Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (R)


Victor Rambo

(1894-1987).  Ophthalmologist, missionary to India. President, Rambo Committee, Inc., Sight for Curable Blind, Philadelphia, 1973-87; Professor Emeritus, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India, 1967-87; Professor opthalmology, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India, 1957-67; inaugurator mobile eye hospitals, Vellore, 1947; Professor opthalmology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, 1947-57; surgeon, opthalmologist, Christian Hospital, Mungeli, India, 1923-47; intern, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, 1921-23. Opthalmologist numerous sight-restoring operations for blind; affiliated with research demonstration project for mobile opthal. units, Center NSEW, from 1930; served with United Christian Missionary Society, 1923-73.
Author: (with Arin Chatterjee) The Curable Blind-Guide for Establishing and Maintaining Mobile Eye Hospitals, 1974, also numerous articles in field. Life and work subject of book Apostle of Sight, The Story of Victor Rambo, Surgeon to India's Blind (Dorothy Clarke Wilson).

Recipient Kaisar I Hind Gold medal for public service in India King George VI, 1947, Ehrenzeller Award Pennsylvania Hospital, 1972, Certified Appreciation World Conv. Chs. Christ, 1974, Pranam Patra Award Punjab Government

"January 12, 1924 o An Elephant-size Problem,"


James Ramsay *** Not in Gale

(1733-1789).  Scottish pastor and surgeon who became a leading slavery abolitionist.  Writer:  An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies (London: J. Phillips, 1784) and An inquiry into the effects of putting a stop to the African slave trade (London: J. Phillips, 1784).

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


William Mitchell Ramsay *** Not in Gale

(1851-1939). Classical scholar and archaeologist and the foremost authority of his day on the topography, antiquities, and history of Asia Minor in ancient times. The value of his New Testament studies is enhanced by the fact that he approached the subject, not as a theologian, but as a Roman historian versed in the working of Roman institutions in the provinces and possessing an intimate knowledge of the country which figured so prominently in the early history of the Church.

Biographies of Sir William M. Ramsay ©


W. Ward Gasque. "An Introduction to the Man and His Work,"

The Life and Works of Sir William M. Ramsey.

Sir William M. Ramsay. Luke the Physician,

Sir William M. Ramsay. The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament,


Sir William Ramsay

The British chemist and educator Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) discovered the rare gases and did important work in thermodynamics.

Biography of Sir William Ramsay,

Chemical Achievers: William Ramsay,

"Sir William Ramsay,"

The presentation speech by Professor J. E. Cederblom, President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, presenting the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year of 1904 to Sir William Ramsay.


Peter Ramus *** Not in Gale

(1515-1572).  French natural philosopher, mathematician, astronomer.  Catholic, then Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

After being attracted to the rhetorical logic and pedagogical ideas of Rudolf Agricola, Ramus undertook a program of critical re-education. In 1543, his program culminated in a broadscale attack on Aristotelian logic and plans for a new arts curriculum. A counterattack by Antoine de Govea led to a royal edict forbidding Ramus to teach or write in philosophical topics. Ramus turned to mathematics and rhetoric.

He published extensively and these works enjoyed widespread popularity both during his lifetime and in the century following his death. His most important works include Dialecticae partitiones sive institutiones (Paris, 1543), Aristotelicae animadversiones, (Paris, 1543), Oratio de studies (Paris, 1547) Arithmeticae libri duo (Paris, 1555), Scholae grammaticae (Paris, 1559) and Proemium reformandae Parisiensis Academiae (Paris, 1562).

Ramus and Ramism became associated with "method." His opposition to blind belief in authority and his support in the belief that the right thinking would be confirmed by the physical world makes Ramus a unique forerunner of both Bacon's empiricism and Descartes' rationalism.

He turned to astronomy late in his career. He urged a return to the observational astronomy of the Babylonians and Egyptians in an attempt to determine the nonhypothetical, directly observable regularity of the heavens. Later, Kepler would claim to have met Ramus' demands.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Peter Ramus,"


Fazale (Fuz) Rana *** Not in Gale

Biochemist.  Dr. Fazale "Fuz" Rana is the vice president of science apologetics at Reasons To Believe. His scientific research in biochemistry provided him with the initial evidence that life must have a Creator; a personal challenge daring him to read the Bible led him to the scriptural evidence that the Creator is the God of the Bible.

Dr. Rana attended West Virginia State College, then Ohio University, where he earned a Ph.D. in Chemistry. His post-doctoral work was conducted at the Universities of Virginia and Georgia. He was a Presidential Scholar, was elected into two honors societies, and won the Donald Clippinger Research Award twice at Ohio University. Dr. Rana worked for seven years on product development for Procter & Gamble before joining Reasons To Believe.

Dr. Rana has published over 15 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and delivered over 20 presentations at international scientific meetings. Dr. Rana co-authored a chapter on anti-microbial peptides for Biological and Synthetic Membranes.


"Biochemistry and the Bible: Collaborators in Design: An Interview with Dr. Fuz Rana,"


John Robert Rankin

(Born 1950).  Computer science educator.  Mathematical physician.  Ph.D. in mathematical physics from the University of Adelaide, Australia; B.S. (hons) with first class honors in applied mathematics from Monash University; Post-graduate diploma of computer science from the University of Adelaide. Over 17 years of teaching in various institutions; senior lecturer in the Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.  Author: Computer Graphics Software Construction, 1989.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Gandikota Venkata Rao

(1934-2004).  Born in India, came to U.S., 1959, became a U.S. citizen in 1977.  Meteorologist, educator.


Chairman of the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, St. Louis University, 1980-97; from Assistant to Professor of meteorology, St. Louis University, 1971; postdoctoral, Canadian Atmospheric Environmental Service, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1968-70; scientist, National Hurricane Research Laboratory, Coral Gables, Florida, 1965-68.

  Education: MSc, Andhra (India) University, 1955; M, Indian Institute of Technology, 1958; Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1965. Dr. Rao's research interests included tropical meteorology. Hurricanes and monsoons were among his areas of expertise. His teaching areas included convection, tropical meteorology and numerical methods.

Member: Fellow American Meteorological Society; American Geophysical Union, Royal Meteorological Society, Sigma Xi.


Del Ratzsch *** Not in Gale
Philosopher in Logic and science.  Professor, Philosophy of Science, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Del Ratzsch specializes in logic and the philosophy of science. He is also a Fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design. Dr. Ratzsch received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts in 1975. Dr. Ratzsch has lectured and taught courses on a wide array of topics including Sherlock Holmes, science-religion, origins debates, intelligent design, and "popular" philosophy.

Author: Nature, Design, and Science (SUNY Press, 2001); Science and Its Limits, 2nd ed. (InterVarsity, 2000); The Battle of Beginnings (InterVarsity, 1996).  Dr. Ratzsch has written many articles featured in journals such as International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Monist, and Faith and Philosophy.

Faculty webpage, Philosophy Dept., Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan,

"The Real Issue: Leader in the Voice for Intelligent Design," Profile of Dr. Del Ratzch, 1996 Mere Creation conference speaker,


Leonhard Rauwolf *** Not in Gale

(1535-1596).  German botanist, geographer, pharmacologist, physician.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Rauwolf's knowledge of botany was certainly meant to be exploited by the Manlich firm in their search for new pharmaceutical products.


Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson

(1810-1895) Archeologist, English army officer and Orientalist. In East India Company's military service (1827 ff.), studied Persian and the Indian vernaculars; as political agent at Kandahar (1840-42) and Baghdad (1843), completed transcript of cuneiform inscription of Darius I the Great at Bisitun, which he deciphered and interpreted (1846); received grant from British Museum to continue Assyrian and Babylonian excavations begun by Layard; director of East India Co. (1856); M.P. (1858, 1865-68); British minister in Persia (1859-60); member of India Council (1858, 1868-95), favored forward policy in Afghanistan.


John Ray / John Wray (until 1670)

(1627-1705).  The father of English natural history.  A predecessor of Carl Linnaeus, the English naturalist John Ray was an early botanical and zoological systematist, the first to use the idea of species to distinguish different organisms from each other. Focusing primarily on the classification of plants and basing his system on the work of Aristotle, Ray divided plants into two groups: the moncotyledons and the dicotyledons. Both are still recognized today.

Ray taught at Cambridge (1649-62); lost his fellowship for refusal to take oath of Act of Uniformity. With a pupil, Francis Willughby (q.v.), toured England, Wales, Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France, making collections on which to base complete systematic descriptions of animal and vegetable life (1662-66); published Catalogus Plantarum Angliae (1670); demonstrated nature of buds and made division of flowering plants into dicotyledons and monocotyledons in Methodus Plantarum Nova (1682); first introduced a feasible limitation of term species; made great contributions to taxonomy; published masterwork Historia Generalis Plantarum (1686-1704), a complete classification of plants and one of the first natural systems of classification that was based on physical characteristics rather than origin and perceived use.  Later he devoted himself to study  insects; wrote botanical, zoological and theological works.

The Galileo Project,

John Ray.

The John Ray Initiative.

About John Ray.

John R. Armstrong,  Rediscovering John Ray (1627-1705) PSCF 41.2:105-107 (6/1989)

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Robert Recorde

(c.1510-1558). English (Welsh) mathematician, physician, astronomer, metallurgist, cartographer, navigation expert. Founder of the English school of mathematics, Recorde brought algebra to England; he is also credited with introducing the equals (=) sign.  He was the first to write mathematical and astronomical works in English.  He wrote about elementary algebra in The Whetstone of Witte (1557), arithmetic in The Ground of Artes (1552), construction and use of the sphere, elementary Ptolemaic astronomy (including one brief favorable mention of Copernicus) in The Castle of Knowledge (1556), and translated and rearranged the first four books of Euclid in Pathewaie to Knowledge (1551).  The Gate of Knowledge, apparently completed but never published, dealt with measurement and use of the quadrant.  He taught mathematics at Oxford and Cambridge; served as physician to Edward VI and Queen Mary. Most of his works were prevalent until the end of the 16th century, and some until the end of the 17th century. Many of his writings were in poetic form as an aid to students in remembering the rules of operation. Catholic, then Protestant.

The Galileo Project,

Recorde was the founder of the English school of practical mathematics.  As a physician he also published The Urinal of Physick, 1547, a traditional medical work.

As Surveyor of Mines and Monies in Ireland he was in charge of silver mines at Wexford. He entered vigorously, though apparently not effectively, into their operation. They ultimately proved abortive. Recorde died in prison; though the whole episode in shrouded in obscurity, it may well have stemmed from the management (or perhaps mismanagement) of the mines.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. Robert Recorde or or

Contributed by Damian Smithhisler.

Biography of Robert Recorde.  Computer Science Gwyddor Cyfrifiadur, University of Wales Swansea,


Thomasina Atwater Redd

(1941-1997). Microbiology educator, administrator.  Dr. Redd was the chair of Natural Sciences Division at Alderson-Broaddus College in Phillipi, West Virginia. Professor, Aiderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, 1990; Associate Professor biology, Aiderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, 1985-89; Assistant Professor biology, Aiderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, 1971-82; faculty, West Virginia Govs. Honors Academy, Fairmont, 1989; Research Fellow, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 1982-83; lab technician horticulture dept., West Virginia University, Morgantown, 1962-63. Director, Applachian Mental Health, West Virginia, 1991; Advisory Committee West Virginia Institute for School Success, 1989, Chemical Industry Advisory Board, West Virginia, 1990.  Consultant, Cancer Biologics of American, Bridgeport, West Virginia, 1988; workshop presenter Berea (Kentucky) College Minorities Program, 1990; Visiting scientist microbiology mentor program, 1989.  Dr. Redd received a BS degree in biology from West Virginia University in 1963, a Master's degree in 1969 and a Ph.D. in microbiology from WVU in 1986.

She was twice voted Woman of the Year at Alderson-Broaddus College and was named West Virginia Faculty Merit Foundation Professor of the Year. Among her many other awards, Dr. Redd won the Celebrate Women Award in Science in 1994, earned the Sears-Roebuck Foundation Teaching Excellence Award in 1991 and the City of Philippi Citation Special Professor of the Year. She was a former trustee for the Barbour County Library Committee and won numerous research grants. She published numerous articles and presentations and was two-time Alderson-Broaddus Woman of the Year and a member of Philippi Baptist Church.

Member: American Society for Microbiology (Allegheny br.), Founding member: Association for Women in Science (mentor grant 1991), Delta Kappa Gamma (Educational award 1979).

Author: (with others) Flora of West Virginia, 1967.

 "Thomasina Atwater Redd."  Obituary.  Charleston Gazette Online.


Francesco Redi

(1626-1697). Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. Credited with the birth of modern experimentation Redi applied his enquiring, deductive mind and astute powers of observation to designing controlled experiments, the first of their type ever recorded. One magnificently contrived series of investigations led to the disproof of the centuries-old belief in spontaneous generation. Another, in what he called "unmasking of untruth," he discovered how vipers produce venom and inject it into their prey, and determined the venom's clotting effect on the the victim's blood. His ingenuity in designing these experiments has been compared to that of Louis Pasteur two hundred years later. His command of the written word also gained him fame in the literary world, primarily with his long poem published in 1685, Bacco in Toscana (Bacchus in Tuscany).

"Francesco Redi." World of Biology. 2 vols. Gale Group, 1999.

