Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (P-Q)


Antonio Pacchioni

(1665-1726). Italian anatomist. Investigated the structure of dura mater, including the Pacchionian bodies named after him.

The Galileo Project,  Associated eponyms: Pacchioni's bodies,
The arachnoidal granulations; Pacchioni's depressions, Depressions referred to, but not defined.


Don Page / Donald N. Page *** Not in Gale

Cosmologist Don Page is a Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. His Ph.D. thesis, "Accretion into and Emission from Black Holes", was supervised by Kip S. Thorne and Stephen Hawking. Dr. Page then moved to the University of Cambridge, England, where he held a NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship in Science, worked as a research Assistant under Professor Hawking, and received an M.A.

Webpage: or

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.  Schaefer quotes Dr. Page: "I am a conservative Christian in the sense of pretty much taking the Bible seriously for what it says. Of course I know that certain parts are not intended to be read literally, so I am not precisely a literalist. But I try to believe in the meaning I think it is intended to have.

"If the universe basically is very simple, the theological implications of this would need to be worked out. Perhaps the mathematical simplicity of the universe is a reflection of the personal simplicity of the Gospel message, that God sent His Son Jesus Christ to bridge the gap between Himself and each of us, who have rejected God or rejected what He wants for us by rebelling against His will and disobeying Him. This is a message simple enough even to be understood by children."


Sir James Paget

(1814-1899).  English surgeon and pathologist. At St. Bartholomew's hospital, London, discovered (1834) Trichinella spiralis, the cause of trichinosis; Professoressor of anatomy at Royal College of Surgeons (1847-52); published Lectures on Surgical Pathology (1853); specialized in pathology of tumors and diseases of bones and joints; first to advocate enucleation of tumors; described (1877) osteitis deformans, later called Paget's disease; vice chancellor of University of London (1883-95). Successor to John Hunter in surgery and, with Rudolf Virchow, one of founders of modern science of pathology.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Filip Palda

(Born 1962).  Economist.  Filip Palda is a Professor of Economics l'École Nationale d'Administration Publique (ENAP) (National School of Public Administration), Montréal, Canada. Previously he was at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Professor of economics, 1987-91; followed by a term at Fraser Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, senior economist, 1991-c.94. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago where he wrote his dissertation under Nobel laureate, Gary S. Becker. He is the author of three books, including the How Much is Your Vote Worth?, 1994, The Unfairness of Campaign Spending Limits, 1994, published by the ICS Press, and Tax Facts 9, 1994, published by the Fraser Institute. He has edited a number of public policy books covering such topics as state intervention in the economy, internal trade, the social benefits of stock markets, and transportation policy. He has published numerous articles in learned journals on the theory and measurement of political phenomena, writes a syndicated newspaper column, and appears frequently as a commentator in the media.

Faculty webpage,

Filip Palda told Contemporary Authors: "I write about economics. I try to keep my books simple and show my readers that economics is a fascinating and powerful science. I owe my inspiration to the economists of the University of Chicago, who trained me, and to the Fraser Institute, where I went later for polish."

 Dr. Josef Paldus
(Born 1935).  Physicist, quantum chemist, mathematician.  Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Professor of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.


Dr. Paldus took his undergraduate and Master's degrees in Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, and a Ph.D., Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1961, that led to post-doctoral studies in Chemistry at the Division of Pure Physics (since renamed Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics), National Research Council, Ottawa, 1962-64. As a quantum chemist, he returned to the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, where, 1966, he won further awards in Chemistry while continuing collaboration with the NRC. When Russia invaded Czechoslovakia, 1968, Dr. Paldus decided to remain permanently in Canada, and accepted an offer from the Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, as Visiting Associate Professor, becoming Professor in 1975. As a Visiting Professor he has taught in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Israel, Germany, Spain and, since 1984, has also served as Adjunct Professor, University of Florida, Chemistry Department. Dr. Paldus has written more than 250 papers, primarily for the Journal of Chemical Physics, and chapters in a number of monographs. His honours, which began in his student days, more recently include, Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, 1983; Member, International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science, 1984; a Killam Research Fellowship, 1987-89; the J. Heyrovsky Gold Medal, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1994; Honorary Membership in The Learned Society of Czech Republic, 1995; and the prestigious Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award, 1996.

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Bernard Palissy

(1510-1589). French potter, ceramic artist, painter, glassblower, designer.  Persecuted as a Protestant; known for his lead-glazed rustic ware, decorated with plants, animals, and mythological scenes; published lectures on natural history as Discours admirables (1580); De l'art de la terre (1580) concerned ceramics.

 "Bernard Palissy,"
A man of many interests and talents though with no formal training, Bernard Palissy became a scientist, land-surveyor, religious reformer, garden designer, glassblower, painter, chemist, geologist, philosopher, and writer, as well as a ceramist. A devout and outspoken Huguenot, he was imprisoned for his religious beliefs and for his involvement in the Protestant riots of the first of the Wars of Religion. It was only with the help of his influential Catholic patron, Anne de Montmorency, that he obtained amnesty. Catherine de'Medici, the French queen, later acted as his protector, commissioning Palissy to build a private grotto for her at the garden of the Tuileries palace.

Palissy produced his designs by attaching casts of dead lizards, snakes, and shellfish to traditional ceramic forms such as basins, ewers, and plates. He then painted these wares in blue, green, purple, and brown, and glazed them with runny lead-based glaze to increase their watery realism.

Beginning in 1575, Palissy gave public lectures in Paris on natural history which, when published as Discours admirables (Admirable Discourses), became extremely popular and revealed him as both a writer and experimental pioneer. In 1588, as the struggle against the Protestants grew, Palissy was again imprisoned. He died two years later of "starvation and maltreatment."

The Galileo Project,


Denis Papin / Denys Papin

(1647-c. 1712). French physicist Denis Papin was an early pioneer in the study of steam pressure. In fact, Papin is credited with making the first real developments with steam since the time of Hero of Alexandria 1,500 years earlier.  Pupil and assistant of Huygens; lived (after 1675) mostly in England; assistant of Boyle in physical experiments; experimented with hydraulics and pneumatic transmission of power; made improvements in air pump; invented the condensing pump; invented (1679) a "steam digester" (a pressure cooker), with which he showed that boiling point is raised or lowered as the pressure exceeds or falls below atmospheric pressure; invented the safety valve; credited with being the first (1690) to apply steam to raise a piston; constructed (1709) boat equipped with paddle wheels driven by a waterwheel.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Denis Papin," (in German) (in German) (in German)


Ignace Pardies, S.J. / Ignace Gaston Pardies *** Not in Gale

(1636-1673).  Mathematician, optician, natural philosopher, astronomer, physicist, instrument-maker, engineer, cartographer, hydraulics expert.

The Galileo Project,

Pardies' first work, Horologium thaumanticum duplex, 1662, may not in fact have been published. He drew upon it for a description of a machine to trace sundials published about a decade later.  Among his many published works, are Discours du mouvement local (1670) which also contains remarks on the movement of light, La statique ou la science des forces mouvantes, and Éléments de géometrie (1671). The books on local movement and statics were the first two books of a projected six book treatise on physics that he did not complete. Pardies had completed a work on optics when he died, and apparently Ango drew on it for his work on optics published after Pardies' death. He deserves a place in the history of physics for having intervened in the debate on the ideas of Newton and Huygens at certain decisive moments. His objection to Newton concerning his theory of color and the experimentum crucis enabled Newton to clarify certain difficult points. His unpublished manuscripts contained a theory of waves and vibrations that might well have played an important role in the development of physics.

Pardies was influenced by Descartes, and some of his earliest work raised doubts about him in the Jesuit order. A generation later Pierre Bayle considered him a covert Cartesian. His Discours de la connaissance des bestes, 1672, appeared to many to advocate Cartesianism under a pretense of defending Aristotle. To explain himself to his order Pardies then composed Lettre d'un philosophe à un cartésien de ses amis. In 1673 also La créance des miracles.

At Bordeaux Pardies gave a general course in "physiology" that dealt with problems such as gravity, magnetism, and electricity.

He also published on comets, and he left an Atlas céleste that was published after his death.

It seems clear that for all the doubts about his attachment to Descartes the Jesuit order considered Pardies to be one of their young stars. They moved him to their most important school in France, but then he died young.

His Horologium thaumanticum duplex (1662) contains descriptions of an instrument to trace all kinds of dials, even on irregular surfaces. He discusses optical devices and further describes his tracing instrument in a later work, Deux machines propres a faire les quadrans avec une très grande facilité (1673). The early work also extended ideas of Maignan and Kircher to devise two different dials which I do not fully understand.

He adapted a sextant to a new form to observe the comet of 1664.

He had completed an Art de guerre when he died. Ango's Practique générale de fortification, 1679, was probably based on this work by Pardies.  He prepared six celestical charts for his Atlas céleste which were the first fully to realize a new projection, called a central projection, in their preparation..

In 1668 his native Pau sought his advice and assistance in making the river Gave navigable to Pau.


In his La Statique ou la science des forces mouvantes (Paris, 1673) was interested in the tension in a flexible line and was responsible for the Pardies principle found in the solution of the suspension cable. He argued that the form of a flexible line would remain unchanged if the forces at two points A and a were replaced by suitable forces acting along the tangents at A and a. This princlple was used in the later work in analyses of the catenary by Bernouli and Leibniz.
Ignace Pardies, however, made his most important scientific contribution, not in his writings, but in his correspondence. It is there that we find the objections that Pardies expressed to Newton concerning his theory of colors and the "experimentum crucis" - objections that enabled Newton to clarify certain difficult points. Pardies was a temperate and courteous critic of Newton with a vigorous intellect, as is evident from his pedagogical writings and his contacts with the pioneers of geometry.


Ambroise Paré

(1510-1590). French surgeon. Often called father of modern surgery; served as army surgeon and physician to Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III; introduced use of ligature of arteries instead of cauterization in treatment of wounds. Author of works on anatomy, surgery, treatment of wounds, plague,generation, obstetrics, and monsters.

The Galileo Project,

John H. Lienhard .  Engines of Our Ingenuity, No. 327: AMBROISE PARÉ.  Click here for audio of Episode 327. Webpage at:  A Catholic throughout his life, Tal has given documentary refutation to the legend that Paré was a Huguenot and was spared during the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (1572) by direct command of the king. On account of his humanitarian activity he was held in special regard among soldiers. His motto, as inscribed above his chair in the Collège de St-Cosme, read: "Je le pansay et Dieu le guarist" ("I treated him, but God healed him"). A monument was erected to him at Laval.

""Je le pensay, et Dieu le guarit" (I dressed it, and God healed it).

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Antoine Parent *** Not in Gale

(1666-1716).  French physicist, mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, mechanic, chemist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Parent's best-known and most comprehensive work is Essais et recherches de mathematiques et de physique (1713), a three-volume work compiled from his short lived periodical launched in 1705. He read many papers to the Académie des sciences but few were published in the Mémoires. His most frequent avenues of publication were the Journal des scavans and the Journal de Trevoux. He wrote on astronomy, cartography, chemistry, biology, sensationalist psychology and epistemology, music, practical and abstract mathematics, strength of materials and the effects of friction on motion.

