever les plans et les cartes de terre et de mer, Traité de la fortification régulière et irrégulière (1691), Méthod facile pour arpenter et mesurer toutes sortes de superficies (1699), La perspective théorique et practique (1711), La géographie et cosmographie qui traite de la sphere 1711).

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences.  He was admitted as an élève in 1701, élève géometre in 1707, and associé mécanicien in 1711.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Jacques Ozanam," (in French)

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