The Galileo Project,

Italian physician who refuted spontaneous generation by showing that plants and animals only arise from others of the same kind. His experiments, however, were not careful enough to prove the impossibility of spontaneous generation, and final debunking of the theory would have to await Spallanzani and Pasteur.

The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and  Spaceflight,  Italian physician whose experiments, in 1668, on the putrefaction of meat showed that maggots were not produced by the meat but came from small eggs laid by flies. His work was followed by that of Spallanzani (1765), Pasteur (1862), and Tyndall, which finally dispelled the old notion of spontaneous generation. See abiogenesis.

"'In this scientific attack on the doctrine of spontaneous generation, Redi demonstrated, by means of a series of simple experiments involving sealed, open and gauze-covered flasks of meat, that organic matter remained free of larva when protected from insect contamination. He thus proved that "flesh and plants and other things whether putrefied or putrefiable play no other part, nor have any other function in the generation of insects, than to prepare a suitable place or nest into which, at the time of procreation, the worms or eggs or other seed of worms are brought and hatched by the animals." Having shown that insect contagion was necessary before decaying substances could develop worms, Redi applied the same principle to parasites found in living creatures. However, he was led astray by his observations into claiming that gall insects were spontaneously generated by the plants housing them, a error that Malpighi corrected in 1679' (Norman)."


Bob Reed / William Robert Reed *** Not in Gale

(Born 1956).  Economist.  Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of Oklahoma (July 1997 - present).  Professor Reed joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma in 1992. He is currently interested in applying the theoretical framework and statistical tools of economics to issues of interest to state-level policy-makers. Current projects include (i) a study of the relationship between tax cuts and state-level economic growth, and (ii) a study of reform proposals for Oklahoma's welfare system. Professor Reed tries to bring both a free-market perspective and econometric rigor to the topics he approaches.

His research work has appeared in numerous professional journals, including Economic Inquiry; Economics and Politics; Journal of Human Resources; Journal of Labor Economics; Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization; Journal of Political Economy; Journal of Population Economics; Journal of Urban Economics; Public Choice; Social Science Quarterly; and the Southern Economic Journal.

Previous positions: July 1994 - June 1997, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Oklahoma;

September 1992 - June 1994, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Oklahoma; June 1990 - August 1992, Assistant Professor of Economics, Texas A&M University; September 1989 - May 1990 Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Texas at Austin; September 1984 - August 1989 Assistant Professor of Economics, Texas A&M University.  B.A., Temple University, June 1979 (Graduated Summa Cum Laude); Ph.D., Northwestern University, June 1985.

Professor Reed is actively involved at Wildwood Community Church, where he has taught a college-aged Sunday School since 1992.  He is co-founder of the campus group OU Christian Faculty and Staff. He is an Adjunct Scholar with the Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs.  In addition, Professor Reed and his wife are licensed foster parents and currently provide foster care for children in the Department of Human Services system.

Faculty webpage, University of Oklahoma: or

Personal webpage, University of Oklahoma: or (more recent)

Curriculum vitae: or

OU Christian Faculty and Staff.


"I had met enough hypocrites who called themselves Christians that-if anything-Christianity was relatively discredited in my eyes. It didn't take long, however, for me to conclude that IF there was a God out there, it had to be the Christian God. In terms of historical evidences, consistency and reliability of the religion's sacred writings, Christianity was head and shoulders above all other religions."


John K. Reed

(Born 1915). Geologist.  Principal Engineer, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC.

Ph.D. Geology, University of South Carolina.


Walter Reed

(1851-1902).  American army surgeon.  Entered Army Medical Corps (1875); on frontier duty (1875-90); curator, Army Medical Museum, and Professor of bacteriology and microscopy at Army Medical College (1893); promoted major (1893). Head of commission (including James Carroll, Jesse Lazear, Aristides Agramonte) sent to Cuba to investigate cause and mode of transmission of yellow fever (1900); proved that yellow fever is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With this knowledge, it was possible to eradicate the disease by destroying the carriers. Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C., was named in his honor.

"Dr. Walter Reed,"

"Major Walter Reed, Medical Corps, U.S. Army,"

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Patricia H. Reiff / Patricia Hofer Reiff

Space physicist, astronomer. Professor Patricia H. Reiff is a Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Director of the Rice Space Institute at Rice University. Her research focuses on space plasma physics, mostly in the area of magnetospheric physics. Her research includes study of the aurora borealis, solar wind-magnetosphere coupling (including solar wind control of magnetospheric and ionospheric convection), and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. She is a Co-I on the "IMAGE" magnetospheric imaging mission (launched March, 2000), Jim Burch, SWRI, P.I. She was the first person to propose radio sounding of the magnetosphere, which that spacecraft includes as a key instrument. She is a Co-Investigator on two missions which are part of the ISTP (International Solar-Terrestrial Research Program). She is a Co-I on the Magnetic Fields Experiment , (Chris Russell , P.I.) of the "Polar" spacecraft (successfully launched February 24, 1996!) and a Co-I on the "Peace" plasma instrument (begun by the late Alan Johnstone of Mullard Space Science Lab) on the ESA Cluster 24-spacecraft suite which was launched in July and August 2000. She is instrumental in bringing real-time WIND data and "Space Weather" information to the public.

She is PI for a major project which has developed an off-ramp for the information highway by "Creating the Public Connection" , bringing real-time earth and space science data to museums and schools (originalloy sponsored by NASA's Digital Library Technology Program), and now sponsored by the IMAGE program and the NASA Office of Earth Science. Nearly a million people have interacted with her exhibits and planetarium shows at the Houston Museum of Natural Science , and another half-million with her web sites. She has also been quite involved in other public education activities, including being director for four years for teacher education projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Eisenhower Foundation, in collaboration with Dr. Carolyn Sumners of the Houston Museum of Natural Science (HMNS). She has guided many scientific tours, including a total solar eclipse trips to Peru, Mexico, the Caribbean, the Black Sea, and an upcoming trip to Madagascar in 2001.

She is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union , where she serves in the SPA Public Education Committee . She is the Rice University representative and Vice Chair of the Council of Institutions of the USRA - the Universities Space Research Association. She is presently serving on advisory committees for NASA, NCAR, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and has served NAS/NRC and AAU.


Faculty webpage, Professor Faculty Imageand Director, Rice Space Institute, Rice University,

Publications - Patricia H. Reiff, as of July 1988.

Patricia H. Reiff.  Space weather,

Patricia H. Reiff (Director, Rice Space Institute, Rice University). "Three Heavens - Our Home,"  (An edited version of this essay appears in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.)

"So I am comfortable in being both a scientist and a Christian. God called me to understand His world, and gives me the insight to do it. And yes, I ascribe many of my best ideas to divine inspiration - the Aha! insight that Martin Gardner discusses often comes to me in my quiet times or in dreams. I have felt the Lord leading me, both in my choice of career, and in my everyday life - I have rested on the promise of Proverbs 3:5-6: "Trust in the Lord with all thine heart, and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths." (First presented as a lay sermon to the Macedonia United Methodist Church, Hockley, Texas, October 13, 1996)


Johannes Regiomontanus

The German astronomer and mathematician Regiomontanus (1436-1476) constructed the first European observatory and established trigonometry as a separate area of study in mathematics. Regiomontanus was the pen name of Johann Müller, responsible for what some call the "rebirth of trigonometry" during the century following his death.


Bessie E. Rehwinkel *** Not in Gale

A woman physician in America during the early 1900's. She practiced in Wyoming when it was still a new frontier and was confronted with the daily struggles of pioneer life. While there, she treated a young Lutheran student pastor, Alfred Rehwinkel. They were married and served for a while in rural Canada. They were married for over 50 years and served as a faculty family at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis.

Co-author (with Alfred Rehwinkel), Doctor Bessie (Autobiography), 1971, Concordia Publishing House.  Inspired the TV series, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman.


Erasmus Reinhold

(1511-1553). German astronomer. After Copernicus, the leading mathematical astronomer of 16th century. Professor at Wittenberg (1536-52); known for Tabulae prutenicae (1551), astronomical tables computed by Copernican methods.

The Galileo Project, (in German)


Michael J. Reiss, MA, Ph.D., PGCE, MBA, F.I.Biol.
(Born 1958).  Science educator, academic administrator. Head of School and Professor of Science Education and Head of the School of Mathematics, Science & Technology, Institute of Education, University of London. BA, University Cambridge, England, 1978; MA, UniversityCambridge, 1982; Ph.D., University Cambridge, 1982; MBA, Open University, 1990. Ordained minister East Anglican Church, 1990.

Member: Fellow: Institute Biology; member: Association Study of Animal Behavior, British Ecol. Society

Author: The Allometry of Growth and Reproduction, 1989, Ecology: Principles and Applications, 1992, Science Education for a Pluralist Society, 1993, Improving Nature?, 1996, Understanding Science Lessons, 2001; editor: Sex Education, 2001.

Faculty webpage, School of Mathematics, Science & Technology,


Arthur Rendle-Short *** Not in Gale

(1885-1955). Surgeon. From 

Arthur Rendle Short, a professor of surgery and member of the Open Brethren.  An accepted scholar and author in his profession, Arthur devoted much attention to examining many other fields of science, Bible scholarship and theology.  Then he preached, lectured and wrote books intended to assist fellow Christians.  Older readers may recall his "The Historic Faith in the Light of Today." (1922); "The Bible and Modern Research." (1933); Why Believe. (1938/1951); Modern Discovery and the Bible" (1942); Wonderfully Made. (1951), The Bible and Modern Medicine. (1951); Archaeology gives Evidence. (1951) and The Rock Beneath. (1955)  They were moderate sized volumes, each the result of extensive research and, as his son now tells: there was a constant struggle for truth.

Biography in Green Eye of the Storm, by John Rendle-Short.  Banner of Truth, 1998. ISBN 0-8515-1727-7. Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith,  by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


John Rendle-Short

(Born 1919).  University of Queensland, Brisbane, Emeritus Professor of Child Health, 1961-present.Writer (with O.P. Gray) Synopsis of Children's Diseases, 6th ed., 1985; (co-author) The Father of Child Care: Life of William Cadogan 1711-1797; The Child: A Guide for the Paediatric Team, rev. ed. 1977; Reasonable Christianity, 1990, 2nd ed., 1991; Green Eye of the Storm (biography).


Autobiography in Green Eye of the Storm, by John Rendle-Short.  Banner of Truth, 1998. ISBN 0-8515-1727-7.

The author's objective in this book was to explore evolutionary thought, and demonstrate how men were challenged in their Christian faith.  Rather than attempt a history he studies four scientists whose combined lives span almost 200 years.  His subjects are Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888), George John Romanes (1848-1894), Arthur Rendle Short (1880-1953) and concludes with his autobiography.  All were professing Christians deeply concerned by the theory of evolution.

John Rendle-Short (born 1919) followed his father into the medical profession; to serve for over 24 years as Foundation Professor of Child Health in the University of Queensland, Australia.  His story revolves about that same struggle for truth as had occupied his father. An encounter with the late Professor Arthur Wilder-Smith, holder of 3 earned science doctorates, caused Rendle-Short astonishment that the scholar "was a convinced believer in the literal truth of Genesis."


Jean Rey

(c. 1582-c. 1645).  French chemist, physician, mechanic.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Rey's fame rests solely on his Essays de Jean Rey docteur en médecine, (Bazas, 1630), a reply to apothecary Pierre Brun's request for an explanation of why tin and lead increase in weight when heated. The essays, appealing to reason, observation and experiments, anticipated Lavoisier's recognition in 1722 that calcination involves combination with air.  Rey claimed to have received royal privileges for an air compressor. He claimed to have invented an air-gun some years before Rivault published his work in 1608.

His friends were Jean Brun, an apothecary, Deschamps, a physician, and Pierre Trichet. He corresponded with Mersenne and Descartes. (in French)


Alan Kim Reyburn

(1940-1999). Chemical engineer. General Manager, Advanced Control and Optimization Division, Aspen Technologies in Tulsa, OK.  Manager combustion services, Callidus Techs. Inc., Tulsa, 1993; chief project Manager, Nova Engineering Inc., Tulsa, 1991-93; Manager Industrial services, Enercon Services Inc., Tulsa, 1990-91; Manager project engineering, McGill Inc., Tulsa, 1987-90; Manager incineration division, Econotherm, Tulsa, 1985-86; v.p. incineration, John Zink Co., Tulsa, 1982-84; Manager process and environmental engineering, Crest Engineering Inc., Tulsa, 1974-82; Industry Manager incineration, Williams Bros. Waste Control, Tulsa, 1972-73; design engineer incineration, John Zink Co., Tulsa, 1969-71; Research scientist, Sinclair Oil & Gas Co., Tulsa, 1966-69.  Education: SB, MIT, 1962; MS, Oklahoma State University, 1964; Ph.D., Oklahoma State University, 1968.  Member: AIChE.  Southern Baptist.

Patentee in field.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

"MIT Class of 1962,"  Obituary. Funeral services were held at the First Baptist Church in Tulsa on June 10, 1999.


Francisco de la Reyna / Reina *** Not in Gale

(fl. 16th century).  Spanish physiologist, agriculturalist, veterinarian.

The Galileo Project,

Veterinary practice. Although the histories of Spanish medicine are a major source about him, and articles about him appear in journals of medical history, agriculture seems a better category than medicine.

His book, Libro de albeyteria, 1547, went through eleven more editions between 1552 and 1647.


Daniel W. Reynolds, Ph.D.