Parent wrote on cartography, but there is no specific information on the extent of his technical knowledge of mapmaking. Parent's knowledge of fortifications was based on his practical knowledge of mathematics and not on any specific training in designing fortifications. However, he did accompany the Marquis d'Alegre on compaign.

Memberships: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1699-1716 (in French)


Dong Hwa Park

(Born 1937 in Seoul, Korea, Naturalized, U.S., 1976).  Neurobiologist, educator.  National Vitamin Foundation postdoctoral Fellow Columbia University-St. Luke's Hospital Center, N.Y.C., 1970-72; Assistant scientist, NYU, N.Y.C., 1972-75; instructor neurobiology Cornell University Medical College, N.Y.C., 1975-78, Assistant Professor, 1978-84, Associate Research Professor, 1984. Research on neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes, purification, characterization, production of antibodies to above enzymes, immunochemistry and molecular biol. studies.

Education: BS in Chemistry, Seoul National University, 1961; MS in Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, 1968, Ph.D., 1970.

Member AAAS, American Chemical Society, American Society for Neurochemistry, Society for Neuroscience.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to science journals.


Robert Hallett Parker

(1922-1994).  Marine biologist.  Ecologist.  Ornithologist. Certified Senior ecologist, registered professional geologist.  President, Chairman of the board, Coastal Ecosystems Management, Inc., Ft. Worth, 1970-94; Associate Professor biology and geology dept., Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, 1966-70; resident ecologist, Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, Mass., 1963-66; Research ecologist, Scripps Institute Oceanography, University California, LaJolla, 1951-63; marine biologist, Texas Game and Fish Commission, Rockport, 1950-57. Consultant Humble Oil Co., Houston, 1956-58, Standard Oil Co. N.J., N.Y.C., 1958.  Education: student, Duke University, 1941-43, 49-50; BS, University of New Mexico, 1948; MS, University of New Mexico, 1949; Ph.D., University of Copenhagen, 1963.

Honors: National Academy Science fellow, 1959; recipient Best Abstract award Moscow Oceanographic Congress National Academy Science, Moscow, 1966.

Member: Fellow Geological Society American, Explorer's Club N.Y., Texas Academy Science; AAAS, American Association Petroleum Geologists (presidential award 1956), Sigma Xi.

Author: Zoo Geography and Ecology of Macro-Invertebrates, 1964, The Study of Benthic Communities, 1975, Benthic Invertebrates in Tidal Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons, 1969; co-author: Marine and Estuarine Environments, Organisms and Geology of the Cape Cod Region, 1967, Sea Shells of the Texas Coast, 1972; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


James Parkinson

(1755-1824).  Parkinson's disease is named after James Parkinson, who provided a detailed description of what he termed "shaking palsy" in an essay published in 1817. Parkinson was also the first to recognize a perforated appendix as a cause of death.


Gary Partlow *** Not in Gale

Veterinary Anatomist.  Neuroscientist.  Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.  Specialty: Anatomy of domestic animals, Neuroanatomy of mammals.  Research: Morphology of reproductive centres in the hypothalamus,including neurogenesis.

Anatomy of domestic animals, Neuroanatomy of mammals.  Education: BSc (University of Guelph), MSc (University of Western Ontario), Ph.D. (Ottawa).

Member: Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation, Member of Society for Neuroscience, Canadian Association of Anatomists, American Association of Veterinary Anatomists.

Gary Partlow.  "CHRISTIAN GUIDELINES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY," Canadian Scientific and Christian Affiliation, A Statement by the Guelph Chapter, l2th October 1983, From: JASA 36 (March 1984): 39


Blaise Pascal

The French scientist, geometer, physicist, inventor and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a precocious and influential mathematical writer, a master of the French language, and a great religious philosopher.  Mathematical prodigy as a child; completed original treatise on conic sections at age of sixteen; studied infinitesimal calculus; solved problem of general quadrature of the cycloid; contributed to development of differential calculus; originated, with Fermat, mathematical theory of probability. Invented a mechanical calculator (1642-45), the syringe, and the hydraulic press; wrote (1651-54) treatises on the equilibrium of liquid solutions (Pascal's Law states fluids transmit equal pressure in all directions), on the weight and density of air, and on the arithmetic triangle.

When he was trying to forget the pain of a toothache, Pascal came up with solutions to problems related to the curve cycloid, also known as roulette. He solved the problems using what became known as Pascal's arithmetic triangle (also known as the triangle of numbers) to calculate probability. His results were published in 1658 as Lettre circulaire relative a la cycloïde. This work played a major role in the development of calculus, both differential and integral. With this framework, areas and volumes could be calculated, and infinitesimal problems could be solved.

Significant literary work began with his entrance into Jansenist community at Port-Royal (1655) and resulted from his exegesis and defense of Jansenism against Jesuitic attacks in which he established the principle of intuitionism; works included Lettres ecrites par Louis de Montalte a un provincial de ses amis, popularly known as Provinciales (1656-57), and Pensees, published (1670) from manuscript notes left by him. Lunar Crater Pascal named in his honor.

Blaise Pascal, Penseés (Thoughts,) (1660) translated by W. F. Trotter.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Blaise Pascal," or or

"Quotations by Blaise Pascal,"

Bill Tsamis.  "Blaise Pascal,"

"Blaise Pascal (1623-1662),"

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.

Pascal: "Men despise religion. They hate it and are afraid that it may be true. The cure for this is first to show that religion is not contrary to reason, but worthy of reverence and respect. Next make it attractive, make good men wish it were true, and then show that it is." From Penseés (Thoughts,) (1660).  Noted in Wilhelm Schickard Museum of Computing History at Concordia University, Wisconsin.


Etienne Pascal *** Not in Gale

(1588-1651).  French mathematician, physicist, navigation expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Pascal gained a reputation as a talented mathematician and musician. In 1637 he introduced a special curve (limacon of M. Pascal), the conchoid of a circle with respect to one of its points, to be applied to the problem of trisecting an angle.

From 1646-8, Pascal participated in the barometric experiments conducted by his son, P. Petit, and probably his son-in-law. He also participated in the debate that followed with P. Noel concerning the existence of a vacuum.

As early as 1635 Pascal frequented the Mersenne academy. Among his contacts were Roberval, Desargues, and Mydorge. Mersenne dedicated one of his works in his Harmonie universelle to Pascal. Roberval shared his mathematical research with Pascal, as did Desargues.  Pascal frequented the salon of Madame Sainctoti where he rediscovered his friend Jacques Pailleur who directed the Mersenne academy after 1648.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Etienne Pascal,"


Mihalis Paspatis

(Born January 23, 1963 in Mytilini, Greece).  Research biologist. Researcher, Institute Marine Biology of Crete, Heraclion, 1994.  Education: BS, University Athens, 1984; MS, University Athens, 1987; Ph.D., University Crete, Heraclion, Greece, 1992.

Member: Geotechnical Society Greece.  Christian Orthodox.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Nola Passmore *** Not in Gale

Psychologist.  Lecturer, University of Southern Queensland, Australia, 1989 - present.  Education: BA (Honors), Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Queensland, Australia.

Faculty of Sciences webpage,

Member of Christaf: Christian staff at University of Southern Queensland, Australia,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.

Louis Pasteur

The French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is famous for his germ theory and for the development of vaccines.  Developed process of food sterilization--pasteurization. Louis Pasteur was one of the most extraordinary scientists in history, leaving a legacy of scientific contributions which include an understanding of how microorganisms carry on the biochemical process of fermentation, the establishment of the causal relationship between microorganisms and disease, and the concept of destroying microorganisms to halt the transmission of communicable disease. These achievements led him to be called the founder of microbiology. Catholic.

Emily Klein.  "Louis Pasteur,"

David. V. Cohn, LabExplorer. The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur

The Insitut Pasteur.  To treat cases of rabies, the Pasteur Institute was established in 1888 with monetary donations coming from all over the world. It later became one of the most prestigious biological research institutions in the world.

Alfred W. McCann. "Pasteur and God," from This Famishing World,

"Louis Pasteur,"

Biography of Pasteur at the Pasteur Institute at Lille (in French),

Biography of Pasteur at the Fondation Mérieux (in French),


John Patrick *** Not in Gale

Clinical nutritionist.  Biochemist.  Dr. Patrick retired from the University of Ottawa in June 2002. He had been Associate Professor in Clinical Nutrition in the Department of Biochemistry and Pediatrics for 20 years. Dr. Patrick's medical training was in London, England. He has done extensive research into the treatment of childhood nutritional deficiency and related diseases holding appointments in Britain, the West Indies and Canada. He has worked in Central Africa assisting in the development of training programs that deal with childhood protein-energy malnutrition.

Dr. Patrick now lectures throughout the world, working for the Christian Medical and Dental Society in Canada and the Christian Medical and Dental Association in the United States. He speaks frequently to Christian and secular groups, discussing moral issues in medicine and culture and the integration of faith and science.

John Patrick.  Home page:


Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Rayford Powell Patrick

(1939-1993).  Survivability engineer. Registered Professor engineer, Mississippi. Assistant program Manager strategic defense system survivability, U.S. Army Strategic Defense. Command, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, Alabama, 1990; Study Manager, survivability engineer strategic def. system, Science Applications International Corp., Huntsville, Alabama, 1989-90; peacekeeper ICBM project engineer, small ICBM engineering Manager, Martin Marietta, Denver, 1981-89; ret., U.S. Air Force, 1981; chief engineering branch, B-2 Bomber project engineer, Aircraft Engineering division Headquarters. SAC, Offutt AFB, Nebr., 1978-81; Research scientist, USAF School Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas, 1975-78; Project engineer nuclear hardness and survivability Air Force Weapons Laboratory, USAF, 1971-75; B-1 Bomber project engineer, Air Force Weapons Laboratory; advanced through grades to Lieutenant colonel, USAF; commd. 2d Lieutenant, USAF, 1961. Education: BS, Mississippi State University, 1961; MS, Air Force Institute Tech., 1965; Ph.D., Purdue University, 1976.

Member: IEEE, AIAA, Air Force Association (life), Tau Beta Pi, Phi Eta Sigma.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Francesco Patrizi [Patrizzi, Patricio, Patricius] *** Not in Gale

(1529-1597).  Italian-born mathematician, natural philosopher, hydraulics expert.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Patrizi's importance in the history of science rests primarily on his highly original views concerning the nature of space, which have striking similarities to those later developed by Henry More and Isaac Newton. His position was first set out in De rerum natura libri II priores, alter de spacio physico, alter de spacio mathematico (Ferrara, 1587) and was later revised and incorporated into his Nova de universis philosophia (Ferrara, 1591).  He wrote Della nuova geometria, a sort of philosophy of geometry. For him, mathematics was logically prior to physical science.