Organic Chemist, working in the field of pharmaceutical stability.  Research Investigator II (7/00 - present; GlaxoSmithKline, RTP, NC). Drug degradation studies, methods development, synthesis/isolation of impurities, troubleshooting, kinetics. Research Investigator I (1/96 - 7/00; GlaxoWellcome, RTP, NC). Drug degradation studies, methods development, synthesis/isolation of impurities, troubleshooting, kinetics. Received RAVE Awards on 4/29/98 and 4/30/97. Development Scientist IV (5/89 - 12/95; Burroughs Wellcome Company, Greenville, NC): Elucidation of degradation pathways for experimental drugs, isolations (publication 9), analytical methods development, Vg/Multichrom trainer, preparation of IND/NDA documents, supervision of one analyst, project coordination. Excellence Award (9/93). Promoted to Research Investigator I on 12/96.

Ph.D., Physical Organic Chemistry, 1989 (University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas; Advisor: Nathan L. Bauld): Dissertation : Mechanistic Aspects of Cation Radical Pericyclic Reactions.

M.A., Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 1983 (University of Texas, Austin, Texas; Advisor: James K. Whitesell); B.S., Chemistry, 1978 (University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas): GPA: 2.8/4.0.


"I am a born-again Christian and Biblical young earth Creationist and believe in a literal interpretation of Genesis."


Dr. A. Estes Reynolds *** Not in Gale

Food Science and Technology.  A. Estes Reynolds, Ph.D., is Outreach Coordinator for the Department of Food Science and Technology and the Food Process Research and Development Laboratory at the University of Georgia, Athens (UGA), a Professor on the UGA faculty, and meat and poultry specialist with more than 30 years experience working with the meat industry. He has an international reputation for his expertise in processing and curing meats, for developing new and value-added food products and for food safety auditing and training.

From "UGA Extension Food Science Outreach Program,"

Reynolds received his B.S.A. in animal science and his Ph.D. in food science from the University of Georgia.

"Reynolds receives UGA alumni award," .  "The University of Georgia's (UGA) Agricultural Alumni Association recently presented its Outstanding Faculty Award to Dr. A.Estes Reynolds Jr. Reynolds coordinates the outreach program for the university's Department of Food Science and Technology and the Food Process Research and Development Laboratory. He has developed curricula for the food industry, working with processors to produce specialty foods and supply technical knowledge."


Temple Allison Reynolds, Jr.

(Born November 3, 1932).  State official, wildlife biologist.  With Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Logan, Salt Lake City, 1955-65; with U.S. Bureau Outdoor Recreation, Denver, San Francisco, Washington, 1965-70; Assistant supt. Lake Mead National Recreation Area, U.S. National Park Service, Boulder City, Nev., 1970-74, supt. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Page, Ariz., 1974-78, Associate regional Director, Seattle, 1978-80; Executive Director, Utah Department of Natural Resources, Salt Lake City, 1980.  Education: B.S., Pennsylvania State University, 1954; M.S., Utah State University, 1956.

Member: Utah State Universities, Colleges Natural Resources Advisory Board, Logan, 1980; Member University Utah Advisory committee on Public Adminstration Education, Salt Lake City, 1983; various other coms., The Wildlife Society (certified), Society American Foresters, Sigma Xi. Presbyterian. Lodges: Lions, Rotary.  Served with USNG, 1960-64. 

Honor: Recipient Meritorious Service award U.S. Department of Interior, 1973.

Author: (bull.) The Mule Deer, its History, Life History and Management in Utah, 1960. Contributor of articles to professional journals and magazines.


Charles René Reyneau *** Not in Gale

(1656-1728).  French mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Reyneau is important historically as the author of a textbook, Analyse demontrée (Paris, 1708), which was designed to provide instruction in the new mathematics developed at the beginning of the 18th century. Reyneau's textbook was one of the first to clearly elaborate the new mathematical theories of Descartes, Newton, Leibniz, and the Bernoullis.  The book was written upon the request of Malebranche. Reyneau began working on the book in 1698 with two other Oratorians, Louis Byzance and Claude Jaquemet. Reyneau was very interested in the debates on the differential and infinitesimal calculus provoked by Rolle's work, but Reyneau had difficulty assimilating the new material.

Reyneau's lesser known works are La science du calcul, 2 vols., (1714-35) and a treatise on the art of navigating, Traité de la marine ou l'art de naviguer.  In 1705, he came into possession of Byzance's papers and aside from those lost by Montmort he was able to preserve the manuscripts of the group surrounding Malebranche.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1716-28.  He was named associé libre of the Académie in 1716.

He taught with such success at the Angers that the newly formed academy of this town asked Reyneau to join (1694). There is no mention as to whether Reyneau officially joined this group.

He entered the Maison d'Institution in Paris in 1676, and was ordained a priest at the Collège de Toulon in 1681.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Charles René Reyneau,"

"His Most Notable Contribution toMathematical Education,"


Anton Maria Schyrlaeus Rheita *** Not in Gale

(1597-1660).  Bohemian astronomer, instrument-maker, inventor.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Rheita was Catholic, a Capuchin (Franciscan). He was a priest and a member of the community of Capuchins at Rheita, Bohemia, until the Thirty Years War.

Rheita describes his own invention, an eyepiece for a Keplerian telescope, which left the image reverted, in Oculus Enoch et Eliae (1645).


Jacopo Francesco Riccati

(1676-1754). Italian mathematician. Concerned chiefly with integration of differential equations, proposing (1724) the equation which bears his name.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Jacopo Francesco Riccati,"

"He is chiefly known for the Riccati differential equation of which he made elaborate study and gave solutions for certain special cases. The equation had already been studied by Jacob Bernoulli, and was discussed by Riccati in a paper of 1724. He corresponded with a large number of mathematicians throughout Europe and had a wide influence on Daniel Bernoulli, Euler. He also worked on cycloidal pendulums, the laws of resistance in a fluid and differential geometry."


Vincenzo Riccati / Vincent Riccati, S.J.

(1707-1775). Born into a family of mathematicians and a member of the Jesuit order, Vincenzo Riccati studied integration and differential equations as his father had before him. Among Riccati's contributions to mathematics were some of the earliest and most extensive studies of hyperbolic functions and infinitesimal calculus. Riccati also was a talented hydraulic engineer who did vital work in flood prevention in northern Italy.


Matteo Ricci, S.J.

Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) was an Italian Jesuit missionary who opened China to evangelization. He was the best-known Jesuit and European in China prior to the 20th century. Matteo Ricci brought trigonometry to China, and Ricci's successors, Verbiest and Schall von Bell, then used the geometric and trigonometric concepts to bring about a revolution in the sciences of astronomy, the design of astronomical instruments, mapmaking, and the intricate art of making accurate calendars. The Jesuits were inveterate mapmakers and were continually traveling around the empire, even though travel conditions were quite primitive. The TRS recounts 52 journeys by Ricci and Verbiest alone. The standard biography of Ricci in English is Vincent Cronin, The Wise Man from the West (1955). For a scholarly estimation of Ricci's scientific contribution see Henri Bernard, Matteo Ricci's Scientific Contribution to China (translated 1935).

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Matteo Ricci,"

Matteo Ricci.

"Matteo Ricci, S.J.(1552 to 1610) and his contributions to science in China"


Michelangelo Ricci  *** Not in Gale

(1619-1682).  Italian mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Ricci's only extant mathematical work is a 19-page printed booklet entitled Geometrica exercitatio (Rome, 1666). His other mathematical contributions, contained in his numerous letters, include his study of spirals (1644), and his investigation of curves (1674). Nevertheless, he was known across Europe as an excellent mathematician, held by some to be the best mathematician in Italy in his generation.

He was a member of the school of Galileo, although not a direct disciple. His teacher was Benedetto Castelli. Torricelli was a close friend of his and exerted a marked influence on his geometrical researches.  His extensive correspondence with both Italian and foreign scholars brought him considerable contemporary fame. Through such correspondence ha participated in the activities of the Accademia del Cimento, particularly in the final editing of its Saggi (1667). He also served as an editor of the Giornale dei letterati, which was founded in Rome in 1668.  His correspondence is published in the Bulletino di bibliografia e storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 18 and in Caverni, 5, and in other places.

Ricci belonged to the group that gathered around Queen Christina in Rome.

Although he was never ordained, he served the papacy and was made a çardinal by the pope in 1681.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Michelangelo Ricci,"


Ostilio Ricci *** Not in Gale

(1540-1603).  Italian mathematician, engineer, instrument-maker, hydraulics specialist, cartographer.

The Galileo Project,

Ricci wrote on both mathematics and military engineering, but he did not publish. He left a manuscript on what he called the archimetro, a simple instrument for the measurement of inaccessible distances, heights, etc., via similar triangles. About 1590 Ricci did a report on the rivers around Bologna and Ferrara.  In 1597 he constructed fortifications at Marseille, in the conflict between Tuscany and France, and in 1597-8 he worked as a military engineer in Ferrara in the controversy between the Pope and Cesare d'Este.


Giambattista Riccioli, S.J.

(1598-1671). Italian Jesuit astronomer. Rejected Copernican theory; made (with P. Grimaldi) a detailed telescopic study of the moon, introducing nomenclature for lunar features still used. Author of Almagestum novum (1651).

The Galileo Project, (in Italian)


John Baptist Riccioli, S.J./ Giambattista Riccioli

(1598-1671). Italian Jesuit astronomer. Rejected Copernican theory; made (with P. Grimaldi) a detailed telescopic study of the moon, introducing nomenclature for lunar features still used. Author of Almagestum novum (1651).


Dr. Ramona G. Rice / Ramona Gail Rice

(Born 1950).  Physiologist, psychologist, educator, consultant . Chair, Division of National Sciences and Mathematics, Georgia Military College, Milledgeville, Georgia, 1995-present.  Previous positions:  Undergraduate Assistant Ouachita University, Arkadelphia, Arkansas, 1970-72; Graduate Teaching Assistant University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1972, 77-78, Graduate Research Assistant, 1973-77; Research Assistant Professor, scientist, Florida International University, Miami, 1980-85, research  centered on drinking water quality and the Everglades ecosystem, primarily as related to algae.  Research coordinator in biology, Pratt Community College, Kansas, 1985-87, faculty, 1985; Adjunct instructor Miami Dade Community College, 1984-85, Wichita (Kansas) State University, 1986-88. Started as an Adjunct and in the fall of 1996 became a full-time Associate Professor (Lt. Colonel), promoted to Division Chair (1997) and in 1998 to full professor (Colonel) at Georgia Military College.

Bachelor's degree in Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics from Ouachita Baptist University in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, 1972; Master's (1975) and Ph.D. (1978) are from the Department of Botany and Bacteriology at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville.  She held a post-Doctoral Fellowship in Biochemistry at Utah State University, 1978-1980, investigating the uptake of iron by microbes.

Member: AAAS, AMA (Ninescah Valley Medical Society Aux.), Pratt Higher Education Association (secretary 1987-88), Florida Academy of Sciences, Phycological Society American, Society Limnology and Oceanography, Epsilon Sigma Alpha (Epsilon Pi chapter President 1991-92, counselor 1992-93, historian, 1993-, rec. secretary 1989-90, publicity Committee 1988-89, philanthropic Committee 1988-90, zone publicity co-Chairman 1989-90, chapter v.p. 1990-91, zone 12 auditor 1990-91, zone co-chair 1993-, Kansas state council 1990-present, zone 12 awards Committee chair 1991-93.), Kansas Roadrunner Director 1992-93, Education Committee Chairman 1993-present, zone 12 outstanding sister 1990-91, Kansas State outstanding vol. roadrunner 1990-91, outstanding sister zone 12 1990-91), Delta Kappa Gamma, Sigma Xi.  Baptist.

Honor: Recipient, American Biog. Institute Distinguished Leadership award, 1987.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Faculty webpage,


Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards / Ellen H. Richards / Ellen Swallow Richards / Ellen Richards / Ellen Henrietta Richards

(1842-1911).  American chemist.  Sanitarian.  The founder of home economics, Ellen Henrietta Swallow was the first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. For twenty-seven years she was employed by MIT, where she taught chemistry and developed methods for the analysis of air, water, and consumer products. She introduced biology to MIT's curriculum and founded the oceanographic institute, known as Woods Hole. In addition, she tested home furnishings and foods for toxic contaminants, investigated water pollution and designed safe sewage systems. Her work as a scientist and educator led to improvements in the home and opened the door to scientific professions for women.

In 1868, she was accepted to Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York and graduated with a B.S. degree in 1870. She was then accepted at the MIT as a special student in chemistry (i.e. she was not charged tuition, but MIT was not obligated to her either) and graduated in 1873 with her second B.S. degree. That same year, she received an M.S. degree in chemistry from Vassar. She continued her studies at MIT for two more years, but was not awarded the Ph.D. degree, as was later claimed by her husband, because her professors did not want the first Ph.D. degree in chemistry from MIT to be awarded to a woman.

In 1875 she married Professor Robert H. Richards, head of the department of mining engineering at MIT. She started working with her husband on the chemistry of ore analysis and this work led to her being elected in 1879 the first woman member of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. In 1876 she successfully petitioned the Woman's Education Association of Boston to contribute funds to open the Woman's Laboratory at MIT. Beginning in 1876, she was head of the science section of the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. In 1882, she co-founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (later known as the American Association of University Women).

Author: The Chemistry of Cooking (1882), Home Sanitation: A Manual for Housekeepers (1887),  The Cost of Living (1899); The Cost of Food (1901); The Cost of Shelter (1905); Sanitation in Daily Life (1907); The Cost of Cleanness (1908); Laboratory Notes on Industrial Water Analysis (1908); Euthenics: The Science of Controllable Environment (1910); and Conservation by Sanitation (1911).

 "Distiguished Women of Past and Present: Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards, (1842-1911),"


Sir John Richardson

(1787-1865).  Scottish naturalist and explorer. In service of Royal Navy (1807-55); surgeon and naturalist to Sir John Franklin's polar expeditions (1819-22, 1825-27); separatingfrom Franklin, explored coast to the Coppermine River and Great Slave Lake (1826); conducted search expedition for Franklin (1848-49), exploring region between estuary of Mackenzie River and Cape Kendall. Author of Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829-37) and works on ichthyology and polar exploration.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Jean Richer

(1630-1696). French astronomer, physicist, zoologist, military engineer, cartographer, navigation expert. His observations at Cayenne, French Guiana (1672-73), were bases for determining the distance of Earth from the sun and the shape of the Earth. His observations of the planet Mars from Cayenne, French Guyana, in 1671-1673 contributed to both astronomy and geodesy. His measurements of the orbit of Mars contributed to the first accurate calculations of the size and orbits of the planets of the solar system.

The Galileo Project,

The Académie chose Richer to make astronomical observations far from Paris for the purpose of comparing corresponding and simultaneous observations. In 1670 he travelled to La Rochelle to measure the height of the tides in the harbor at the vernal and autumnal equinox. In the same year he made a voyage to French Canada to make observations for the Académie. During this trip Richer was in charge of testing the reliability of the new marine clocks made by Huygens. Both clocks stopped during a severe storm, and Richer reported their unsuitable performance to the Académie as well as to Huygens. Huygens responded that Richer was incompetent and the failure of the clocks was due to the carelessness of their caretaker rather than to the device itself. The Académie did not share Huygens' estimation of Richer's ability. While off the coast of French Canada he had determined the latitude of the fort on Penobscot Bay using a quadrant with a telescopic sight. This was the most precise observation made up until that time in the Western Hemisphere.

The following year Richer was selected to travel to Cayenne to make observations useful for navigation. Two years later illness forced Richer to return to Paris. For unknown reasons he was transferred from active service with the Académie des Sciences to fortifications and military construction with the title of royal engineer.

Richer's only written work is his "Observations astronomiques et physiques faites en l'isle de Caienne" published in the Mémoires of the Académie.

Richer's astronomical observations of a lunar eclipse and the satellites of Jupiter led to the determination of the longitude of Cayenne which was three minutes too big. His observations of Mars at perigee with corresponding observations made elsewhere led to the calculation of a fairly close approximation to the fundamental astronomical unit as well as the parallax of Mars and the Sun. In geodesy Richer's observation of the length of the seconds pendulum improved the understanding of the shape of the earth as a spheroid flattened at the poles.

Although Richer did not seem to have taken a great interest in describing the natural environment, he did make a few comments on the animal life. He noted that unlike the turtle the porpoise is a warm blooded animal. The crocodile can rest without food for several months even when in the presence of nourishment. Richer tried to bring a small crocodile back to France but it died on the return voyage. He also described the eels in the rivers of Cayenne. Lastly, he investigated the claims that the small opening on the back of the Pecari from which escaped a nauseating foam was related to its respiration and found this claim to be false.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-1696.  Richer was admitted to the Académie in 1666 as an élève astronome. As early as 1670 he was referred to as a mathématicien. By 1679 he was a full-fledged member of the Académie.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Jean Richer,"


John Lambert Richmond

(1785-1855).  Baptist clergyman and physician. It was during such a service, on Apr. 22, 1827, that he was called to a patient on whom he performed the first successful Cæsarean operation to be reported in the medical press of the United States. The patient was a young colored woman, bearing her first child. A monument was erected in his honor at Newton, Ohio, in 1912. Richmond's success in his famous operation was apparently not due solely to good fortune. He was skillful in such difficult surgical procedures as plastic surgery, indeed had considerable mechanical skill.


Terry Rickard / John T. Rickard *** Not in Gale
Electrical Engineer, Orincon Corporation.  Former President and Chief Scientific Officer of OptiMark Technologies, Inc.  Co-inventor of the OptiMark system.  Senior Vice President of Corporate Development, ORINCON Corporation International.  ORINCON was founded in 1973 by three University of California engineering professors with a plan to develop leading-edge technology by bringing together highly qualified engineers and scientists in a stimulating research and development environment. The focus of ORINCON's work was to use new mathematical and statistical concepts, coupled with increasingly more powerful computers, to sift through increasing quantities of available data, extract useful information, and present the results in an understandable fashion.


"An Overview of the OptiMark System,"

The NASDAQ/OptiMark application, developed by OptiMark Technologies, Inc., of New Jersey, was integrated into the NASDAQ system by NASDAQ. It is an electronic matching system for trading equities, which provides an anonymous and confidential trading environment with the potential for reduced costs. With optimal matching capabilities, the OptiMark Trading System offers the opportunity for price improvement through enhanced execution to institutions, market makers and traders alike. To do this OptiMark creates a call market where trades are matched in cycles, which occur in 5-minute intervals. This is different from the continuous market where trades are matched continuously throughout the day. OPTIMARK Technologies holds a US patent, #5,689,652 (11/18/97), for the electronic market microstructure it has created.


Sally Ride / Sally Kristen Ride / Sally K. Ride / Mrs. Steven A. Hawley

(Born 1951).  Physics educator, scientist, former astronaut. First US woman in space, aboard space shuttle Challenger, 1983.  President, CEO, Imaginary Lines, Inc.; Professor Physics, University California San Diego, La Jolla, 1989; President space Committee, California Space Institute of University California San Diego, La Jolla, 1999-2000; Director, California Space Institute of University California San Diego, La Jolla, 1989-96; Science Fellow, Stanford (California) University, 1987-89; mission specialist STS-41G, NASA, 1984; mission specialist STS-7, NASA, 1983; on-orbit capsule communicator STS-3 mission, NASA; on-orbit capsule communicator STS-2 mission Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston; astronaut, NASA, 1979-87; astronaut candidate, trainee, NASA, 1978-79; researcher dept. physics, Stanford University; teaching Assistant, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Bachelor of science in Physics and a bachelor of arts in English, 1973, and master of science and doctorate degrees in Physics in 1975 and 1978, respectively, from Stanford University, California.

Author: (with Susan Okie) To Space and Back, 1986, (with T.O'Shaughnessy) Voyager: An Adventure to the Edge of the Solar System, 1992, The Third Planet: Exploring the Earth From Space, 1994, The Mystery of Mars, 1999, Exploring our Solar System, 2003.

Honors: Jefferson Award for Public Service, American Institute for Public Service, 1984, for educating children about space travel and exploration; National Spaceflight Medals, 1983 and 1984, in recognition of achievement during space shuttle missions; chosen by President Bill Clinton as a member of his transition team following his election in 1992.

"Sally Ride,"

"Sally Ride,"

"Sally K. Ride (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut (former)," biography, or

Mark Carreau.  "Sally Ride is leaving NASA after making major contributions,"


Georg Friedrich Bernard Riemann

The German mathematician Georg Friedrich Bernard Riemann (1826-1866) was one of the founders of algebraic geometry. His concept of geometric space cleared the way for the general theory of relativity.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Adam Ries / Risz / Riesz / Ris / Riese

(1492-1559). German mathematician, cartographer. Pioneered use of Indian numerals; his books did much to spread knowledge of arithmetic.

The Galileo Project,

The city of Annaberg commissioned a book, Ein Gerechnet Büchlein auff den Schöffel, Eimer vnd Pfundgewicht... (1533), which contains tables of measures and prices from which one could immediately determine the cost of more than one item when a unit cost was given, and a Brotordnung (1536?), from which one could directly determine the correct weight for loaves of bread when grain prices varied and the cost of a loaf was held constant.

Adam Ries Museum. (in German)

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Adam Ries," (in German)


Edward Rigby *** Not in Gale

(1804-1860).  Obstetrician.  First President of the Obstetrical Society of London.

"Biography of Edward Rigby (1804-1860),"

Educated at the grammar school, Norwich, under Valpy, Rigby was a schoolfellow of Sir James Brooke (afterwards rajah of Sarawak) and Sir Archdale Wilson. In 1821 he attended Norfork and Norwich Hospital, and next year matriculated at Edinburgh University. He graduated M.D. 1 Aug. 1825, on his twenty-first birthday (the earliest age then possible). After graduation he spent some time in Dublin, and in 1826 went to Berlin University to study midwifery. From Berlin he passed to Heidelberg, and was kindly received by Naegele. In 1830 he translated Naegele's work On the Mechanism of Parturition, which greatly advanced the science of midwifery in England. In 1830 he became a house pupil at the Lying-in Hospital in York Road, Lambeth, where he subsequently held the appointments of junior and senior physician successively. In 1831 he was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians, and in 1843 became a fellow. In 1831 he began to lecture on midwifery at St. Thomas's, and from 1838 to 1848 he lectured on the same subject at St. Bartholomew's. He was examiner in midwifery in London University from 1841 to 1860. He was regarded as the first obstetric physician in London after Sir Charles Locock retired from practice. When the Obstetrical Society was founded in 1859 he was elected its first president.  (It met for the last time in July 1907, in which year it was absorbed into the Royal Society of Medicine.) He was a fellow of the Linnean Society, and a member of many foreign medical societies.

Edward J. Tilt. "The Late Edward Rigby," British Medical Journal (January 5, 1861): 17

Peter M Dunn, Department of Child Health, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Southmead, Bristol BS10 5NB.  "Dr Edward Rigby, junior, of London (1804-1860) and his system of midwifery,", Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001;84:F216-F217 ( May ).


Sue Rigby *** Not in Gale

(fl. Late 20th century).  Paleontologist, Specialist in Geology, Geophysics, Environmental Geoscience, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh.  Sue Rigby is working on the functional morphology of graptolites and their living relatives, the little known pterobranchs. She is also interested in the origin and evolution of plankton and is keen to compare evolution between different ecosystems. Sue writes periodically for The Scotsman and her third book, Fossils: the story of life was published in May 1997. She was previously a contract biostratigrapher for the British Geological Survey.

Faculty webpage, Science and Engineering at the University of Edinburgh,


William Francis Rigge, SJ


  (1857-1927).  Astronomer, Clergyman Roman Catholic. On July 14, 1875, Rigge entered the Society of Jesus at Florissant, Mo. From 1878 to 1881 he was on the faculty of Creighton University, Omaha, Nebr. His studies in philosophy were begun in 1881 at St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo., and were completed in 1884 at Woodstock College, Woodstock, Maryland While at the latter seminary he met Father John T. Hedrick, who for four years had been assistant astronomer at the observatory of the Argentine Republic, and through him Rigge's interest in problems of the heavens was awakened. From 1884 to 1887 he taught at St. Ignatius College, Chicago, Ill. Returning to Woodstock in 1887 to follow his theological studies, he was there ordained to the priesthood by the late Cardinal Gibbons on Aug. 24, 1890. From 1891 to 1895 he taught at St. Louis University, and in the latter year became professional astronomer at the Georgetown College observatory, Washington, D. C. Rigge contributed liberally to the literature of mathematics and astronomy. For more than twenty years he furnished to Popular Astronomy the eclipse maps, of planets and bright stars. These maps materially assist amateur astronomers in observing these phenomena while they eliminate the drudgery of long and, at times, intricate computations. He was also a frequent contributor to the American Mathematical Monthly, School Science and Mathematics, the Scientific American, the Astronomische Nachrichten, and the Astrophysical Journal. A sensational achievement to his credit was in connection with a notable criminal case at Omaha, during which, by a study of the sun's shadows in a snapshot, he established an alibi for a defendant, arraigned on a charge of placing dynamite with malicious intent, by fixing the time at which the snapshot, produced as evidence at the trial, was taken. Rigge constructed a compound harmonic machine, which was a decided improvement on all preceding machines of its kind. Its functionings prompted him to publish a volume, enentitled Harmonic Curves (1926), a pioneer work with the avowed purpose of encouraging study of this type of mathematical tracings. Another publication of his, The Graphic Construction of Eclipses and Occultations (1924), was of special interest to the professional astronomer. Rigge held a fellowship in the Royal Astronomical Society of England, and membership in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Astronomical Society, the Société Astronomique de France, and the Nebraska Academy of Science.
Excerpted from Francis A. Tondorf.  "William Francis Rigge."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.

Excerpted from Francis A. Tondorf.  "William Francis Rigge."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.

FATHER William Rigge, S.J. Memoirs


Carl Daniel Riggs

(1920-2002).  Academic administrator, biologist.  Professor of Biology, 1971-2002, and Vice President of Academic Affairs, University of South Florida, 1971-1980.  Previous posts: Teaching fellow department of zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1946-47; instructor to Professor department of zoology University Oklahoma, Norman, 1948-65, Dean Graduate College, 1965-71, v.p. Graduate studies, 1966-71, acting provost, 1970-71; acting President, 1977-78, Dean Graduate School and coordinator University research, 1980-86, interim dean College Public Health, 1983-84; Director Center for Excellence in Mathematics, Science, Computers and Technology, 1983-2002; President Conf. So. Graduate Schools, 1986-87.  Education: BS in Zoology, University of Michigan, 1944, MS in Zoology, 1946, Ph.D. in Zoology, 1953.