For Count Zaffo, Patrizi reclaimed a marsh. Later, while he was in Ferrara, he developed a plan to divert the Reno in order to spare Ferrara flooding. (in French)


Rosalyn Victoria Mitchell Patterson

(Born March 25, 1939).  Biologist, educator.  Research on mammalian chromosomes in cell culture.  Instructor to Professor biology Spelman College, 1960-70; So. Fellowship Funds postdoctoral fellow Georgia Institute Technology, 1969-70; staff specialist to commr., Consultant Bureau Reclamation, Dept. of Interior, Washington, 1970-71; coordinator National environmental education development program National Park Service, Dept. of Interior, 1971-72; NIH postdoctoral fellow exptl. cytology br. NIH and Bureau Biologics, FDA, Bethesda, Maryland, 1972-73; Associate Professor biology Georgia State University, 1974-76; Professor, Chairman department of biology, Atlanta University, 1977-86; Professor biology Spelman College, 1986-87; Director research careers office, Adjunct Professor biology, Morehouse College, Atlanta, 1988; Consultant, Department of Interior, 1970-71. NRC postdoctoral fellow, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, 1983-84; NIH fellow Centers for Disease Control and Georgia State University, 1984-85. Education: B.A., Spelman College, 1958; M.S., Atlanta University, 1960; Ph.D. University fellow, Emory University, 1967.

Member: AAAS, American Society Cell Biology, Society Development Biology, Tissue Culture, Association, Sigma Xi, Phi Sigma, Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Simon Paulli *** Not in Gale

(1603-1680).  Swedish botanist, anatomist, physician, geographer, educator.

The Galileo Project,

Paulli made notable contributions to the technical literature of anatomy and botany. His major work is Quadripartitum botanicum de simplicium medicamentorum facultatibus (Rostock, 1640), in which he arranged plants according to the seasons, in the form of a floral almanac.  He also published works on medicine and geography.  He is known more as a medical practioner than as a theorist, in part because of his recommendation of simple medications.

Paulli (1603-1680) was physician to the Danish kings Frederik III and Christian V, and was professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany at Copenhagen. 'Paulli made notable contributions to the technical literature of anatomy and botany. His botanical writings were discussed in detail by Albrecht von Haller, who praised him not only for compiling existing botanical knowledge but also for comparing it with information derived from his own experiments' (ibid). He was also the author of the first Danish flora, Flora Danica (Copenhagen, 1648).
The Continuatio appendicis, which is missing from most copies, contains a comprehensive index and list of authors cited in the main work. (Danish) (Danish)


Robert Peach *** Not in Gale

From American Society for Quality,

Robert Peach served as convenor of the Working Group that developed the original ISO 9004 Quality System Standard, and was the first Chairman of the Registrar Accreditation Board, He is Editor of the ISO 9000 Handbook, published by McGraw Hill, and co-author of Memory Jogger 9000:2000. He established and managed the Quality Assurance activity at Sears Roebuck and Company for over 25 years.

Editor, The ISO 9000 Handbook published by McGraw Hill, Inc., co-author, The Memory Jogger 9000 published by GOAL/QPC, co-author, The ISO 9001 Standard Paraphrased, by GOAL/QPC

Member, ANSI Z-1 Committee on Quality Assurance, US TAG to ISO TC 176 Committee on Quality Management; Principal, Robert Peach and Associates, Inc., 20 years; Immediate past chair, Registrar Accreditation Board.

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories,, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.


Arthur Robert Peacocke

(Born 1924) Ordained priest of Church of England, 1971; University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, 1948-59, began as Lecturer, became Senior Lecturer; St. Peter's College, Oxford University, Oxford, England, Fellow, tutor, and Lecturer in biochemistry, 1959-73; Clare College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, Dean and Fellow, 1973-present. Member of Archbishop's Commission on Christian Doctrine, 1969-76; Hulsean Preacher, Cambridge University, 1976; Bampton Lecturer, Oxford University, 1978. Theistic evolutionist.

Arthur Peacocke wins Templeton Prize.


Jean Pecquet

(1622-1674). French physician and anatomist. Credited with discovery of course of lacteal vessels, of the cistern chyli (or reservoir of Pecquet), and of the termination of the thoracic duct at the opening into the left subclavian vein.

The Galileo Project,

In 1651, based on animal dissections, Pecquet described the thoracic duct, its entry into the subclavian veins, and the receptaculum chyli. He attributed the movement of the lymph to respiratory movement, transmitted pulsation from nearby arteries, and compression by contracting muscle outside the ducts.


J. H. John Peet, BSc, MSc, Ph.D., CChem, FRSC*** Not in Gale
English chemist.  Travelling Secretary of the Biblical Creation Society in the U.K. and is a member of the editorial team of Origins.  Former Science Coordinator, Guildford College of Further and Higher Education.  He is an elder at Chertsey Street Baptist Church, Guildford, with special responsibility for missionary activities. He earned a B.S. with honors, an M.S. in chemistry from the University of Nottingham, and a Ph.D. in photochemistry from Wolverhampton Polytechnic.  Fellow, Royal Society of Chemistry.

Author: In the Beginning God Created... , 1994; various research papers.

J. H. John Peet.  "The BBC Floats with Noah - but not the Biblical one!" Response to BBC documentary on Noah's Ark, March 21, 2004.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Charles Sanders Peirce ***Not in Gale

(1839-1914). Who is the most original and the most versatile intellect that the Americas have so far produced? The answer "Charles S. Peirce" is uncontested, because any second would be so far behind as not to be worth nominating. Mathematician, astronomer, chemist, geodesist, surveyor, cartographer, metrologist, spectroscopist, engineer, inventor; psychologist, philologist, lexicographer, historian of science, mathematical economist, lifelong student of medicine; book reviewer, dramatist, actor, short story writer; phenomenologist, semiotician, logician, rhetorician and metaphysician. He was, for a few examples, the first modern experimental psychologist in the Americas, the first metrologist to use a wave-length of light as a unit of measure, the inventor of the quincuncial projection of the sphere, the first known conceiver of the design and theory of an electric switching-circuit computer, and the founder of "the economy of research." He is the only system-building philosopher in the Americas who has been both competent and productive in logic, in mathematics, and in a wide range of sciences. If he has had any equals in that respect in the entire history of philosophy, they do not number more than two."

Max H. Fisch in Sebeok, The Play of Musement

Webpage: /entries/peirce/

The Peirce Edition Project.


Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc *** Not in Gale

(1580-1637).  French astronomer, scientific communicator, botanist, natural historian, paleontologist, cartographer.  Catholic.

"Nicholas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc was born on December 1, 1580 in Belgentier, Var, France and grew up in the wealthy family of a higher magistrate in the Provence. He got education in Aix, Avignon, and the Jesuit college at Tournon. At Toulon, he got first interested in astronomy. He undertook a longer travel in Italy, Switzerland and France in 1599, and finally finished his legal studies in 1604 in Montpellier. After receiving his degree, he returned to Aix and took over his uncle's position as conseiller in the Parlement of Provence, under the president of the Parlement, Guillaume du Vair. He and du Vair travelled to Paris 1605-6 and in 1607-15, he served at Aix.

In 1610, his patron, du Vair, purchased a telescope which Peiresc and Joseph Gaultier used for observing the skies, including Jupiter's moons. Peiresc discovered the Orion Nebula in 1610; Gaultier became the second person to see it in the telescope. However, this discovery fell forgotten until 1916 when G. Bigourdan (1916) announced its recovery.

From 1615-22, Peiresc again made a trip to Paris with du Vair. Later, he returned to Provence to serve as senator of sovereign court. He became a patron of science and art, studied fossils, and homed astronomer Gassendi from 1634-37.

He passed away on June 24, 1637 in Aix-en-Provence."

The Galileo Project,

Pinelli and Pacius inspired in Peiresc a curiosity about the natural world. In 1610 his patron, du Vair, acquired a telescope with which Peiresc and Joseph Gaultier were the first in France to see the satellites of Jupiter and the Orion nebula described by Huygens in 1658. Peiresc spent most of his time recording the times of planetary events (1610-12). Among his assistants Jean Lombard travelled widely recording the positions of the satellites of Jupiter. Peiresc used these observations to calculate terrestrial longitudes.

Peiresc, with Lombard and Gaultier, saw to it that the lunar eclipse of 28 August 1635 was more widely observed than any previous one by supplying instruments and the know-how to priests, merchants, and secretaries at various embassies. With these observations he was able to correct the considerably over-estimated length of the Mediterranean.

Peiresc was a patron and amateur of the sciences, art, and erudition. During the seven years he was in Paris he sponsored or assisted in the publication of important books. He surrounded himself with able and devoted assistants who carried out many experiments and voyages while Peiresc carried on his correspodence and observation at the Hotel Callas. Gassendi, who lived in Peiresc's home from 1634-7, carried out several observations for and with Peiresc.  Peiresc collected and studied fossils and recognized the importance of ancient coins for establishing historical sequence.

Peiresc sponsored the dissection of cadavers in his house by local surgeons who found the chyliferous vessels in the human body. His speculations on vision led him to conduct several dissections of various animals with local surgeons and his own assistants.

Peiresc took great pleasure in collecting animals and plants. His garden at Belgentier was the the third largest in France.

In 1616 on his second trip to Paris he was introduced to the "cabinet" of the Dupuy brothers through whom he met many learned men. Like Mersenne, Peiresc developed a large network of correspondents. He contacted people in Paris, Rome, Naples, Padua, Cairo, Aleppo, and Quebec. Sometimes his contact was to urge amateurs to make astronomical observations and other times it was to share information from Paris or Provence, or to pass on results from the investigations of others.

He was granted an abbacy by Louis XIII at Guitres. In 1624, after he took the tonsure, his position as abbé was regularized. (in French) (in French) (in French)


Jacques Peletier / Jacques Peletier du Mans

(1517-1582). French poet and mathematician. Member of French poetical reform group La Pleiade; insisted in Art poetique francaise (1555) that poets must imitate the classics; his chief verse collection, L'Amour des Amours (1555), contained lyrical sonnets and scientific poems.

The Galileo Project,

"'Peletier wrote L'Algebre (1554) in French in his own orthographic style. In this work he adopted several original and ingenious ideas from Stifel's Arithmetica integra (1544) and showed himself to have been strongly influenced by Cardano. Peletier's work presented the achievements already reached in Germany and Italy, and he was the first mathematician to see relations between coefficients and roots of equations' (DSB). Adams P583; Smith, History of Mathematics I, pp. 313-314; see (for the 1554 edition) Norman1677."


John Pell / Pellius

(1611-1685). English mathematician. Professor, Amsterdam (1643-46), Breda (1646-52); diplomat for Cromwell in Switzerland (1654-58). Introduced the sign "÷" into England. Gave solutions to the Diophantine equation x2 - Dy2 = 1 (known as the Pellian equation where D is a positive integer that is not a perfect square).

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "John Pell,"

Jacqueline Stedall. "The incommunicable Doctor Pell,", October 2001. "John Pell devoted most of his life to mathematics. He held no post of long term significance, wrote no great work, made no important discovery. Yet he knew mathematics better than most. He knew its history, and he knew its practitioners, both in England and on the continent. Above all, he had a sense, unparalleled in England at the time, of mathematics as a profoundly logical subject."

Biographies in John Aubrey's Brief Lives (in French)


S. William Pelletier

(1924-2004).  From 1962 until 1968, Dr. Pelletier was Head of the Chemistry Department at the University of Georgia, and was Provost for the next eight years. From 1976 until 2000, he was Director of The Institute of Natural Products Research, and then Professor Emeritus of the Chemistry Department at the University of Georgia from 2001 until present. He was the former President of American Society of Pharmacognacy and a member of University Church of Athens. He was a veteran of the United States Navy, serving in the Pacific Theatre during World War II. Achievements include research in structure and stereochemistry diterpenoid alkaloids, applications of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance to structure determination, synthesis of terpenes, X-ray crystallographic structures of natural products.

His life is discussed here:

"I have been working in the field of natural products for over forty years now. As we unravel the structures of complex natural products and illuminate their fascinating chemistry. I am impressed over and over with the marvelous design and handiwork of the Creator. In a certain real sense, as I explore and discover new truth about the part of the universe in which I work, I believe that I am thinking God's thoughts after him." Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Edward T. Peltzer / Edward Thomas Peltzer, III
(Born 1950).  Geochemist.  Oceanographer.  Senior Research Specialist, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA.  Achievements include being the first to measure extra-terrestrial Alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids in meteorites; developed technique for measuring trace levels of phyto-lipids and waxes in atmospheric aerosols; co-developed automated system for measuring sea-surface pCO2 while underway; developed instrument for shipboard measurment of dissolved and total organic carbon in seawater. Research Associate, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, December 1977 to May 1985. Research Specialist, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 1985 to June 1997.  Senior Research Technician, Research and Development Division, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, July 1997 to June 1999. Adjunct Oceanographer, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 1998 to July 2001. Senior Research Specialist, Research and Development Division, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, July 1999 to present.  B.S. Chemistry, Bucknell University, 1972; Ph.D. Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1979.

Member: American Chemical Society, American Geophysical Society, American Scientific Affiliation, Sigma Xi, The Oceanography Society.

Co-author book chapter: Chemical Oceanography, 1989.

Associate Editor, Marine Chemistry, January 1996 to present.

Web page,

Curriculum vitae in ascii text format:


John Maxwell Pemberton

(Born December 23, 1944).  Australian microbiological geneticist.  Achievements include isolation and charaterisation of first plasmids encoding the degradation of a man-made molecule-2, 4-D, first genetic map of a photosynthetic bactorium; demonstration of conjugal transfer of photosynthesis genes; discovery of genes which directly regulate photosynthesis.  Postdoctoral research molecular biologist dept. molecular biology and virology, University of California-Berkeley, 1971-73; research fellow School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University (South Australia), 1973-74; Lecturer dept. microbiology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, 1974-80, Senior Lecturer, 1980-86; Associate Professor, 1986.  Education:  B.Agricultural Science, Melbourne University, 1967; Ph.D., Monash University, 1971; graduate diploma in educational administration Darling Downs Institute for Advanced Education, 1982.

Member: Fellow Australian Society Microbiology, American Society Microbiology. Roman Catholic.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Richard Ronald Pemper

(Born 1952).  Physicist, researcher. Senior scientist, Baker Atlas, Houston, 1986-88, 91; mathematician, Boehringer Mannheim Corp., Indpls., 1989-91; Assistant Professor, Houston Baptist University, 1982-86.BS, Bob Jones University, 1975; MS, University of Texas El Paso, 1977; Ph.D., University Notre Dame, 1983.

Member: Society Petroleum Engineers, Society Professional Well Log Analysts, Okinawa Goju-Ryu Karate Federation (International Kata champion Executive men's division 1995, Black Belt).

Presenter in field; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Benedictus Pereira / Pererius, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1535-1610).  Spanish-born scholastic philosopher, mechanic.  Catholic.  Jesuit in 1552.

The Galileo Project,

In Rome, at the Collegio Romano (the Jesuit institution), Pereira taught logic, natural philosophy, metaphsics, theology, and became a known exponent on Sacred Scripture.


Sir William Henry Perkin

William Perkin (1838-1907)  is considered to be the father of the synthetic dye and perfume industries.


Claude Perrault

Claude Perrault (1613-1688), French scientist, architect, and engineer, designed the east front of the Louvre in Paris, the finest example of the classicistic phase of the French baroque style. Other works by Perrault are the Observatoire (1668-1672) in Paris and the château of Sceaux (1673-1674; destroyed), built for Colbert. Perrault designed the triumphal arch of the Porte Saint-Antoine in Paris, selected in competition over designs of Le Vau and Le Brun (begun in 1669 but never completed). Perrault's designs for the reconstruction of the church of Ste-Geneviève in Paris, the present Panthéon (ca. 1675), were discovered recently.

Author: Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des animaux. Paris, 1671; Les dix livres d'architecture de Vitruve, corrigez et traduits nouvellement en français avec des notes et des figures. Paris, 1673; Abrégé des dix livres d'architecture de Vitruve. Paris, 1674. English edition: An Abridgment of the Architecture of Vitruvius. London, 1692; Essais de physique, ou recueil de plusieurs traitez touchant les choses naturelles. 4 vols. Paris, 1680-88; Ordonnance des cinq espèces de colonnes selon la méthode des anciens. Paris, 1683; Recueil de plusieurs machines de nouvelle invention. Paris, 1700; Oeuvres diverses de physique et de mécanique de MMs C. et P. Perrault. Leyden, 1721; Voyage à Bordeaux. Edited by Paul Bonnefon, Paris, 1909.

The Galileo Project, or

"Claude Perrault,"

"Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, known as the 'Colonnade'. His extraordinary talent and versatility brought up on him much enmity and detraction, especially in his architectural work. He achieved success as physician and anatomist, as architect and author. As physician and physicist, he received the degree of doctor from the University of Paris, became one of the first members of the Academy of Sciences founded in 1666, and repeatedly won prizes for his thorough knowledge of physics and chemistry. He was the author of a series of treatises on physics and zoology, as well as on certain interesting machines of his own invention."


Pierre Perrault *** Not in Gale

(1611-1680).  French expert on hydraulics.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Perrault's experimental work on the rainfall and runoff of the upper Seine, which he reported in his major work, De l'origine des fontaines (Paris, 1674), is a milestone in the history of hydrology. He reviewed earlier hypotheses on the origin of springs and proposed an experimental investigation to prove that rainfall alone was sufficient to sustain the flow of springs and rivers throughout the year. Edme Mariotte later used more sophisticated methods to support Perrault's findings.


Dr. Matthew Perri, III *** Not in Gale

Pharmacist.  Gerontologist.  R.Ph. Professor and Associate Department Head for Community Practice, Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, Faculty of Gerontology, Faculty of Program in Pharmacy Care Administration. B.S. Pharmacy, Temple University, 1981; Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1985.

Faculty webpage,

Matthew Perri III, Ph.D. R.Ph. Professor and Associate Head for Community Practice, Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA.

Pharmacy Care and Medication Compliance,


M. Ray Perryman / Marlin Ray Perryman

(Born 1952).  Economist.  Mathematician.  Educator. President, The Perryman Group Institute Distinguished Professor of Economic Theory and Method, International Institute for Advanced Studies. Founder, Director Center for the Advancement of Economic Analysis, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, 1979, Director honors program, 1980, member graduate faculty, 1978, Herman Brown Professor economics, 1980, member Publicity Committee Baylor Business Studies, 1977, Director economics div. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 1978; Senior Associate Center for Communication Research, 1981, Resource Economics and Management Associations; Director State of Texas Econometric Model Project, 1979; founder, Director Baylor University Forecasting Service; econ. cons. to Comptroller Public Accounts, State Texas, 1979; reviewer numerous academic journals. and research grant orgns., 1978; Guest Lecturer economics various radio and TV programs, 1977. B.S. in Mathematics, Baylor University, 1974; Ph.D. in Economics, Rice University, 1978.

Dr. M. Ray Perryman

Dr. Perryman is Founder and President of The Perryman Group (TPG), an economic and financial analysis firm and  headquartered in Waco, Texas. He is widely regarded as one of the world's most influential and innovative economists. His complex modeling systems form a basis for corporate and governmental planning around the globe. His thousands of academic and trade articles and presentations span a wide variety of topics, gaining him international respect and acclaim. He has also authored several books, including Survive & Conquer, an account of the Texas economy during the turbulent 1980s, and The Measurement of Monetary Policy, a treatise on Federal Reserve activity.

Among Dr. Perryman's numerous awards are (1) the Nation's Outstanding Young Economist and Social Scientist, (2) the Outstanding Young Person in the World in the Field of Economics and Business, (3) one of the Ten Outstanding Young Persons in the World, and (4) the Outstanding Texas Leader of 1990.

During his more than 20 years of experience, he has been presented citations for his efforts from both the Congress of the United States and the Texas Legislature. He has been honored by (1) The Democracy Foundation for his role in promoting capitalism in mainland China, (2) the Asia and World Institute for his efforts to encourage international academic exchange, and (3) the Systems Research Foundation for his contributions to the field of economic modeling. He is a Fellow of the International Institute for Advanced Studies and recently received the Institute's prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award.

Member: American Economic Association, American Statistics Association, Midwest Economics Association, Missouri Valley Economics Association, Post-Keynesian Economics Association, Atlantic Economics Society, American Financial Association, Econometric Society, National Tax Association, Southern Economics Association, Western Economics Association, Southwestern Society for Economists, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, International Association of Mathematical Modeling, International Time Series Association (Executive secretary interaction Committee), Mathematics Association of America, Institute for Socioeconomic Studies, Association for Evolutionary Economics, AAAS, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Economics Society of England, Southwestern Federation Academy of Disciplines, Louisiana Academy of Sciences, History of Economics Society, Southwestern Economics Association, Southwestern Social Science Association, Sherlock Holmes Society London, Alpha Chi, Omicron Delta Epsilon, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Eta Sigma, Beta Gamma Sigma. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

The Entrepeneurship Institute.

"Forecaster keeps eye on economic weather,"  Web posted January 7, 1997

"Summary of the Perryman Report about the impact of VLTs,"

"Baylor Business Network Growing,"


Dr. Chris Peterson / Chris J. Peterson *** Not in Gale

Botanist. Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Biology, Plant Sciences, University of Georgia.

"My research interests encompass the several areas of population, community, and landscape ecology described below, although I primarily consider myself a community ecologist. I joined the Plant Biology Department at University of Georgia in March of 1994." Visiting Instructor, Department of Ecology & Evol. Biology, Princeton University,  1993; Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, 1992; Consulting Plant Ecologist, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Parks and Forestry,1990-1992; Teaching Assistant, General Ecology, Rutgers University, 1991; Teaching Assistant, General Biology, Rutgers University, 1990-1991.

B.A. 1985, Biology and Environmental Science, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana. Minor: Chemistry; Ph.D. 1992, Graduate Program in Ecology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Title: "The role of history and patch dynamics in the revegetation of a catastrophic windthrow in an old-growth beech-hemlock forest."

Member: Ecological Society of America (1985-present), Torrey Botanical Club (1986-present), American Institute of Biological Sciences (1984-present), International Association for Vegetation Science (1990-present).

Associate Editor, Journal of Ecology, 1998-present; Book review editor, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 1998-present.

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia,

Curriculum vitae:


Pierre Petit *** Not in Gale

(1619-1677).  French physician, astronomer, instrument-maker, engineer, cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

Petit's collection of telescopes and instruments was among the best in Paris. It included a filar micrometer, which Petit invented or developed, later used by Cassini I. There is debate as to whether Petit was independent of Auzout in this instrument.