Consultant NSF, NIH, CGS. Mayor pro tem, Norman, 1963-64; Board of Directors and long range planning committee United Way of Greater Tampa; Board of Directors Tampa Museum of Art, 1979-84, President, 1980-81; Board of Directors Children's Home, Inc., 1974, President, 1984-86.

Honors: Recipient Conservation Education award Sears Roebuck Foundation, 1966; grantee NSF, 1957-66, NASA, 1966-70, John S. Zink Foundation, 1976, 70; fellow NDEA, 1966-70. Fellow Oklahoma Academy Science (President 1966-67).

Member: AAAS, American Institute Biological Sciences, American Fisheries Society, American Society Ichthyologist and Herpetologists, Florida Academy Science, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, Beta Gamma Sigma, Omicron Delta Kappa. Presbyterian. Executive committee; Chairman Scouting for the Handicapped, Gulf Ridge council Boy Scouts America, 1974-86. Served with USAF.

He has published 39 research papers and presented 93 papers at meetings.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Jean Riolan, Jr. *** Not in Gale

(1580-1657).  French anatomist, physician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Riolan was a trained anatomist and dissector and emphasized the superiority of active anatomical observation over long reading and profound meditations. Like his father he was a stern defender of traditional medicine and declared himself an enemy to chemical healers.

He established his reputation through a series of textbooks, the most important being the second edition of Anthropographia (1626). These works reveal a mastery of original observation and of the classical and modern literature. In his later Encheiridium (1648) he included a systematic presentation of both morbid and normal anatomy.

Though in his later years he tried to accept new discoveries, he continually tried to uphold Galenic medicine and opposed the anatomical interpretations of Pecquet, Bartholin, and Harvey.  He became the principal physician of the Queen Mother, Maie de Madicis. He accompanied her on her foreign travels, and attended her final illness at Cologne in 1642.  He was also physician to Henry IV and Louis XIII.


Friedrich Risner / Reisner / Risnerus *** Not in Gale

(birthdate unknown-c. 1580).  German optician, mathematician.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Risner published the works of Alhazen and Witelo in an edition that exerted great influence. His manuscript Opticae libri quattuor (of which much was probably due to Ramus) was published in 1606, long after his death.

He never published any work in mathematics, but Ramus called him his "assistant in mathematical studies."


Dr. Thomas Ralph Rizzo

(Born 1956).  Professor of Chemistry, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Director, Institute of Molecular and Biological Chemistry, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2002-  During his time at the EPFL, Professor Rizzo has held a number of administrative positions, including Director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry (1995-96), Head of the Chemistry Department (1997-99, 2001).  Recipient Coblentz Society award, 1992, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Distinguished New Faculty award Dreyfus Foundation, 1986; Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow, 1991-93.


Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Benjamin Borja Roa, Ph.D., F.A.C.M.G.

(Born September 11, 1963 in San Fernando, Philippines, came to the U.S., 1985).  Molecular geneticist.  Achievements include research in gene responsible for Charcot-Marie tooth disease type 1A and Dejerine-Sottas syndrome. Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Director, Baylor DNA Diagnostic Laboratory.  Postdoctoral fellow, Muscular Dystrophy Association, 1992-94. Education: BS, University Philippines, 1985; Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1991; Postdoctorate, Baylor College of Medicine, 1996.

Member: Member AAAS, American Society for Human Genetics.

Contributor of articles to professional journals. and chapters to books.  Roman Catholic.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Faculty webpage,

"The research interests in my laboratory lie in the area of translational genetics. I am specifically interested in applying novel and innovative technologies in molecular biology towards the diagnosis of inherited disease. My research interests include genotype-phenotype studies and population genetics, with the overall goal of developing clinical applications derived from the human genome project."


Lanny Arnold Robbins

(Born 1940).  Chemical engineer. Research Fellow at Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan, 1997-2003 now retired.  Consultant, Larco Techs., LLC, Midland, Michigan, 2003; Senior Research scientist, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, 1988-97; Research scientist, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, 1983-88; Associate scientist, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, 1976-83; Research specialist, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, 1973-76; Research engineer, project leader, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, 1966-73. From American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Mid-Michigan Section Newsletter, v. 9, n. 1,  August 29, 2003,

Dr. Robbins received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Iowa State University  in 1961, 1963, and 1965 respectively.  He has significantly advanced the practice of chemical engineering by emphasizing chemical engineering fundamentals and commercial implementation.  He has built a reputation among separations experts around the world as one of the leading chemical engineers working in industry.

Examples of Dr. Robbins' commercial process development contributions are numerous.  In his career at The Dow Chemical Company, Robbins has researched, developed, and implemented a wide range of separation and purification unit operations including numberous liquid-liquid extraction processes, a melt crystallization process that is widely practiced in Dow, and the AquaDetox® aqueous purification tec hnology for strippingimpurities from water to the parts-per-billion range.  Recent advancements has have advanced this wastewater purification technology to unprecedented low levels of parts-per-quadrillion.  Dr. Robbins has led the research and development of Dow's pressure swing adsorption technology for recovery of hydrocarbons, solvents, and monomers from vent streams and co-invented, with George Killat of The Dow Chemical Company, a low-cost, high-efficiency liquid distributor for packed distillation, absorption, and stripping towers.  Recently, Dr. Robbins served as the principal developer of the Cargill-Dow process for isolating and purifying lactic acid at Cargill-Dow's new polylactide facility in Blair, Nebraska.  In addition to the examples mentioned here, Dr. Robbins has led the development of many proprietary separation technologies now in operation at Dow facilities around the world.

In recognition of his many accomplishments, Dr. Robbins has received numerous awards throughout his career.  He was awarded the Engineer of the Year Award from AIChE's Mid-Michigan Section in 1977 and in 1991.  He has also received the Saginaw Valley Inventor of the Year Award, the Iowa State University Alumni Professional Achievement Citation in Engineering, and two National AIChE awards: The Chemical Engineering Practice Award (1992), and the inaugural Process Development Practice Award given just this past April [2003]at the Spring National Meeting in New Orleans as part of the formation of the new Process Development Division. [The award recognizes "individuals with outstanding contributions in the practice or application of chemical engineering to process development … based on their contributions to the discovery and application of innovative solutions to technological problems, and/or commercialization of new products and processes."]  In 1993, Dr. Roibbins received the Herbert H. Dow Medal from the Dow Board of Directors in recognition of his leadership in the development and commercialization of separation and purification processes. In 2003, the Mid-Michigan Section gave special recognition to Dr. Lanny Robbins, in honor of his selection for the inaugural National AIChE Process Development Practive Award. 

Dr. Robbins is the author or co-author of more than 150 Dow technical reports, 18 patents, and 20 outside publications including chapters in Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook and Schweitaer's Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers.  His most recent contribution to Chemical Engineering Progress (appearing in the January 2002 issue) describes the Robbins method for tuning control loops for reducing variability in distillation and other operations.

Iowa State University College of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Active Site,  Issue No. 12, Winter 2003. ChE University Professor Emeritus Tom Wheelock notes that Lanny "is regarded as the technical leader of all research and development conducted by Dow in the field of chemical separation methods."


Gilles Personne de Roberval

(1602-1675).  French mathematician, mechanic, physicist, natural philosopher, cartographer. Gilles Personne de Roberval is generally considered to be the founder of kinematic geometry (a branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion) because of his discoveries about plane curves and the method he developed for drawing the tangent to a curve. He was also important historically because of his close contact and correspondence with many of the other important mathematicians of his day. Roberval was a leading expert in the geometry of infinitesimals.  Professor at College de France, Paris (1632-75); originated methods for constructing tangents and for determining the area of a cycloid; invented the balance which bears his name (1669).  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Roberval was a leading proponent of the geometry of infinitesimals which he claimed originated with Archimedes. (He was unfamiliar with the work of Cavalieri.) He wrote on finding areas, a book titled Traité des indivisibles, which appeared in a collection of Académie works. In addition to his work on areas he wrote treatises on algebra and analytic geometry. His method of the "composition of movements" makes him the founder of kinematic geometry of which the most famous application was the construction of tangents.

Many of Roberval's writings were published in collections of other works by members of the Académie (1693). Since few of his works appeared in the period that followed, Roberval was eclipsed by Fermat, Pascal, and his adversary Descartes. Only two works were published separately, Traité de méchanique (1636) and Aristarchi Samii de mundi systemate (1644).

From 1644-8 he played an important role in the relations with Italy involving the barometric experiments.

At the same time (1647) he entered into another polemic with Descartes on the center of oscillation of the compound pendulum.  He advocated the joining of experiment to reason and wrote a philosophical work that showed evidence of his positivism.

In 1699, he presented to the Académie plans for a particular type of balance that bears his name.  He suggested the application of telescopic sights to the quadrant and sextant.  On the problem of the vacuum he wrote two Narrationes. In the second one he described a very ingenious apparatus that he had invented to support his theory. This device served as a prototype for the one in Pascal's experiment on "the vacuum in the vacuum."

In the Académie he participated with Picard in the work on cartography. He composed a mémoire on the method of mapping France.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-75, charter member.  When he arrived in Paris in 1628 he immediately became acquainted with the members of the Mersenne circle. Mersenne especially held him in high esteem.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Gilles Personne de Roberval,"


Bernetta Denise Robinson / Bernetta Robinson Doane

(Born 1953).  Librarian, biologist.  Reference Librarian and the Coordinator of Library Instruction at the Connelly Library La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA.  Previous posts: Science Teacher Philadelphia School District, 1974-75; manpower planner City of Philadelphia, 1975-78; Graduate Research Assistant Atlanta University, 1979-80; forestry technician, U.S. Dept. Agriculture Forest Service, Delaware, Ohio, 1979; technical info. specialist Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (California), 1981; reference librarian, Atlanta University Center, 1981.  Education: B.A., Cheyney State College, 1974; Masters of Library Science from Atlanta University, 1981; Master of Arts degree in Education from La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA.

Member Urban League, Philadelphia, 1976-78, NAACP, Philadelphia, 1977-78. Recipient Women in Non-Traditional Occupations award U.S. Department of Labor, 1978, Co-op award U.S. Dept. Agriculture Forest Service, 1979-80. Member ALA, Atlanta Online Users Association, Met. Atlanta Library Association, Georgia Library Association, Delta Sigma Theta. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Nigel Robinson, BSc, Ph.D.

(Born 1960).  English molecular genetics educator, researcher.
Post-doctoral research, University of Leicester (Chemistry); Professor molecular genetics, University Newcastle (England) Medical School, 1995; Royal Society University Research Fellow, 1987 - 1995, Universities of Durham and Newcastle; Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Genetics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, 1984-1987.

Member: American Society for Plant Physiology, Society for Experimental Biology (cell biology Committee 1994, President's medal for work on metallo-proteins and metal-interactions with plant and microbial cells 1993), Biochemical Society

Contributor 26 articles to professional journals., 10 chapters to books.

Faculty webpage, Cell & Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. or

Spiros Tzelepis.  "Can genetics give a solution to those who suffer from hunger and malnutrition?"


Christie Joy Robnett

(Born December 21, 1951 in Peoria, Illinois, United States).  Microbiologist.  Laboratory technician, microbiologist, North Regional Research Center. USDA, Peoria, Illinois, 1982; laboratory technician, microbiologist, National Animal Disease Center. USDA, Ames, Iowa, 1981-82; aquatic biologist, Cen. Regional Lab. division U.S. EPA, Chicago, 1979-81; sec., Central Regional Lab. division U.S. EPA, Chicago, 1975-79; microbiologist, Good Humor Corp., Chicago, 1974-75.  Education: BA, University of Illinois, 1973; MS, Illinois Institute Technology, 1981.

Member: Christian Business and Professional Women's Club.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.



John Roche*** Not in Gale
History of Science, University of Oxford, England. Dr John Roche teaches courses in the history of science and history of physics at Linacre College, Oxford and courses in applied physics and applied mathematics at Oxford Brookes University. He also serves as Senior Consultant and Administrator to the John Templeton Oxford Seminars on Science and Christianity and is the Associate Director for the Oxford Summer Programme. His main research interest lies in using the history of physics to clarify difficult concepts in today's physics.  He became Secretary of the Oxford Branch of the Linacre Society from January 2002. John was at Linacre in the mid 1970s where he took a History DPhil and now teaches History of Science at Oxford University. He is an Associate Fellow at Harris Manchester College.

Has earned the degrees of M.Sc., M.A., D.Phil.
His recent publications include The Mathematics of Measurement: a Critical History (London: Athlone Press, 1998), and "What is potential energy?", European Journal of Physics 24 (March, 2003) 185-196. 

Contact page,


Ole Christensen Roemer

(1644-1710).  Danish astronomer, physicist, optician, engineer, hydraulics specialist, cartographer who made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.  Lutheran.


Ole Roemer, born at Aarhuus, Denmark on September 25, 1644, and died at Copenhagen on September 19, 1710, was the first to measure the velocity of light; this was done in 1675 by means of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. He brought the transit and mural circle into common use, the altazimuth having been previously generally employed, and it was on his recommendation that astronomical observations of stars were subsequently made in general on the meridian. He was also the first to introduce micrometers and reading microscopes into an observatory. He also deduced from the properties of epicycloids the form of the teeth in toothed-wheels best fitted to secure a uniform motion.