Member: Royal Society.  He was a member of the group of savants meeting at Mersenne's lodgings, and worked with or knew a large number of the scientists of the period. In 1646 he collaborated with Blaise Pascal repeating Torricelli's experiments on barometric vacuum [Pierre Humbert, L'oeuvre scientifique de Blaise Pascal (Paris, 1947), pp. 73 ff.]. A member of the Montmor academy, he was a forceful advocate for the establishment of an official scientific organization, but was passed over by Colbert in the initial selection of members of the Academie in 1666. As far as I know, he never was made a member. [see Harcourt Brown, Scientific Organizations in the Seventeenth Century (Baltimore, 1934), passim]

He was a regular correspondent with Henry Oldenburg and played a central role facilitating the exchange of ideas between the two communities. He was elected a foreign fellow of the Royal Society in 1667.


Sir William Petty

Sir William Petty (1623-1687) was a sailor, physician, professor, inventor, surveyor, and member of Parliament, as well as a political economist and statistician.  Professor of anatomy at Oxford and of music at Gresham College, London (1651); physician to army in Ireland (1652); completed (1654) "Down Survey" of Irish lands forfeited in 1641; served ascommissioner of distribution of land grants to soldiers; secretary to Henry Cromwell (lord deputy of Ireland, 1657); made surveyor general of Ireland by Charles II; set up ironworks, opened mines, quarries, and fisheries. A founder of the Royal Society; designed a twin-hulled ship (1662). One of authors of first book on vital statistics (1662); one of first to point out errors in mercantilist position that abundance of precious metals sets standard of prosperity; showed unsoundness of prohibition upon exportation of money; his Treatises of Taxes and Contributions (1662, 1667, 1685) stated doctrine that price depends upon labor necessary for production; his Verbum sapienti (1691) contained first estimate of national incomes and first discussion of the velocity of money.


John Aubrey.  "A Brief Life of William Petty, 1623-87,"


John Bell Pettigrew *** Not in Gale

(1834-1908). Anatomist; Physiologist, president of the Royal Medical Society.


Johann Conrad Peyer

(1653-1712). Swiss physician and anatomist. Professor in Schaffhausen; first to describe lymphatic nodules in walls of small intestine, now known as Peyer's patches (1682).

The Galileo Project,

Peyer's Patches.'s_patches.html


William Lyon Phelps

(1865-1943) Lampson Professor of English literature at Yale University, distinguished lecturer, author, critic and ordained minister.

William Lyon Phelps Foundation Website:

William Lyon Phelps.  Human Nature in the Bible (HTML at


William D. Phillips / William Daniel Phillips

(Born 1948). William D. Phillips has spent his entire professional career at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards, of the U.S. Department of Commerce. He has focused much of his research on the development of techniques for cooling atoms to very low temperatures and then studying the properties of these atoms. In 1988 he discovered that atoms could be cooled to a temperature of only 40K, or 40 millionths of a degree Kelvin. This temperature was about six times lower than the temperature that had been predicted as the lowest possible temperature to which matter can be cooled. As a result of this discovery, he was able to study the interaction of sodium atoms in a form that had never been observed before. For his work with the cooling of matter, Phillips was awarded a share of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics along with Steven Chu and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.



"Nobelist William Phillips Addresses ASA99; William Phillips of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly NBS) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, won the prize in 1997 for his contribution to low-temperature physics,



Linda Phillips-Jones

(Born 1943).  Psychologist.  International Training Consultants, Saigon, Vietnam, trainer and curriculum specialist, 1966-71; private career and personal development consultant, 1972-present. Research scientist for American Institutes for Research, 1979-83. Counselor/psychologist at Coalition of Counseling Centers (Christian organization), 1981-present.



John Philoponus ***Not in Gale

John Philoponus (c.490-570), a Christian philosopher, scientist, and theologian is also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria. The epithet 'Philoponus' means literally 'Lover of toil'. Philoponus' life and work are closely connected to the city of Alexandria and the Alexandrian Neoplatonic school. Although the Aristotelian-Neoplatonic tradition was the source of his intellectual roots and concerns, he was an original thinker who eventually broke with that tradition in many important respects, both substantive and methodological, and cleared part of the way which led to more critical and empirical approaches in the natural sciences. Which intellectual, religious, or other cultural circumstances of his life and times may have put Philoponus into the position to initiate and foreshadow the eventual demise of Aristotelianism is one of the most fascinating questions anyone who tries to arrive at a fuller appreciation of the work of this important late Greek philosopher faces.


Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Giuseppi Piazzi

(1746-1826). Italian Theatine monk and astronomer. Professor, Palermo (from 1780), where he was founder and director of the observatory; director of government observatory in Naples (from 1817). Discovered and named Ceres, first known asteroid (1801); published catalogues of fixed stars, the second(1813) listing 7646 stars.


Jean Picard

(1620-1682). French astronomer. First to apply telescope to measurement of angles; known esp. for accurate measurement of a degree of a meridian, from which he computed size of the Earth (1668-70); credited with first use of telescopic sights and of pendulum clocks in astronomical observations; made first recorded observation of barometric light (1675); determined latitude and longitude of Tycho Brahe's observatory Uraniborg.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Jean Picard," or

The Picard Page,


Rosalind (Roz) W. Picard *** Not in Gale

Director of Affective Computing Research, Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences.

From home page

"Rosalind W. Picard is founder and director of the Affective Computing Research Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Laboratory and is co-director of the Things That Think Consortium , the largest industrial sponsorship organization at the lab. She holds a Bachelors in Electrical Engineering with highest honors from the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Masters and Doctorate degrees, both in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). She has been a member of the faculty at the MIT Media Laboratory since 1991, with tenure since 1998. Prior to completing her doctorate at MIT, she was a Member of the Technical Staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories where she designed VLSI chips for digital signal processing and developed new methods of image compression and analysis. She was also an NSF Graduate Fellow.

The author of over a hundred peer-reviewed scientific articles in multidimensional signal modeling, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, and human-computer interaction, Picard is known internationally for pioneering research in digital libraries and content-based video retrieval, and for pioneering research in Affective Computing. Her award-winning book, Affective Computing, (MIT Press, 1997) lays the groundwork for giving machines the skills of emotional intelligence. She is co-recipient with Tom Minka of a best paper prize from the Pattern Recognition Society for their work on interactive machine learning with multiple models (1998) and co-recipient of a best theory paper prize with Barry Kort and Rob Reilly for their work on affect in human learning (2001)."

Personal webpage:

Professor R. W. Picard.  Comments about her former atheism and how scientists often make assumptions that are unscientific.

Professor R. W. Picard. A 15 minute invited talk on the subject "Intellectual Assurance Christianity is Sound,"

Professor R. W. Picard.  "Newton-Rationalizing Christianity, or Not?"


Alessandro Piccolomini

(1508-1578).  Italian littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, and prelate, coadjutor to archbishop of Siena (1574), author of La Raffaella (1540), Cento sonetti (1549), and two comedies, Alessandro (1545) and Amor costante (1549), translations of works by Ovid and Virgil, commentaries on Aristotle, and De le stelle fisse (1540), first book of printed star charts. From the illustrious Italian family of Siena, including Enea Silvio, who became Pope Pius II.


Arcangelo Piccolomini

(c. 1525-1586).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, physician, embryologist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

His works include In librum Galeni de humoribus commentarii (1556), which contained his translation of Galen's De humoribus, and Anatomicae praelectiones (Rome, 1586), his course of anatomical lectures. To his anatomical descriptions he added pathological observations. Anatomical description was less important in his work than physiological theory was, theory drawn from Galen, Aristotle, and neoplatonims.

His Praelectiones contain a long dissertation on generation.

A member of the Medical College of Rome. Protofisico of the College in 1580.

In the sixteenth century, the Italian philosopher and physician, Arcangelo Piccolomini, was the first to make the distinction between white matter and the cortex.


Susan La Flesche Picotte

(1865-1915).  Susan LaFlesche Picotte was the first Native American women physician in the United States. She practiced preventive medicine, and urged adoption of modern hygienic practices and public sanitation. She lobbied to have a hospital established on the Omaha reservation and won, serving as its attending physician for the last two years of her life. The hospital was renamed in her honor after her death.

Just the Facts about Susan LaFlesche Picotte, M.D.,


Edward Francis Pigot, SJ   *** Not in Gale

(1858-1929).  Pigot was a physics teacher at the Riverview College, Sydney 1887 -92 and was the founder and Director of the Riverview College Observatory 1907-29.

'Pigot, Edward Francis', in Physics in Australia to 1945, R.W. Home, with the assistance of Paula J. Needham, Australian Science Archives Project, June 1995,


Dr. Andrew D. J. Pinder, Ph.D. MSc EurErg MErgS
Health and safety specialist.  Ergonomics Section, Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield, UK.

Member: Cemetery Road Baptist Church.

Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield, England. Health, Safety and Ergonomics

HSL home page:

HSE home page:  The Health and Safety Laboratory is Britain's leading industrial health and safety research facility. Operating as an Agency of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), they play a pivotal role in support of HSE's mission to ensure that risks to people's health and safety from work activities are properly controlled.

Health & Safety Executive home page:


Philippe Pinel

(1745-1826). French physician. A founder of psychiatry. Chief physician of Bicetre (1793-95) and director of Saltpetriere (1795-1826), both Parisian asylums; pioneered humane treatment of the insane; consideredinsanity result of psychological and physiological causes, rather than demonic possession; distinguished various psychoses and described hallucinations, withdrawal, and other symptoms. His Nosographie philosophique (1798) and Traite medico-philosophique sur l'alienation mentale ou la manie (1801) laid much of foundation for establishment of psychiatry as a field of medicine.

Philippe Pinel Links:

Philippe Pinel,

Institut Philippe Pinel de Montréal.


Alexandre Gui Pingré

(1711-1796). French astronomer. Made observations of lunar eclipses and transits of Venus across the sun; author of Cometographie (1783-84).


Tomé Pires *** Not in Gale

(c. 1468-c. 1540).  Portuguese pharmacologist, geographer, apothecary, merchant.  Catholic, from a converted Jewish family.

The apothecary of Prince Afonso (1475-1491 AD) and author of Suma Oriental (Eastern Account), the earliest extensive account of the East written by a Portuguese.

The Galileo Project,

Pires's letter to the King of Portugal on drugs of the orient was almost the beginning of European knowledge of them.  His manuscript Suma Oriental, on the geography, ethnography and commerce of the orient, unknown in his own time, portrays European knowledge of the East at the beginning of the 16th century.


Willem Piso *** Not in Gale

(1611-1678).  Dutch physician, pharmacologist, natural historian, botanist.

Willem Piso accompanied Governor Johann Moritz von Nassau to Brazil, and was physician to the Dutch settlement there from 1633 to 1644. He made an extensive study of the native materia medica, while his colleague Markgraf compiled an eight-volume manuscript on the natural history of the region. Markgraf, however, died in 1643, and part of his work was published, along with Piso's, by de Laet in 1648, an edition hastily put together and full of errors. Piso was unhappy with the 1648 edition, and took this opportunity to correct its many errors, remove the interpolations, add or replace woodcuts, expand his commentary, as well as adding additional tracts. He also incorporated Markgraf's writings into his own text.

The Galileo Project,

From Piso's period in Brasil came the Historia naturalis Brasiliae (of which four of twelve books were by Piso and eight by Markgraf), a compendium of tropical medicine, pharmacology (including the introduction of a Brasilian root into European use), and natural history.