"Olaus Roemer." World of Scientific Discovery, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 1999: Today the speed of light is a fundamental yardstick. When it was announced in 1676 it was scarcely noticed. Indeed, it was not until James Bradley's work nearly fifty years later that the speed of light returned from oblivion. After Roemer returned to Copenhagen, he worked on reforming the Danish system of weights and measures, helped get the controversial Gregorian calendar into use, and worked with Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) to establish his new system of temperature. Roemer was also known as a talented inventor of clocks and mechanical devices, including a micrometer, astronomical instruments, and a new thermometer.

The Galileo Project,

In Paris, part of his duties involved making instruments. He built clocks and other devices, including a micrometer for differential measurement of position. In Copenhagen, as director of the observatory he continued his innovation in instrumentation. He was perhaps the first to attach a telescopic sight to a meridian transit.  He also invented a new thermometer and was active in the science of thermometry, passing some ideas to Fahrenheit, whom he met in 1708.

Roemer reordered Denmark's system of measuring and registration and introduced a new, rational system for numbers and weights. The number and weight reforms were especially important because the confusion that existed before hampered trade. Roemer combined weight and length, a system which only occured in other lands more than a century later (with the metric system).

While Copenhagen was growing rapidly in these years, Roemer was in charge of laying out streets, lighting, water supply and drainage, fire standards, and lesser affairs.  In 1699, he revised the calendar, so that Easter was scheduled according to the moon.

Member: Berlin Academy (honorary).  He corresponded with Leibniz, Fahrenheit, and others.  Hoefer indicates he became a member of the Académie sometime around 1672, but the verbal records of the Académie for this period are missing and this piece of information is not generally mentioned in secondary sources.


Henry Darwin Rogers

(1809-1866). American geologist.  Foremost structural geologist of his time. Director, Geological Survey of New Jersey (1835-38) and Pennsylvania (1836-42); published findings of latter survey in Report on Pennsylvania (1858), an important contribution to theory of mountain building; Professor at Glasgow, Scotland (1857-66).

Available through NetLibrary: Henry Darwin Rogers, 1808-1866 American geologist, by Patsy Gerstner:


Peter Mark Roget

(1779-1869). English physician and scholar. Member of Royal Society (from 1815); instrumental in establishing University of London; author of Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (1852),which reached 28th edition during his lifetime.


Dave Rogstad / David H. Rogstad, Ph.D *** Not in Gale

Physicist.  Consultant to Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  Dr. David (Dave) H. Rogstad serves as executive vice president of Reasons To Believe with the goal of developing effective teamwork. Dave earned his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He conducted research there on galaxies for over ten years, interrupted by a two-year stint in Holland doing related research in radio astronomy. From Caltech, Dave went to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to supervise teams working on such projects as the Galileo mission and on Hypercube concurrent computation. Before retiring from JPL, he published over twenty scientific papers on various aspects of aperture synthesis and interferometric techniques, as well as reports on experiments in radio astronomy and related fields. Dave is cowriting a book on an antenna array technique developed by his JPL team for the Galileo program.

Amy C. Jung. "A Stellar Array: An Interview with Dr. David Rogstad," .  From Facts for Faith, Issue 7, 2001. Dave speaks of his background, his involvement with Hugh Ross, and his zeal for living a successful Christian life.  Rogstad: "Of course, the scientific evidences and proofs that we have for our faith intrigue me. But I think the real challenge that I personally feel in sharing that scientific material is how to communicate it in a way that is understood by the interested noneducated person."


Jacques Rohault *** Not in Gale

(c. 1618-1672).  French natural philosopher, military engineer.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

As the leading advocate and teacher of Descartes's natural philosophy of the time, Rohault's contemporary fame rested on the very popular weekly lectures, 'les mercredis de Rohault', which he held at his house in Paris. His masterwork the Traité de physique (1671) became the era's leading textbook on natural philosophy. The Latin translation of 1674 was used as a university textbook.

The Traité reflects Rohault's explicit view that the explanations of natural philosophy were only probable and were subject to falsification by one counterinstance. Among his most famous experiments were those on the weight of air, and magnetism.

Rohault intended his natural philosophy to introduce Cartesian views as a more complete elaboration of the Aristotelian traditions. He sought to join the Cartesian principles to experimental practice. Despite his call for a more quantitative approach to natural philosophy, he made little use of mathematical arguments to establish his position.

In his last years Rohault was troubled by the political reaction to Cartesianism in France. In his work, Entretiens sur la philosophie (1671), Rohault tried to establish the importance of Cartesian interpretations to theology. Yet, at the time of his death he was considered heretical by some.

During the 1660's he emerged as the arbiter of Cartesian scientific affairs in Paris. He became an active participant in the Montmor Academy and other circles of leading natural philosophers. In 1665 he recruited Pierre-Sylvain Regis to the Cartesian movement. After several months of instruction in Cartesian science and the arts of conferencier, Regis was sent by him to spread the doctrine in Toulouse. He also organized the ceremonies marking the return of Descartes's remains to Paris from Stockholm in 1667.


Guerner Rolfinck / Werner Rolfinck *** Not in Gale

(1599-1673).  German physician, botanist, chemist, anatomist, pharmacologist.

The Galileo Project,

From1625 - c.28, Rolfinck practiced medicine and taught anatomy in Venice. After graduating from Padua, he was in such demand as an anatomist that he received the license to teach simultaneously with his degree. In 1628 he received the call to become ordinary professor of medicine at Padua, but he had already returned to Germany.  From 1628-9, Rolfinck was professor of anatomy, University of Wittenberg.  From 1629-73, he was professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany, University of Jena.  He established the first anatomical theater (1629), the botanical garden (1631, named director), and chemical laboratory (1630) at Jena.  In 1639, he was appointed director exercitii chymia, which became a professorship of chemistry in 1641.  He was rector of Jena six times.  He also maintained a personal practice. (in German)


Michel Rolle

(1652-1719). French mathematician, algebraist.  Michel Rolle was a largely self-educated mathematician who taught himself both algebra and Diophantine analysis, a method for solving equations with no unique solution. He won early repute when he solved a problem set by the mathematician Jacques Ozanam, but his real passion lay in the field of the algebra of equations. His most famous work was the Traite d'algebre, ou principes generaux pour resoudre les questions de mathematique, of 1690, in which he not only invented the modern notation for the nth root of x, but also expounded on his "cascade" method to separate the roots of an algebraic equation. He is best remembered for the theorem which bears his name, Rolle's Theorem, which determines the position of roots in an equation.

The Galileo Project,

Académie Royal des Sciences, 1685-1719; He became élève astronome in 1685. When the Académie reorganized Rolle became a pensionnaire géometre (1699), which assured him a regular salary.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson.  "Michel Rolle,"


Bernard E. Rollin

Bioethicist, scholar.  University Distinguished Professor Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Professor of Philosophy, Agriculture and Biomedical Sciences and Director of Bioethical Planning.  Professor, Ph.D., Columbia University, 1972.

Author: Natural and Conventional Meaning, 1976; Animal Rights and Human Morality, 1981; The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain and Scientific Change, 1988; Farm Animal Welfare, 1995; The Frankenstein Syndrome: Ethical and Social Issues in the Genetic Engineering of Animals, 1995; ed, The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research, 1995.

He has published over 200 papers, and lectured more than 700 times in more than a dozen countries. Rollin taught the world's first course in veterinary medical ethics, and is a principal architect of the United States federal laws for the protection of animals used in research.


Guillaume Rondelet

(1507-1566). French naturalist and physician. Professor (from 1545) and chancellor (from 1556), University of Montpellier; author of Libri de piscibus marinis (1554-55), descriptions of marine animals.

The Galileo Project,


Lawrence Rooke *** Not in Gale

(1622-1662).  English astronomer, navigation expert, physicist, cartographer.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Rooke observed the comet of 1652. There were other astronomical activities, especially in connection with navigation--systematic observations of the satellites of Jupiter as a means to determine longitude, and arguments for similar telescopic observations of lunar eclipses for that purpose. For the Royal Society he drew up a list of systematic observations for seamen to make in order to improve navigation.  With Wren he experimented on the impact of elastic bodies and with Goddard on the effect of radiant heat on a crude thermometer.

In his discussion of the satellites of Jupiter and how to observe them, Rooke is explicit in saying that this method will not work at sea because of the difficulty of observing. However, for establishing the longitude of cities and harbors, i.e., for cartography, where different people can be observing at different places, the satellites of Jupiter would be ideal. Rooke added that a good lunar theory might provide an astronomical means to determine longitude at sea.

Member: Royal Society.  Informal Connections: Connection with John Wilkins, Seth Ward and the Oxford group, beginning in 1650.  He occasionally assisted Boyle in his experiments, 1650-52.  He collaborated with Jonathan Goddard.  It was in Rooke's chambers at Gresham College that the group of interested men would gather in the late 50s, and there the Royal Society (though it was not yet so named while he was alive) was organized in 1660.


Adriaan van Roomen / often known by his Latin name Adrianus Romanus *** Not in Gale

(1561-1615).  Belgian mathematician, natural philosopher, astronomer, physician, educator.

The Galileo Project,

In Würzburg, where he was a professor of medicine and where he really created the medical faculty in a new university, he published a continuing series of medical theses defended by his students. They are all wholly traditional, and there is no indication at all that Roomen contributed to medical science. A prolific author, Roomen wrote also on astronomy and natural philosophy. As with medicine, his opinions in these fields were wholly traditional.  As a mathematician he was especially concerned with trigonometry. He calculated the sides of the regular polygons, and from the polygon with 216 (?) sides calculated the value of pi to sixteen places. He also wrote a commentary on algebra.  Roomen's work in mathematics was heavily, almost exclusively, in the direction of practical calculation.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Adriaan van Roomen," or

After studying at the Jesuit College in Cologne, Roomen studied medicine at Louvain. He then spent some time in Italy, particularly with Clavius in Rome in 1585.

Roomen was Professor of mathematics and medicine at Louvain from 1586 to 1592, he then went to Würzburg where again he was Professor of medicine. He was also "Mathematician to the Chapter" in Würzburg. From 1603 to 1610 he lived frequently in both Louvain and Würzburg. He was ordained a priest in 1604. After 1610 he tutored mathematics in Poland.


George Romanes / George John Romanes

(1848-1894). British biologist. Theistic evolutionist.  George John Romanes was born in Canada, but brought up in London. He attended Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, graduating in the second class in 1870. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) - a personal friend of his - had substantial influence on the studies of Romanes. At University College, London, Romanes researched nervous and locomotor systems of medusae and echinoderms; showed parallelism indevelopment of mental faculties of animals and man in Animal Intelligence (1881) and Mental Evolution in Animals (1883). He further applied Darwin's theory of evolution to development of mind in Mental Evolution in Man (1888); argued for role of isolation in evolution in Darwin and after Darwin (1892-97).  Despite early strong religious beliefs, Romanes was converted to Darwinism, and wrote a critical treatise on theism, under the pseudonym Physicus. At the end of his life, he wrote a second religious treatise, this time orthodox in belief, under the pseudonym of Metaphysicus.

Biography in Green Eye of the Storm, by John Rendle-Short.  Banner of Truth, 1998. ISBN 0-8515-1727-7.


Mary Rose / Mary Davies Swartz Rose

(1874-1941).  American nutritionist. Mary Swartz Rose was a noted authority on nutrition who made important contributions in both academia and government. At the time of her death, she was professor of nutrition at Columbia University's Teachers College. She attended Denison University in Granville, Ohio. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1901 and studied for a year at Mechanics Institute in Rochester, New York. From there she went on to Teachers College, where she received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1906. She then went on to Yale University, where she was awarded a Ph.D. in physiological chemistry in 1909. She returned to Teachers College, this time as an instructor in nutrition. She became an Assistant Professor in 1910 and authored several books on nutrition: Everyday Foods in War Time, 1918; Teaching Nutrition to Boys and Girls, 1932, Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics, 1939; and Feeding the Family, 1940, considered by many to be a classic in its field, in which she recalculated tables of food composition to fit ordinary recipes and foods as eaten, putting the chemical aspects of nutrition in terms a homemaker could understand and use. Long active on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition, she contributed frequently to it, as well as to the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Home Economics, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, and others.  During the First World War, Rose took an active role in government programs. She served as director of both the Bureau of Conservation of the Federal Food Board and the New York State Food Commission. Her husband, Anton Richard Rose, was also a scientist; he served as a chemist with the Prudential Insurance Company.


David Rosevear, Ph.D., CChem, FRSC *** Not in Gale

Chemist,  Ph.D. in Organometallic Chemistry from the University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

Lectured for two decades at the University of Portsmouth.  Has worked directly with two Fellows of the Royal Society. Member of Council of the Creation Science Movement, the world's senior creationist organization, for a quarter of a century, the last seventeen years as its Chairman (as of 2003).

Author: Creation Science - Confirming that the Bible is Right (in English, Czech and Russian). Author of a score of papers in scientific journals.

David Rosevear.  "The Myth of Chemical Evolution," IMPACT No. 313 July 1999 © Copyright 2004 Institute for Creation Research.

Sunnyside Primary in Reynard Way, Northampton


Hugh (Norman) Ross

(Born 1945).  Astronomer.  President and Director of Research, Reasons to Believe. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, research Fellow in radio astronomy, 1973-78; Sierra Madre Congregational Church, Pasadena, CA, minister of evangelism, 1975-86, minister of apologetics, 1986- present; Reasons To Believe, Inc. (Progressive Creationist ministry), Pasadena, CA, president, 1986 - present. B.Sc. (1967) in Physics, University of British Columbia, M.Sc. (1968) in Astronomy, University of Toronto,  Ph.D. (1973) in Astronomy, University of Toronto.  Memberships: American Institute of Physics, American Science Affiliation, American Astronomical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Author: The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator, 1989, 2d edition, 1991 (More than 100,000 copies sold.), The Creator and the Cosmos, 1993, ed edition, 1995; Creation and Time, 1994; Beyond the Cosmos, 1996; Lights In the Sky & Little Green Men: A Rational Christian Look at UFOs and Extraterrestrials, 2002, Origins of Life. (Co-authored with Fazale Rana), 2004, A Matter of Days, 2004; also articles, videos, audiotapes and tape albums.


Biography and curriculum vitae:

"Reasons to Believe,"

Ross: "What is needed in life is a healthy skepticism, the kind that is promoted in the Bible: 'Test everything.' In other words, belief is to be based on established facts." -"Hugh Norman Ross." Marquis Who's Who TM. Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Sir Ronald Ross

(1857-1932).  British physician, born in India.  Discovered causes of malaria, 1897; won Nobel Prize for medicine, 1902. Professor, University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (1902-12); physician, King's College Hospital, London (from 1912); director in chief, Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Author of The Prevention of Malaria (1910).

The Nobel Prize Internet Archive (Links):

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Ariel A. Roth *** Not in Gale


Besides teaching biology, Ariel Roth has spent 30 years researching areas in which science and religion touch each other and sometimes offer conflicting perspectives. Holding a doctorate in zoology from the University of Michigan, he taught at Andrews and Loma Linda universities and from 1980 to 1994 was director of the Geoscience Research Institute. Roth has also been in the evolution-creation controversy in the United States, testifying before many educational and legal groups, and has conducted numerous geological and paleontological field trips around the world.

Qualifications and experience:

Ariel A. Roth.  Origins: Linking Science And Scripture: "I cannot accept the idea that God does not exist. Nature is too complex and existence too meaningful for me to think that all the intricacies and delicate balances I see about me are just accidental. There has to be a Designer. If there is a Designer, I would expect some meaningful communication from Him. It would be an odd kind of Creator who would design our thinking, conscious minds and not communicate at all with us. I expect communication, and I look for that communication. Scripture is the best candidate. Written by more than two dozen authors claiming special reveation, it has unusual internal coherence and unusual external correspondence with history, archeology, and nature."

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Christoph Rothmann *** Not in Gale

(fl. Late 16th century).  German astronomer.

The Galileo Project,

He received a stipend from Joachim Ernst von Anhalt (1536- 1586) to write the manuscript "Christophori Rothmanni... astronomia," and is presumed to have been in his service when he visited Kassel to inspect the Landgrave's instruments in 1577.  Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse, was his major patron for most of his career. (in French)

Miguel A. Granada, Barcelona.  "Christoph Rothmann und die Auflösung der himmlischen Sphären [Christoph Rothmann and the dispersal of the celestial spheres. The letters to the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel of 1585. - In German]"


Olof Rudbeck

(1630-1702). Swedish scientist. Professor, Uppsala (1655-91); discovered the lymphatic system (1650); attempted to prove that the cradle of human culture and Plato's Atlantis were in Sweden. The botanical genus Rudbeckia is named for him.

The Galileo Project, (Swedish)


Irving Warren Ruderman

(Born 1920). Chemist.  Company executive. Chairman, chief Executive officer, Inrad, Inc., Northvale, N.J., 1973; President, Isomet Corp., Oakland, N.J., 1954-73; Research scientist, Columbia University, N.Y.C., 1949-54; Lecturer chemistry, Columbia University, N.Y.C., 1947-49; teaching Fellow, Columbia University, N.Y.C., 1946-47.  Education: Ph.D., Columbia University, 1949.

Member: Fellow N.Y. Academy of Science; member American Physics Society, American Chemical Society, American Optical Society, American Ceramic Society, Sigma Xi, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Tau Beta Pi.  Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2001.


Christoff Rudolff / Christoff Rudolf

(c. 1499? - c. 1545?)  Polish-born algebraist, mathematician.  Rudolff's impact on the field of algebra is widely known. He is the author of Coss (1525), the first comprehensive German algebra book, which he dedicated to the Bishop of Brixen (now Bressanone, Italy). Algebra was referred to as the cossic art during Rudolff's lifetime, and algebraists were known as cossists. The word "cosa" means "thing" and it was used to stand for the unknown.

The Galileo Project,

His Künstliche Rechnung mit der Ziffer und mit den Zahlpfennigen (1526) contains an "Exempelbüchlein" which contains examples of the use of mathematics in commerce and manufacturing.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Christoff Rudolff,"


Jean Ruel *** Not in Gale

(1474-1537).  French physician, pharmacologist, botanist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Although Ruel's works were compilations of the works of earlier authors, they represented a first attempt at popularizing botany. In 1516 he published a translation of Dioscorides' De materia medica. De medicina veterina (1530) was a Latin compilation of everything written in Greek on veterinary medicine. His botanical work, De natura stirpium presented an alphabetical ordering of plants; provided information on odors and tastes of plants; and separated each topic (i.e. leaves, bark, etc.) into its own chapter. As an etymological source Ruel's work was unreliable because it relied on ancient authors. (in French)


George E. Rueppel, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1864-1947).  An experimental physicist at Saint Louis University.  Br. Rueppel set up the university's radio station, WEW, recognized by the government as the first west of the Mississippi.


Carlo Ruini *** Not in Gale

(c. 1530-1598).  Italian anatomist, veterinarian.

The Galileo Project,

Ruini is remembered chiefly for the two-volume Anatomia del cavallo, infermite et suoi remedii (Bologna, 1598), which went through several editions during the 17th century. The first volume deals mainly with anatomy, and the second specifically with equine diseases and their cures. (in French)


Martin Ruland *** Not in Gale

(1569-1611).  German-born physician, iatrochemist.

The Galileo Project,

Ruland applied the principles of Paracelsan medicine in his treatment of patients. (in German)


Dr. Robert Rumely / Robert S. Rumely

(Born 1952).  Mathematician. Professor, University of Georgia, 1990; Associate Professor, University of Georgia, 1985-90; Assistant Professor, University of Georgia, Athens, 1981-85; postdoctoral Visiting Fellow, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1980-81; Instructor, Massachusetts Institute Technology, Cambridge, 1978-80. Education: BA, Grinnell College, 1974; Ph.D., Princeton University, 1978.

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia,

"My research interests are in Arithmetic Geometry/Algebraic Number Theory, Logic/Set Theory, Mathematics of Computation, Number Theory."

Member: American Mathematics Society, Sloan Foundation Fellow, N.Y.C., 1983-87; NSF grantee, 1979-80, 82-83, 84-85, 88-89, 91-93, others.

Author: Capacity Theory on Algebraic Curves, 1989.

Vita and Publications List:


Mrs. Cherilyn Rumely*** Not in Gale

Mathematics Instructor, University of Georgia.

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia,

Larry B. Dendy. "Faculty honored for teaching, influence on students,"


Craig Rusbult *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Website manager.  "Currently, I'm working part-time teaching in the Chemistry Dept at UW-Madison, but my full-time vocation is developing a science education website for the American Scientific Affiliation, which is an organization of scientists - and engineers, and scholars in fields related to science, such as philosophy of science, history of science, and science education - who are Christians."  (More about professional realities.)  Education: BA in Chemistry, Univ of California, Irvine; MS in Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle; MA in History of Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ph.D. in Curriculum & Instruction, University of Wisconsin, Madison.  "My Ph.D. dissertation was a unifying synthesis of ideas (mainly from scientists and philosophers, but also from sociologists, psychologists, historians, and myself) into a model of scientific method, and the application of this model for the integrative analysis of a creative science classroom."

"In addition to developing the ASA Science Ed website I've written a variety of web-pages, as described in Exploring Education: Learning, Thinking, and Teaching,  World Views (about reality,...) and Quantum Mechanics , Origins Questions (about creation/evolution/design,...) , plus the goals and style of a "quick education" website.  There is another page (with more personal information about hobbies, professional realities,...) plus pages about Tools for Physics and Musical Improvisation and Juggling."

Craig Rusbult, Ph.D..  "Two Modes of Divine Action in History,"

Craig Rusbult: "Intellectually, I've been productive because God made me intelligent and I work hard."


Benjamin Rush

(1746-1813). American physician, educator, and patriot.  Practiced in Philadelphia (from 1769). Professor of chemistry, College of Philadelphia (1769-91) and at UNIVERSITY of Pennsylvania (1791). Member, Continental Congress (1776, 1777) and signer of Declaration of Independence. Surgeon general of Continental army (1777-78). Established first free dispensary in U.S. (1786). Member, Pennsylvania constitutional ratification convention (1787). Treasurer, U.S. Mint (1797-1813). Author of Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Chemistry (1770; first chemistry textbook in U.S.).

Rush also did pioneering work relating dentistry to physiology and was influential in founding veterinary medicine in America. Both fields had been considered beneath the dignity of the professional. His observations on the mentally ill seem to presage modern developments in psychoanalytic theory, especially his Medical Inquiries and Observations on the Diseases of the Mind (1812).

Rush's insistence on a rational, systematic body of knowledge for the medical profession certainly helped set the stage for the later medical revolution in America.

Benjamin Rush at

Benjamin Rush Society.

Benjamin Rush Links.


Bruce Russell *** Not in Gale

Registered Professional Engineer, No. 15222, State of Oklahoma. (Also registered engineer in Texas).  Associate Professor, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, January 2002 - present).

Dr. Russell teaches and conducts research in the areas of Highway Bridges, Prestressed Concrete Structures and High Performance Concrete (HPC). Many applications for his research are found in the nation's highway transportation system. Through the years, Dr. Russell and his research colleagues have worked on numerous bridge and highway pavement projects. Dr. Russell's research has led to the adoption and use of High Strength Concrete (HSC) and HPC in a variety of applications within Oklahoma and in other states. His research in prestressed concrete has focused improvements toward understanding the mechanisms that contribute to bond between steel prestressing strands and concrete, and developed behavioral models to help understand the interaction between bond, shear, and flexural behavior.

Prior to his academic career, Dr. Russell was employed by General Dynamics/Convair Division, San Diego, CA as a Structural Engineer (1980 - 1981), by Dresser Engineering/Davy McKee Corporation of Tulsa, Oklahoma with experience ranging from civil and structural design (1981) to project management (1987). During that time, he was engaged as Chief Field Engineer (1986) during four major construction projects where he had responsible charge of construction for more than $50 million in facilities. Before joining Oklahoma State University in January 2002, Dr. Russell was an Associate Professor at The University of Oklahoma (1992-2001). Dr. Russell received his BSCE and MCE from Rice University in 1980 and 1985, respectively, and his Ph.D. from The University of Texas at Austin in 1992. He is a 1976 graduate of Broken Arrow High School.

Dr. Russell is a Fellow of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) where he is Chair of the Publications Committee and the Joint ACI/ASCE Committee 423, Prestressed Concrete. He is also a member of the Building Code Subcommittee ACI 318-G, for Precast and Prestressed Concrete. He is an active member of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He serves on the Board of Directors for the North American Strand Producers Association.

Dr. Russell has been honored with the 1993 Martin P. Korn Award from PCI, the 1994 T.Y. Lin Award from ASCE, and the George W. Tauxe Outstanding Professor Awards in 1995 and 1996 from the student chapters of ASCE and Chi Epsilon at The University of Oklahoma (OU).

Faculty webpage, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University,

Webpage, National Bridge Research Organization,

Curriculum vitae:

National Bridge Research Organization,


Colin Archibald Russell, DSc, FRSC

(Born 1928).  Science educator.  Emeritus Professor of History of Science at the Open University, Kingston Technical College, Surrey, England, Assistant Lecturer in chemistry, 1950-59; Harris College, Preston, Lancashire, England, Lecturer, 1959-61, Senior Lecturer, 1961-68, principal Lecturer in organic chemistry, 1968-70; Open University, Milton Keynes, England, Senior Lecturer, 1970-72, reader, 1972-81, Professor of history of science and technology, beginning 1981. Memberships: Royal Society of Chemistry (Fellow; past chair of historical group), British Society for History of Science (president, 1986-88), Society for the History of Alchemy and Early Chemistry, Royal Institution of Great Britain. Author of about twenty-five correspondence texts for Open University.  Writer of television and radio programs produced for Open University, ITV, and the BBC. Contributor to professional journals, including Annals of Science, Journal of the Chemical Society, British Journal for the History of Science, Science and Christian Belief, Chemistry in Britain, Ambix, and Nature.

Faculty webpage, The Open University,

Colin Russell.  "Without a Memory,"

[From Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 45 (March 1993): 219-221.]

Colin Russell.  "Europe's Favorite Chemists?"

Colin Russell in God and the Scientists, edited by Mike Poole:   "To portray Christian and scientific doctrines as persistently in conflict is not only historically inaccurate, but actually a caricature so grotesque that what needs to be explained is how it could possibly have achieved any degree of respectability."

Testimony in God and the Scientists, edited by Mike Poole.  CPO, Worthing, 1997.  ISBN 1-901796-02-7.