Member: Medical College; Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, of which Piso was decanus in 1656-60 and 1670.


Bartholomeo Pitiscus

(1561-1613).  German trigonometricist, mathematician and theologian.  A theologist by trade and a strong influence in the Calvinist government of his time, Bartholomeo Pitiscus also essentially coined the term "trigonometry." The term comes from the title of his book Trigonometria, which consists of three parts, including five chapters devoted to plane and spherical geometry, now known as plane and spherical trigonometry. In addition to its contribution to mathematical nomenclature, the text is highly regarded and is especially noteworthy because in it Pitiscus used all six of the trigonometric functions. He also published Thesaurus mathematicus. Lunar Crater Pitiscus named in his honor.

Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

The Galileo Project,

Pitiscus was court chaplin at Breslau.  c. 1584, he taught and then became court chaplain and court preacher to Elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Bartholomeo Pitiscus," or

University of Heidelberg (In German).

"Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics,"


"The term TRIGONOMETRY is due to Bartholomeo Pitiscus (1561-1613) and was first printed in his Trigonometria: sive de solutione triangulorum tractatus brevis et perspicuus, which was published as the final part of Abraham Scultetus' Sphaericorum libri tres methodicé conscripti et utilibus scholiis expositi (Heidelberg, 1595) (DSB). The word first appears in English in 1614 in the English translation of the same work: Trigonometry: or The Doctrine of Triangles. First written in Latine, by B. Pitiscus..., and now Translated into English, by Ra. Handson."


Alvin Plantinga
(Born 1932).  Philosophy educator, author.  Alvin Plantinga is John. A. O'Brien Professor of Philosophy at Notre Dame University and a Fellow with the International Society for Complexity Information and Design.

Plantinga came to the University of Notre Dame from Calvin College in1982, where he had been teaching philosophy since 1963. Before his teaching position at Calvin, he taught at both Yale University (instructor in philosophy, 1957 - 1958) and Wayne State University (1958 - 1960). Professor Plantinga has also served as a visiting Professor at the University of Illinois (visiting Lecturer, 1960), Harvard University (1964 - 1965), the University of Chicago, the University of Michigan (visiting Professor, 1967), Boston University, Indiana University, the University of California at Los Angeles (1972), Syracuse University, Oxford University and the University of Arizona (1979 - 1980). Dr. Plantinga received his M.A. degree in 1955 from the University of Michigan and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1958.

Member: American Philosophical Association (president of Western Division, 1981-82), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Society for Christian Philosophers.

A world-renowned philosopher and a specialist in the philosophy of epistemology, Alvin Plantinga has published more than 12 books and more than 100 articles in professional publications, many of which have been translated into other languages, including Dutch, French, Spanish, Polish, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Chinese and Japanese. He has given more than 200 guest lectures at conferences and on campuses in North America, Europe, and Australia.

Author: God and Other Minds, 1967, The Nature of Necessity, 1974, God, Freedom and Evil, 1974, Does God Have A Nature?, 1980, Faith and Rationality, 1983, Warrant: The Current Debate, 1993, Warrant and Proper Function, 1993.

Awards: Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1954-55; E. Harris Harbison Award for distinguished teaching, 1968; Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences Fellow, 1968-69; Guggenheim Fellow, 1971-72; visiting Fellow at Balliol College, Oxford University, 1975-76; National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow, 1975-76; D.D., Glasgow University, 1982.

Alvin Plantinga, Department of Philosophy, The University of Notre Dame,

Contact page,

Alvin Plantinga: The Analytic Theist.  A Website Devoted to the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga,


Alvin Plantinga, University of Notre Dame.  "When Faith and Reason Clash: Evolution and the Bible,"  From Christian Scholar's Review XXI:1 (September 1991): 8-33.  Used by permission.

Roy Varghese, Executive Editor, Truth, on "Theism as a Properly Basic Belief" Truth Journal: An Interview with Professor Alvin Plantinga,"


Félix Platter *** Not in Gale

(1536-1614).  Swiss physician, botanist, pathologist, psychiatrist.

The Galileo Project,

Platter was one of the foremost pathologists at the end of the sixteenth century. The Observationes is a collection of vivid descriptions of a wide variety of diseases, including all the then known psychiatric disorders. Platter was one of the first to study mental illness scientifically, seeking its origin in physiological rather than supernatural causes. He gives substantial accounts of gynaecological disorders, of the plague, and of certain dermatological conditions. Among the specific contributions to medical history in this book are the first known report of a case of death from hypertrophy of the thymus, in an infant; the first description of the condition later termed "Dupuytren's contracture"; and an account of a meningioma.


John Playfair *** Not in Gale

(1748-1819).  Scottish geologist, physicist, mathematician.  Playfair was among the first in Britain to teach modern analysis. Despite his success as a mathematician, Playfair exchanged the Chair of Mathematics for the Chair of Natural Philosophy in 1805. Two years later he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. Playfair was the first president of The Astronomical Institution of Edinburgh, founded in 1811, preceding the Royal Astronomical Society in England by nine years. The New Observatory on Calton Hill was built largely through Playfair's efforts in support of the project. Proponent of Huttonian (James Hutton) theory of the earth; first to propose that a river cuts its own valley; first to attribute transport oferratics to glaciation.

Honors: Fellow of the Royal Society, Elected 1807, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , Lunar features: Crater Playfair; Planetary features, Crater Playfair on Mars.

From or  Written by J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson, based on an honours project written by Mark Anderson at the University of St Andrews in 1999.


Dr. Janis Plostnieks
(Born 1933).  Pharmaceutical company executive. Retired Director, Science and Technology, Johnson
& Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey.  Senior scientist McNeil Labs. Philadelphia, 1959-63, group leader chemistry, Ft. Washington, Pennsylvania, 1963-71, Director biochemistry, 1971-78, Executive Director research, 1978-82, Executive Director development research McNeil Pharmaceutical Co., Spring House, Pennsylvania, 1982. B.A., Western Reserve University, 1955; M.S., Yale University, 1957, Ph.D., 1960.

Member President's council Spring Garden College, Philadelphia, 1981. Member American Chemical Society, AAAS, N.Y. Academy of Science, Sigma Xi. Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals; patentee in field.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Robert Plot *** Not in Gale

(1640-1696).  English natural historian, paleontologist, iatrochemist, alchemist, cartographer.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Planning a general natural history of England and Wales, Plot began with the Natural History of Oxfordshire, 1677, which led to his election to the Royal Society that year. Natural History of Staffordshire, 1686. He started to work on the natural histories of Kent and of Middlesex, which he did not finish, and he never came close to achieving the general work on all of England. Plot was more concerned with curiosities and antiquities than with what we might call natural history. Some papers on curiosities appeared in the Philosophical Transactions.

As part of natural history, he collected fossils and entered into the debate about their origin, being convinced that they were not organic but rather mineral crystallizations.

As a chemist he was an iatrochemist who pursued a universal solvent. Taylor cites manuscripts that establish Plot's deep involvement in alchemy.

Member: Royal Society, 1677; Secretary, 1682-4 and editor of the Philosophical Transactions; Secretary again in 1692.  Plot helped to organize the Oxford Philosophical Society about 1680 and became its director of experiments.  Informal Connections: Correspondence with Dr.Fell, Aston, Edward Tyson, Gould, Molyneux, Evelyn, Aubrey, Wood, Lister, Cole, Weymouth, W.Graven and others. He was an intimate of Pepys.


Charles Plumier *** Not in Gale

(1646-1704).  French natural historian, botanist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.  Order of Minims in 1662.

Plumier (1646-1704), a member of the Minims, studied physics, mathematics, and drawing. He traveled to America three times to form natural history collections and wrote several important books on the botany of the Antilles. "The first machine available to engineers, as regards both date and importance, was the lathe. This machine, which goes back to some unknown period, did not achieve popularity until the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; it became really useful in the second half of the latter century."Singer et al., eds., A History of Technology, Vol. IV, p. 382.

The Galileo Project,

After his return from his second voyage Plumier published Description des plantes de l'Amerique which contained 107 plates engraved at royal expense. Nova plantarum americanarum genera (1703), which contains 40 plates and description of 106 new genera. Traité des fougères de l'amerique (1705), with 172 plates was published upon his return from his third voyage.

Plumier's duty on his first voyage was to collect plants to form a natural history collection of plants. Surian gathered plants with the intent for medical application and chemical analyses. After Surian and Plumier quarreled, Plumier traveled alone on the following two voyages as the royal botanist. He died while waiting for the ship that would take him to Peru in search of the cinchona tree.

Although it is unclear that medicinal plants were Plumier's goal on the first voyages, the final one was aimed at the cinchona tree: quinine.

Charles Plumier


Martin Poenie *** Not in Gale
Biologist.  Associate Professor, Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology University of Texas, Austin (1992). Stanford, 1986.

Personal webpage, University of Texas at Austin,

Faculty webpage, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin

Letter to SBOE from David Hillis and Martin Poenie  A letter to the Texas State Board of Education (SBOE) telling its members that they "believe that all of the books conform to the TEKS standards and should be approved and placed on the conforming list of textbooks."  November 4, 2003.


Pierre Polinière *** Not in Gale

(1671-1734).  French physicist, natural philosopher, specialist in electricity.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Polinière was a staunch believer that conclusions about causes must be based on experimentation. He was one of the first in France to present public lectures on experimental natural philosophy.  He made independent discoveries in electroluminescence and was one of the earliest on the continent to advocate Newton's theory of color.  He made his most significant contribution as a popularizer of experimental natural philosophy. He began to demonstrate experiments in courses of philosophy in Paris in 1696. He started to compile these experiments in 1701. The results of his efforts was the work, Experiences de physique (Paris, 1709), containing 100 carefully detailed experiments. The work was very popular and went through 5 editions. Half of the experiments dealt with the elasticity of air. The remaining experiments were concerned with chemistry, hydrostatics, acoustics, magnetism, light and colors, and selected aspects of physiology.

In 1706 he discovered the "new phosphor" by rubbing an evacuated glass globe with the hand.

He was the member the Société des Arts of Louis de Bourbon-Condé, Count of Clermont.


John Charlton Polkinghorne, KBE, FRS

(Born 1930).  Theoretical physicist and Anglican priest. California Institute of Technology, Commonwealth Fund Fellow, 1955-56; University of Edinburgh, Scotland, Lecturer in mathematical physics, 1956-58; Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, Lecturer in applied mathematics, 1958-65, reader in theoretical physics, 1965-68, Professoressor of mathematical physics, 1968-79; Trinity College, Cambridge, England, Fellow, 1954-86; Trinity Hall, Dean and chaplain, 1986-89; Queens' College, Cambridge, England, president, 1989-96, Fellow, 1996-present.

A Fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, and Canon Theologian of Liverpool Cathedral, Sir John Polkinghorne has published widely on theoretical elementary particle physics and he is a leading participant in the debate about the compatibility of science and theology. The only ordained member of the Royal Society, he is an Anglican priest, and member of the Church's General Synod. His books include: Science and Creation (1988); Science and Providence (1989); Reason and Reality (1991); The Faith of a Physicist (1994); Quarks, Chaos and Christianity (1994); Beyond Science (1994); Scientists as Theologians (1996); and Belief in God in an Age of Science (1998).

His essay, "God in Relation to Nature: The 1998 Witherspoon Lecture: Can science's account of the regularity of nature be reconciled with Christianity's talk of the God who acts in history?" can be found here:


Jennifer Lee Atkin.  "Revelation & Reason,"


Jules H. Poirier *** Not in Gale Electronics engineer.

From "Creationist Scientist Jules H. Poirer,"

Senior electronic design specialist engineer for the U.S. Navy, Ryan Aeronautics and the Electronics Division of Convair, for defense and space projects.  He has designed circuitry for the Saturn Radar Pulse Altimeter, as well as other navigational circuitry. He studied electrical engineering, physics and mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley.

Author: From Darkness to Light to Flight: Monarch, the Miracle Butterfly; The Life and Adventures of Monica Monarch, 1997.

Jules H. Poirer.  'The Magnificent Migrating Monarch', Creation 20(1):28-31, 1997.

Jules Poirier and Kenneth B. Cumming.  "DESIGN FEATURES OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY LIFE CYCLE," Impact, No. 237 March 1993,


William Grosvenor Pollard

(1911-1989). Nuclear scientist, quantum physicist, Episcopal priest, founder, Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Assistant Professor, 1936-41, Associate Professor, 1941-43, Professor of physics, 1943-46; Oak Ridge Associated Universities (formerly Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies), Oak Ridge, TN, incorporator, 1946, and executive director, 1947-present. Protestant Episcopal Church, ordained deacon, 1952, priest, 1954; priest Associate of St. Stephen's Church, Oak Ridge, TN, 1954-present; priest in charge of St. Alban's Chapel, Clinton, TN, 1959-65. Columbia University, research scientist on The Manhattan Project, 1944-45; University of the South, member of faculty, Graduate School of Theology, 1956, 1960, 1961, trustee, 1955-70.

Author: Physicist and Christian, A Dialogue Between the Communities, 1961; Transcendence and Providence: Reflections of a Physicist and Priest, 1987.

Biography.  Oak Ridge Associated Universites.

Pam Bonee, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.  Biography, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.

Richard K. Toner, Princeton University. Review, "Physicist and Christian, A Dialogue Between the Communities, By William Grosvenor Pollard,178 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut, The Seabury Press, 1961. $4.25," From Theology Today, v. 19, n. 4.  January 1963.  Pollard: "Purely by way of personal witness out of my experience in both communities, I can simply assert that the knowledge I believe I have of the truth of Christianity and my sense of conviction as to its essential validity and reality rests on just as good and just as firm and convincing grounds as the knowledge I have of the truth of physics and my sense of conviction as to the essential validity of the view of reality which the community of physics has presently achieved."


Margaret Mary Poloma

(Born 1943). Sociologist. (Sociology of Religion, Spirituality and Health, Sociological Theory, Qualitative Methods). "The focus of my research, writing, visiting professorships and guest lecturing is in the general area of the sociology of religion.  More specific and current research involves the1990s revivals in the Pentecostal/Charismatic movements, the Assemblies of God, spirituality/religion and health, and an inner healing prayer technique (Theophostic Ministry)."

Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, instructor in sociology, 1969-70; University of Akron, Akron, OH, Assistant Professor, 1970-77, Associate Professor, 1977-81, Professor of sociology, 1981-present. Ph.D. (1970) from Case Western Reserve University.

Faculty webpage, University of Akron: "MARGARET M. POLOMA, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus,"

Curriculum vita:

Margaret Mary Poloma told Contemporary Authors: "Undoubtedly the experience that has most colored my recent professional involvements and writings is my 1975 conversion, during which I accepted Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord. Not unlike the scientists of seventeenth-century England, whose writings were analyzed by sociologist Robert Merton, I desire that my career as a social scientist primarily gives glory to God. It is through prayer that I seek to determine the research and writing path of God's design and prayer that strengthens me to carry out my work.

"My own religious experiences have led me to work with other sociologists who are seeking to develop a Christian perspective in sociology. Much like the humanist, feminist, or black perspectives that are already part of the sociological enterprise, the Christian perspective attempts to alert the discipline to biases in it. Sociology's atheistic roots, although often blanketed with 'value-free' assertions, have prevented it from understanding certain aspects of human behavior that have failed to align with its values."


Mark Popovsky

(Born 1922). Mark Popovsky, a former Soviet journalist and author of books on Russian scientists and their achievements left his native Russia in 1977, after his articles exposing the government's treatment of Soviet botanist Nikolai Vavilov alienated the Soviet government authorities. Popovsky wrote Contemporary Authors: "I left medicine because I had a special interest in literature. For the last twenty-five years my major interest has fallen in the area of ethics of the Russian intelligentsia, particularly Russian scientists. I write nonfiction about those scientists. Unfortunately, I write only Russian."  Free-lance writer and journalist in Moscow, Russia, 1946-77; free-lance writer in New York, NY, 1978-present. Founder of news agency, Mark Popovsky Press, 1977. Fellow of Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1980. Deputy to the editor in chief of Russian language quarterly Grany (title means "Facets"), 1984-86. Lecturer on scientific subjects.  Education: Moscow State University, B.A., 1950, M.A., 1952.

Member: International PEN, Writers-in-Exile.  Soviet Union Army, Medical Science, 1941-45; became lieutenant.

Author of books written in Russian, June News: Notes of a Nonaccredited Correspondent, Posev-Verlag, 1978, and The Blessed Life of Professor Voino-Yasenetzki, Archbishop and Surgeon, Young Men's Christian Association Press, 1979. The Manipulated Science, translated from Russian by Paul Falla, Doubleday, 1979.

The Vavilov Affair, translated by David Floyd, Doubleday, 1981, reprinted with a foreword by Andrei Sakharov, 1984.

Contributor of about five hundred articles to scientific journals in Russia and to Samizdat. Editor of Russian language, Our Country and the World, 1986-90.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.


Giambattista della Porta

The Renaissance scientist, natural philosopher, military engineere, instrument-maker, pharmacologist, physicist and dramatist Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615) is noted for his biological index of personality tendencies. He wrote 17 plays, mostly comedies.

The Galileo Project,

Porta was a polymath who dabbled in nearly everything. His first book, published in 1585 as Magiae naturalis, constituted the basis of a twenty-book edition of the Magia naturalis published in 1589, which is his best-known work and the basis of his reputation.  His other published works include De furtivis literarum notis (1563), De humana physiognomonia (1586), Physionomonica (1588), De refractione optices (1589) and De distillatione (1610). He perfected the camera obscura.  He wrote also on squaring the circle and on curved lines, as well as on hydraulic machines.  Porta formed a personal museum of natural history which helped to spur the concept of public museums. He experimented and published on agriculture.  He published a book in 1606 on raising water by the force of the air.  In 1608 he published on military engineering.

Member: Accademia dei Lincei, 1610-1615.  He established the Accademia dei Segreti (or Academia secretorum naturae) some time prior to 1580. It met in his house in Naples, was certainly founded on the model of the earlier literary academies, and was devoted to discussion and study of the secrets of nature. It seems to have closed by order of the Inquisition.  In 1604 Cesi traveled to Naples and often visited Porta. In the same year Porta wrote a compendium of the history of the Cesi family. The documented meeting of Cesi and Porta in 1604 was followed by a respectful correspondence which culminated in the enrollment of Porta among the Lincei on 6 July 1610.  In 1611 he helped to establish the Accademia degli Oziosi, a leading literary academy in Naples.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Giambattista Della Porta," or  Della Porta's major work, Magia naturalis (1558), examines the natural world claiming it can be manipulated by the natural philosopher through theoretical and practical experiment. The work discusses many subjects including demonology, magnetism and the camera obscura.

Della Porta also published Villae (1583-92), an agricultural encyclopaedia and De distillatione (1609), describing his work in chemistry.

"Natural Magick: "The Works and Life of  John Baptist Porta "


Brother Potamian (O'Reilly)

(1847-1917) Educator, scientist.  Potamian was not merely an administrator, an instructor, and a laboratory investigator; he was also a writer who, in addition to semi-popular articles in Engineering (London), Electrical World (New York), Manhattan Quarterly, Catholic World, and the Catholic Encyclopedia, published a number of volumes. These included The Theory of Electrical Measurements (1885); The Makers of Electricity (1909), with James J. Walsh; and an annotated Bibliography of the Latimer Clark Collection of Books and Pamphlets Relating to Electricity and Magnetism (1909). The preparation of this last work was assigned to him by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at the suggestion of Sylvanus P. Thompson, the English scientist, who declared that in America only Potamian and Park Benjamin were capable of such an undertaking.


Br. Potamian also completed the monumental and critically acclaimed task of an annotated catalogue of The Wheeler Collection, a valuable collection of books, journals and pamphlets for the study of the history of electrical technology for the American Institute of  Electrical Engineers.  The main part of the collections is nearly three thousand books published in Latin, French, German, Italian and English from the late nineteenth centuries.  The earliest works, numbering about two hundred, recount the powers of the lodestone, the vagaries of the mariner's compass and theories of electricity and magnetism from Pliny to Descartes.  Eighteenth-century electricians are also represented by about four hundred books.


Percivall Pott

(1714-1788).  English surgeon. Introduced improvements making surgery more humane, took steps toward abolishing extensive use of escharotics and cautery; suffered (1756) a particular kind of fracture of ankle, still called Pott's fracture; gave (1779) clinical description of a spinal affliction known as Pott's disease.


François Pourfour du Petit *** Not in Gale

(1664-1741).  French physiologist, anatomist, surgeon, pharmacologist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Pourfour is known for his surgical skill and for a number of important discoveries, including that of the canal between the anterior and posterior suspensory ligaments of the lens of the eye.  He is especially associated with the physiological experiments carried out at Namur between 1710 and 1712, and at Paris during the mid-1720's. In 1712 at Namur he showed that the origin of the sympathetic nerve was not the cranium. He carried out this experiment for members of the Académie in 1725. Although his results were definitive, they were largely ignored until the 19th century.

He described his original research in several treatises published between 1710 and 1728. Among their titles are Trois lettres d'un médecin...sur un nouveau systeme du cerveau (1710); Sur l'operation de la cataracte (1724); and Mémoires sur plusieurs découvertes faites dans les yeux de l'homme... (1723).

He designed ophthalmic instruments.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1722-1741.

Bernard-Horner Syndrome.


John Wesley Powell

(1834-1902). John Wesley Powell was a nineteenth-century American explorer, ethnologist, geologist, anthropologist, governmental administrator, and early conservationist. He rose to national recognition when he led a series of risky surveying expeditions to the Green and Colorado rivers from 1869 to 1875. He directed the United States Geological Survey (1875-1894), which he helped found.  He succeeded Clarence King as director(1881); inaugurated (1883) publication of bulletins and (1890) monographs, and series of folio atlases (from 1894) presenting geologic and topographic charts.  He was also the first director and head of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology (1879-1902).

Powell sought to change the corrupt and obsolete post-Civil War administration of U.S. public lands. An ardent conservationist, he also knew Native American tribes extensively. He argued that western farmers' techniques were eroding the earth, and spoke against the water and lumber industries exploiting the land. He wrote several books, including the first classification of American Indian languages in Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages (1877) and Truth and Error; or, The Science of Intellection (1898). He founded Contributions to North American Ethnology (1877); also wrote Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and Its Tributaries (1875) and Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States (1878).