Henry Norris Russell

(1877-1957).  American astronomer.  Postulated, confirmed correlation between star's brightness/type of spectrum, called Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.


From Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion, copyright Princeton University Press (1978).

For many years the leading theoretical astronomer in America, Russell graduated from Princeton in 1897 at the age of nineteen insigni cum laude with extraordinary honor ( -- a designation by the Faculty never used before or since). His father was a Presbyterian minister; his mother and maternal grandmother had both won prizes in mathematics. He recalled his parents' showing him the transit of Venus in 1882 when he was five years old. His favorite study in college was mathematics (his favorite sport, mountain-climbing); an interest in astronomy was stimulated by Professor Charles A. Young, with whom he continued to study after graduation, earning his Ph.D. summa cum laude in 1900. Following study as an advanced research student at Cambridge University, England, he was appointed instructor in astronomy by Woodrow Wilson in 1905, became a full professor in 1911, and director of the Princeton Observatory in 1912. He took an active part in the affairs of the Class of 1897 and attended reunions frequently. His classmates were very proud of him; at their thirtieth reunion in 1927, they honored him and their old astronomy teacher by endowing the Charles A. Young Research Professorship of Astronomy with Russell as the first incumbent.

Russell pioneered in the use of atomic physics for the analysis of the stars and thus played a principal part in laying the foundations of present-day astrophysics. He analyzed the physical conditions and chemical compositions of stellar atmospheres and evaluated the relative abundance of the elements. His assertion of the overwhelming abundance of hydrogen was accepted, after prolonged controversy, as one of the basic facts of cosmology.

His name is perpetuated by the Hertzsprung-Russell color magnitude diagram (stellar evolution), the "Russell mixture" (composition of solar and stellar atmospheres), Russell-Saunders coupling (spectrum analysis), and the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society, endowed at his retirement by gifts from fellow astronomers and Princeton classmates.

Russell's position as America's leading astronomer was recognized by his presidency of the American Astronomical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Philosophical Society. He was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of England, two medals of the French Academy, five other medals of American scientific societies, and numerous honorary degrees. Mexico conferred on him its Order of the Aztec Eagle, and issued a postage stamp in his honor -- done in orange and black.

Harlow Shapley said that it was generally agreed that the word ``genius" more rightly applied to Russell than to any other American astronomer of his or earlier times. F.J.M. Stratton, leading British astrophysicist, thought Russell "the most eminent and versatile theoretical astrophysicist in the United States if not in the world," and described him as "a man of overflowing energy, never sparing himself in his own work or in assisting in the researches of others."

Among Russell's 241 published papers were articles written jointly with Princeton colleagues in both astronomy and physics and a joint paper with Robert K. Root, Professor of English, "A Planetary Date for Chaucer's Troilus"; they also included a paper, "On the Navigation of Airplanes," for which Russell made observations in airplanes flying at 105 miles per hour, at heights up to 16,000 feet, as a consultant to the federal government in World War I.

Russell spoke frequently on the so called "conflict" between science and religion, seeking to assure those who feared science as "a dangerous foe" to religion that their feeling was "altogether ill-advised." In his 1925 Terry Lectures at Yale, he fully accepted the mechanistic theory of nature, "not as a demonstrated natural law, but as a working hypothesis" and held that this hypothesis "far from being hostile to religion . . . is capable of rendering religion important services." He concluded his Terry Lectures with this statement of his personal belief:

"The need for some venture of faith still remains; one must stake one's life upon something. For myself, if I am to stake all I have and hope to be upon anything, I will venture it upon the abounding fullness of God -- upon the assurance that, as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are His ways higher than our ways, and His thoughts than our thoughts. Just what future the Designer of the universe has provided for the souls of men I do not know, I cannot prove. But I find that the whole order of Nature confirms my confidence that, if it is not like our noblest hopes and dreams, it will transcend them."

"And, when immortality becomes for us no longer a matter of academic discussion, but the most vital of all questions; . . . we shall find our comfort where so many before us have found it, in the ancient words, 'In manus tuas, Domine.'"

The Bruce Medalists: Henry Norris Russell,, Henry Norris Russell Lectureship.  The Russell Lecturer, presented by the American Astronomical Society, is normally to be chosen annually on the basis of a lifetime of eminence in astronomical research.


Jeffrey Burton Russell

(Born 1934).  Historian.  Educator.  Jeffrey Burton Russell is Professor of History, Emeritus, at the University of California, Santa Barbara, 1994-present. Previously, he has taught History and Religious Studies at New Mexico (Assistant Professor of History, 1960-1961), Harvard (Junior Fellow, Society of Fellows, 1961-1962), University of California, Riverside (Assistant Professor of History to Professor of History, Associate Dean of the Graduate Division, 1962-1975), and Notre Dame (Director of the Medieval Institute, Grace Professor of Medieval Studies, Professor of History, 1975-1977).  Education: University of California, Berkeley, A.B., 1955, A.M., 1957; University of Liege, Belgium, graduate study, 1959-60; Emory University, Ph.D., 1960.

Academic Honors: Phi Beta Kappa, 1954; Fulbright Fellow (Belgium), 1959-1960; Harvard Junior Fellow,1961-1962; Guggenheim Fellow (England), 1968-1969; National Endowment for the Humanities Senior Fellow, 1972-1973; Elected Fellow of the Medieval Academy,1985; Faculty Research Lecturer, UCSB,1991; Director, NEH Summer Seminar on Religious Dissent in the Middle Ages, 1991; Director, NEH Summer Seminar on the idea of Heaven in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages,1993; Erick Nilson Award,1996.

Member: Mediaeval Academy of America, American Society of Church History, Catholic Historical Association, Medieval Association of the Pacific, Sierra Club, Phi Beta Kappa.

Dr. Russell has published seventeen books and many articles, most of them in his special field, history of theology. He is most noted for his five-volume history of the concept of the Devil, published by Cornell University Press between 1977 and 1988. He would prefer to be most noted for two more recent books, Inventing the Flat Earth (1991), which shows how nineteenth-century anti-Christians invented and spread the falsehood that educated people in the Middle Ages believed that the earth was flat, and A History of Heaven: The Singing Silence, Princeton University Press (1997), a study of the history and meaning of heaven in Christian thought from the beginnings to the time of Dante.


Jeffrey Burton Russell.  The Myth of the Flat Earth, for the American Scientific Affiliation Conference

August 4, 1997 at Westmont College,


Dr. Scott Russell *** Not in Gale

Poultry Scientist. Associate Professor of Poultry Processing and Products Microbiology, Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia. Primary Research Interests: Rapid microbiological methods for predicting the shelflife of broiler chicken carcasses, Rapid microbiological methods for enumerating E. coli from broiler chicken carcasses, Rapid methods for detecting temperature abuse of chicken carcasses

The effect of chemical sanitizers on the ATP bioluminescence reaction. Education: B.S.A. The University of Georgia (Microbiology); M.S. The University of Georgia (Poultry Science); Ph.D. The University of Georgia (Poultry Science).

Patent: Russell, S. M., 1996. A selective additive for enumerating Pseudomonas fluorescens and for predicting the potential shelf-life of fresh poultry, beef, ground beef, fish, and milk using standard and electrical microbiological methods. (Pending)

University of Georgia Department of Poultry Science: Faculty, Dr. Scott M. Russell, Associate Professor of Poultry Processing, and Products Microbiology,


Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson

(1871-1937).  British physicist, born in New Zealand.  Founded modern atomic theory, pioneered work in radio-activity, 1904; first to split atom, 1920; Nobelist, 1908.  McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Second MacDonald Professor of Physics, 1898-1907; Manchester University, England, professor of physics, 1907-19; Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, England, director, 1919-1937. Served in the British Navy, Board of Invention and Research, during World War I.  In 1896 he was granted the first patent in wireless telemetry.  Ernest Rutherford's explanation of radioactivity earned him the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry, but his most renowned achievement was his classic demonstration that the atom consists of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons. He also demonstrated the transmutation of one element into another by splitting the atom. His direction of laboratories in Canada and Great Britain led to such triumphs as the discovery of the neutron and helped to launch high-energy, or particle, physics, which concentrates on the constitution, properties, and interactions of elementary particles of matter.

He received a scholarship to Canterbury College at Christchurch, New Zealand, where he earned his bachelor of arts degree in 1892. He continued studying at Canterbury, earning a master of arts degree with honors in mathematics and mathematical physics in 1893 and a bachelor of science degree in 1894.

He worked with the civilian Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) to obtain grants for his scientific team and served as president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science from 1925 to 1930. Beginning in 1933, Rutherford served as president of the Academic Assistance Council, established to assist refugee Jewish scientists fleeing the advance of Nazi Germany.

He died from complications after surgery on a strangulated hernia on October 19, 1937, in Cambridge. His cremated remains were buried near the graves of Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin at Westminster Abbey in London.

Honors: Ernest Rutherford was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances."  Rumford Medal, 1904; Order of Merit from King George V, 1925; decorated Commander of the British Empire, 1914; decorated peer of the British Empire, 1931.

Author: Radio-Activity, Cambridge University Press, 1904, second edition, 1905; Radioactive Transformations, Scribner, 1906; Radioactive Substances and Their Radiations, Cambridge University Press, 1913; The Electrical Structure of Matter, 1926; (With James Chadwick and C. D. Ellis ) Radiations from Radioactive Substances, G. P. Putnam, 1930; The Artificial Transmutation of the Elements, 1933; The Newer Alchemy, 1937; (With Chadwick, James, editor) Collected Papers of Lord Rutherford of Nelson, three volumes, 1962-65; (With Badash, Lawrence, editor) Rutherford and Boltwood: Letters on Radioactivity, 1969.

"…you could tell when work was going well in Rutherford's laboratory: he strode about singing a spirited rendition of  'Onward Christian Soldiers.' His character, full of hearty good humour interspersed with imperious commands, was more that of a boisterous colonial farmer than the world's leading scholar. Yet by virtue of his forceful personality and an intuition for picking the right experiment, he was a revolutionary."

Nigel Costley. "'Crocodile' Launched World Into Atomic Age", Sunday Star Times, October 17, 1999.

Lord Rutherford.  "Rutherford's first discovery was that elements are not immutable, but can change their structure naturally, changing from heavy elements to slightly lighter elements. This led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908, at the age of 37, for his work on the transmutation of elements and the chemistry of radioactive material.

"His second discovery, the nuclear model of the atom, became the basis for how we see the atom today: a tiny nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons.

"He built on this discovery for his third great achievement, the splitting of the atom, making him, as John Campbell says in his biography of Rutherford in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, "the world's first successful alchemist'."

Who was Ernest Rutherford?


Andrew Ruys / Andrew John Ruys

(Born 1964).  Ceramics and biomaterials engineer. Research Fellow, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.  ARC Queen Elizabeth II Research Fellow, University NSW, 2001; U2000 Fellow, University NSW, 1997-2000; Research Fellow, University NSW, 1994-96; Senior Research Associate, University NSW, 1992-93; Research Associate, University NSW, 1991.  Education: B, University NSW, Sydney, Australia, 1987; Ph.D., University NSW, Sydney, Australia, 1992; Dip.BS, Moore College, Sydney, 1993.

Member: Australasian Ceramic Society (secretary NSW chapter 1992, fed. councillor 1994-95, Associate editor Journal 1995), Australian Ceramic Society (Journal referee Composites Science Technology 1997, Ceramics International 1997).

Honors: APD Research Fellow Australian Research Council, Canberra, 1994; Queen Elizabeth II Fellow, Australian Research Council 2001.

Founding editor International Ceramic Monographs, 1994; Contributing editor: Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, Vol. 10, 4994; editor: Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific Rim Ceramics Conference, 1996, Abstracts of the 2nd International Symposium on Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 1996; Member Editorial Board Interceram; Contributor numerous articles to professional journals and conference proceedings.

Andrew Ruys, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering,

The First Year Interdisciplinary Project.

Dr. Andrew Ruys. Research Fellow in the Centre for Advanced Materials.

 "Intelligent Design Theory Is Not Creationism,"

"Dr Ruys's thick skin assists space travel," University of Sydney News - 16 November 2000.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Frederik Ruysch *** Not in Gale

(1638-1731).  Dutch anatomist, botanist and physician remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts..

The Galileo Project,

Early in his career Ruysch was an eager student of anatomy, who made his name by demonstrating the existence of valves in the lymphatic vessels.  He was named Praelector of Anatomy for the surgeon's guild of Amsterdam in 1665 and held the position until his death.  Ruysch was always basically an anatomist who was unsurpassed in preparing specimens. He even built and maintained a museum of corpses prepared according to the method he developed; he ultimately sold the collection to Peter the Great, and immediately began assembling another.  As Professor of Botany at the Athenaeum Illustre (in Amsterdam) he gave regular lectures to the surgeons and apothecaries, and he published a description of the rare plants in the garden.

Member: Academia Leopoldina, 1705; Royal Society, 1720; Académie Royal des Sciences (replacing Newton) in 1727.  He was in addition a close friend of Boerhaave.  Associated eponyms: Hirschsprung's disease, Megacolon due to lack of ganglion cells with failure of development of the myenteric plexus of the rectosigmoid area of the large intestine; Ruysch's membrane, A thin internal layer behind the retina, composed of a very close capillary network; Ruysch's muscle, A circular muscle in the fundus uteri; Ruysch's tube, A minute tubular cavity opening in the nasal septum.

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]