An Encyclopedia of World Biography critic wrote, "Perhaps Powell's greatest contribution was as an administrator who recognized that government and science should work in partnership." James M. Aton added in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, "His divergent interests resembled one of the braided strembeds in his beloved canyon country, branching out in many directions but ultimately beginning and ending in the same stream."

Member: Illinois State Natural History Society (secretary, 1854-61).

John Wesley Powell Museum.

"John Wesley Powell,"


Elizabeth Henry Power

(Born 1953).  Consultant.  Director instructional design, Call Center University, 1997-98; owner, MPDDD Resource & Education Center, Nashville, 1991-93; owner, EPower & Assocs., Granite Falls, North Carolina, 1980; corp. secretary, consultant, Quantum Leap Cons., Inc., Nashville, 1984-86; behavioral consultant, Nutri-System Weight Loss Center, Nashville, North Carolina, 1982-84; with adoption and foster home recruitment, Davidson County Dept. Human Services, Nashville, 1980-81.  Consultant GMSaturn, 1988-98; dir. instrnl. design Call Center University, 1998; senior consultant J.D. Power and Assocs., 1998-2000, 02; senior consultant, 2000; training mgr. Exult, 2001-02.  Education: Cert., North Carolina School of Arts, 1971; BA, University North Carolina, Greensboro, 1977; MEd, Vanderbilt University, 1997.

Member: International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, American Society of Training and Development, Orgn. Development Network.

Honors: Recipient numerous awards North Carolina Dept. Mental Health Mental Retardation, 1979, State of North Carolina, 1979, Central Nashville Optimist Club, 1982, Waco YWCA, Waco, Texas, 1985.

Author: If Change Is All There Is, Choice Is All You've Got, 1990, Managing Our Selves: Building a Community of Caring, 1992;  Managing Our Selves: God in Our Midst, 1992; contbg. author: Nonprofit Policies and Procedures, 1992, 98, 2000, 01, More than Survivors: Conversations with Multiple Personality Clients, 1992, 1998, also articles.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Multiple Treasures Christian Support,


Henry Power *** Not in Gale

(c.1623-1668).  English physician, microscopist, natural philosopher, chemist, astronomer, physiologist.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Power did not become involved in the religious divisions of his day; he had close friends in all camps.

In his microscopical observations Power was much concerned to illustrate the workmanship of God.

Power was interested in all aspect of the new natural philosophy, including natural history. As a medical student he became interested in Harvey's discoveries. With Towneley, he carried out meteorological measurements. He produced some embriology and was one of the early preformationists.

However, he is best known for Experimental Philosophy, in Three Books, 1664, which included the first microscopical observations published in England, and also explored atmospheric pressure, and presented some (though not much) work on magnetism. It appears that he independently discovered Boyle's Law. Experimental Philosophy was explicitly directed to demonstrating the "atomic" (i.e, mechanical) philosophy.  Power left a number of manuscripts on chemistry, especially in relation to physiology.

He was also a student of astronomy. He equipped himself with a telescope for observing. He was an ardent Copernican.

In his final years he produced a manuscript, intended for publication, on anatomy and physiology, a work which returned to his early interest in Harvey and made circulation central.

Medical practice at Halifax and New Hall (Wakefield), 1655-1668.

Membership: Royal Society.  Informal connections: Close friendship and extensive correspondence with Sir Thomas Browne (published in Browne's Works). Friendship with Dr. Robinson (I think this is Reuben Robinson.) Corresponded with Boyle, by whom he was deeply influenced.


Andrea Pozzo, S.J.

Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709), the most famous of the Jesuit artists active in Europe in the 17th century, is a curious individual. Facile in both painting and architecture, Pozzo is famous for his perspectival frescoes. Although his major works were carried out in Rome during the last quarter of the century, they depend primarily on northern Italian traditions. In fact, Pozzo remained aloof from developments in Roman painting at the end of the 17th century, but his work, unlike that of his Roman colleagues, contributes substantially to later developments in European painting, and especially to the evolution of rococo ceiling painting in Austria and Germany. or


Cheryl E. Praeger / Cheryl Elisabeth Praeger

(Born 1948).  Mathematician. Professor of Mathematics in the Pure Mathematics Section in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, 1983-present. Dean, Postgradute Research Studies, 1996-98, 1973-1975; Research Fellow, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, 1976-1981; Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, University of Western Australia, 1982-1983; Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, University of Western Australia, 1992-1994; Head, Department of Mathematics, University of Western Australia.  Member of a number of committees both within the University and outside. See complete list, including Visiting Professorships, at

Education: A, Australian Music Examinations Board, 1970; BS, University Queensland, 1970; MS, University Queensland, 1972; MS, University Oxford, England, 1972; DPhil, University Oxford, England, 1974; DSc, University Western Australia, 1989; DSc, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, 1993.

Member of the Australian Mathematical Society, President (1992-1994), Vice-President (1990-92, 1994-95), Council Member (1977-79, 98--2000); a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (1996-present) Council Member (2000-2003); a member of the Board of the Australian Mathematics Trust, and Deputy Chair of the Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee; a Foundation Fellow of the Institute for Combinatorics and its Applications, Council Member (1991-present); a member of the Combinatorial Mathematics Society of Australasia (Director 1984, 92), the American Mathematical Society, and the London Mathematical Society. Order of Australia. Director of Data Analysis Australia.

Recipient certificate of merit Royal Humane Society of New South Wales, Australia, 1976.

Cheryl E. Praeger, AM,  FAA. University of Western Australia home page:

Curriculum vitae:

List of publications,

Currently joint Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Algebraic Combinatorics, and an Associate Editor of Aequationes Mathematicae, Ars Combinatoria, Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, Designs Codes and Cryptography, Journal of Combinatorial Designs,  Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, Australian Mathematical Society Lecture Series. Contributor of more than 190 articles to professional journals.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Sir Ghillean Prance, FRS, VMH

(Born 1937).  Botanist.  Theistic evolutionist.  Scientific Director of the Eden Project in Cornwall, U.K.
Visiting Professor at Reading University and McBryde Professor at the US National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii; Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew from 1988 to 1999.

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, New York Botanical Garden, 1986; Henry Shaw Medal, Missouri Botanical Garden, 1988; Linnean Medal, 1990; International Cosmos Prize, 1993; Patrons Medal, Royal Geographical Society, 1994; Fil.Dr., University of Goteborg, 1983; D.Sc., University of Kent at Canterbury, Kingston University, and University of Portsmouth, 1994, University of St. Andrews, 1995, University of Bergen, 1996, Florida International University and University of Sheffield, 1997, Herbert H. Lehman College of the City University of New York and University of Liverpool, 1998, University of Glasgow and University of Plymouth, 1999, and University of Keele and University of Exeter, 2000; Victoria Medal of Honor, Royal Horticultural Society, 1999. The David Fairchild Medal for Plant Exploration, 2000.

Author: Arvores De Manaus (1975), Extinction Is Forever (1977), Biological Diversification in the Tropics (1981), Leaves (1986), Amazonia (1985), Wild Flowers for all Seasons (1988), White Gold (1989), Out of the Amazon (1992), Bark (1993), The Earth Under Threat (1996), Rainforests of the World (1998). Contributor of over four hundred articles to scientific journals and popular magazines.

Tony Watkins interviews Professor Sir Ghillean Prance, then-Director of The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: First published in Space-Time Gazette in 1996.

Faculty page at Au Sable Institute:

Science Watch interview, July/August 1998.

Prance: "All my studies in science … have confirmed my faith. I regard the Bible as my principal source of authority."

Testimony in God and the Scientists, edited by Mike Poole.  CPO, Worthing, 1997.  ISBN 1-901796-02-7.


John Henry Pratt

(1809-1871). British clergyman and geophysicist. Missionary in India (1838 ff.); archdeacon of Calcutta (1850-71). Discovered (1855) there is a constant value for gravity at sea level at any given latitude and calculated the average depth of density compensation to be 100 kilometers; postulated (1856) a theory of isostasy.


Dr. T. Dean Pringle*** Not in Gale

Animal and dairy scientist.  Associate Professor, Animal & Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens.

Research focus: 1) cellular mechanisms determining beef quality and tenderness, with major focus on the calpain/calpastatin proteinase system, 2) foodservice meat cookery systems and their impact on meat palatability, and 3) prediction of carcass composition in swine and cattle, using live animal ultrasound measures and carcass dissection. B.S., University of Florida; M.S., University of Florida; Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia at Athems Animal & Dairy Science,

"Now juicy, tender steaks can be lean, too.   Don't worry about that fat,"  October 11, 2002  


William Prout

(1785 -1850).  English chemist trained as a physician, but very early became interested in the chemistry of living organisms. Most of Prout's original research and thought involved the chemistry of nutrition. In 1827, he suggested dividing foods into the three large classifications-carbohydrates, fats, and proteins-that are still used by nutritionists today.


Dr. Robert Emery Prud'homme

(Born 1948).  Full Professor, Ph.D., University of Montreal.  Chemical engineering.  Achievements include research in areas of polymer fluid mechanics, polymer characterization and transport phenomena.

Webpage (in French):


Carlos E. Puente *** Not in Gale
Hydrologist.  Professor in Hydrology and Theoretical Dynamics, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis.  Dr. Puente received his B.S., Math and Civil Engineering, University of Los Andes, Bogota, Columbia; M.S. in Operations Research and Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and his Ph.D. in  Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1984.


He has published over 40 journal papers. Some of his most recent works include Chaos and Stochasticity in Deterministically Generated Multifractal Measures for the journal Fractals; DNA, Pi and the Bell for the journal Complexity; and the book The Hypotenuse, an illustrated scientific parable for turbulent times, submitted to Berrett-Koehler. He has also made over 85 presentations at numerous conferences relating to topics in Nonlinear Dynamics and Hydrology. Puente's research interests include uncertainties and variability of hydrologic processes; rainfall modeling in space and time; fluvial geomorphology; groundwater contamination; rainfall-runoff modeling; complexity; chaos; fractals; turbulence.

In his latest book, Treasures Inside the Bell, 2003, Puente discusses what he views as a new paradigm for the emergence of order of a host of natural patterns including snow crystals and biochemical rosettes (such as DNA).

Faculty webpage, University of California, Davis.



Dr. Martin Quack

(Born 1948).  Professor of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. 1988 Hinshelwood Lecturer, Oxford University, England. Recipient Nernst-Haber-Bodenstein prize, 1982, Otto Klung prize, Free UNIVERSITY Berlin, 1984, Otto Bayer prize, 1991, Paracelsus prize, 2002. Author: Molekulare Thermodynamik und Kinetik, 1986; editor: Molecular physics, 1984-87; contributor over 250 articles to professional journals.


Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


C. Edward Quinn / Cosmas Edward Quinn

(1926-1989).  American clergyman, biologist, educator, editor, and author. For thirty years Quinn taught biology at Manhattan College, becoming full professor in 1983. He became a member of the Order of the Brothers of the Christian Schools in 1944 and subsequently taught in secondary schools in Rhode Island and New York. Quinn wrote two books, Signers of the Declaration of Independence and Signers of the Constitution, and was also secretary and journal editor for the Bronx Historical Society.

Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2000.

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]