Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (S)


David A. Sabatini *** Not in Gale
Civil engineer.  Charles L. Blackburn Presidential Professor (2000), School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma.  Sun Oil Company Chair (2001) in Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Associate Director of the Institute for Applied Surfactant Research, and Director of the Environmental and Ground Water Institute at the University of Oklahoma.  Co-Founder and Co-Principal, Surbec Environmental, LLC, Norman, OK (December 1996 - present).

Dr. Sabatini received his B.S. at the University of Illinois-Urbana (1981), his M.S. at Memphis University (1985), and his Ph.D. at Iowa State University (1989). He has been at the University of Oklahoma since 1989 (starting as Associate Professor). Dr. Sabatini's research has developed microemulsion systems and separation processes for application in the consumer product and environmental fields, and has evaluated chemical transport phenomena in the environment. He is a co-instructor of the popular industrial short course on Applied Surfactant Science and Technology. He has edited three books on surfactant science and technology and has published over 70 peer reviewed articles on related topics. He has been on several editorial boards, most recently including the Annual Surfactants Review series (Sheffield Academic Press) and the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. In 1997/98 he was a Senior Fulbright Scholar at the Universität Tübingen, Germany.

Honors: The OU Student Association Outstanding Faculty Award for Engineering (1996);  MAPCO Distinguished Lectureship Award (OU College of Engineering, 1996, 1997); Regents Award for Superior Teaching (University of Oklahoma - 1995); Outstanding Young Alumnus Award (Iowa State University - 1995).

Faculty webpage, University of Oklahoma.


Surfactant Associates, Inc. COMPANY PROFILE

Surfactant Associates, Inc. (SA) is a small private corporation formed by University of Oklahoma faculty members with expertise in surfactant science and applications.  SA performs contract research for industry and government agencies and has trained thousands of scientists and engineers worldwide with our Short Course in Applied Surfactant Science and Technology, for those in industry requiring surfactant training to expertly optimize product processes and formulation. 

David A. Sabatini. "Stress,"

David A. Sabatini.  "The Renewing Power of a Sabbatical: How uprooting my family, leaving behind my job, and spending a year in Europe made me a better educator,"  From the October 1999 AAHE Bulletin (See Sabatical Options for a list of resources)

David A. Sabatini. Testimony:

"I have found my faith in Jesus Christ, as based upon the truths in the Bible, to be consistent with my scientific and intellectual life. I could not respect or accept a God or religion that can not stand up against intellectual scrutiny; at the same time, I can accept the fact that we will never understand everything, in science or religion. These things I know for certain, that God loves us and desires an abundant life for us, that He desires a personal and daily relationship with us, that Jesus Christ is the provision for this personal relationship, and that as we receive Christ as our Lord and Savior we will experience the peace that surpasses all comprehension. I have found these things to be true in my life, and can only hope, and pray, that my experience may encourage others to realize these truths for themselves."


Girolamo Saccheri, S.J.  / Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri

Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (1667-1733) was an Italian Jesuit priest and teacher who did pioneering work in the areas of mathematical logic and non-Euclidian geometry.
The Galileo Project,

Theorems of Saccheri, S.J. - 1733: and his non Euclidean Geometry

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri," or (in French)


Jean Claude Saint-Venant

(1797-1886). Saint-Venant worked mainly on mechanics, elasticity, hydrostatics and hydrodynamics. Perhaps his most remarkable work was that which he published in 1843 in which he gave the correct derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations.


Gregorius Saint Vincent /Gregory of Saint Vincent, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1584-1667).  Belgian mathematician, astronomer and mechanic.  Catholic Jesuit.

The Galileo Project,

As an established mathematician Saint Vincent presented a theory of conics from Commandino's editions of Archimedes (1558), Apollonius (1566), and Pappus (1588). He also developed a useful method of infinitesimals. His Theoramata mathemaica scientiae staticae, (Louvain, 1624), was defended by two of his students, Gualterus van Aebst and Johann Ciermans.

Two other students, Guillaume Boelmans, and Ignaz Derkennis aided him in the preparation of his Problema Austricum on the quadrature of the circle. He requested permission from Mutius Vitelleschi, general of the order, to have his manuscript published in Rome. In 1625 he was called to Rome to modify the work upon Christoph Grienberger's (Clavius' successor) request. He returned two years later with no settlement of the issue.

The following year he was called to Prague as the imperial confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II. He suffered a heart attack. Upon recovery he requested an assistant and received Theodor Moret. He continued his research until he fled to Vienna from the advancing Swedes. He left behind many of his papers, which he only received from a colleague ten years later. He published these papers as the Opus geometricum in Antwerp, 1647. When the controversy over the quadrature of the circle in the Opus subsided, he took up another classical problem, the duplication of the cube. He suffered a second heart attack in 1559 and died from a third attack in 1667. His work was completed by A.A. Sarosa. His last pupil, Joachim van Paepenbroek supervised the publication of Gregorius'treatise, Opus ad mesolabum.

Among his earlier works are Theses cometis (1619) and Theses mechanicae (1620).

In 1605 he became a Jesuit novice and was received into the order in 1607. In Louvain, six years later he was ordained a priest.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Gregorius Saint-Vincent,"


Angelo Sala / Angelus *** Not in Gale

(c. 1576-1637).  Italian-born physician, pharmacologist.  Catholic, then Calvinist.

Angelo Sala was the self-educated son of an Italian spinner whose experiments with silver salts were an important step towards the invention of the photographic process. In 1614, he demonstrated that the sun blackened powdered silver nitrate, as well as paper that was wrapped around it, and published his findings in a pamphlet. Robert Boyle had made a similar observation previously, but mistakenly believed that the darkening resulted from exposure to air, rather than light. It was not until Sala's discovery was combined with the optics work of many others, however, that photography was finally invented in the 1830s.

The Galileo Project,

Sala began publishing on chemistry and medicines in about 1608-9. He published rather extensively in the genre, including a book of medications in 1624. In 1617 he published a book on the plague and how to cope with it.

Early he was influenced by Paracelsus and published in the Paracelsian tradition. Later Sala became skeptical of some the Paracelsus' theories, and in his later years he strove to amalgamate Paracelsianism with Galenic medicine.  Sala's theories on chemical composition were historically important.

The whole family moved to Geneva in the late 16th century, converting to Calvinism.


Denys de Sallo / Denis de Sallo *** Not in Gale

(1626-1669).  French scientific communicator, editor.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Denys de Sallo was the founder of the first scholarly periodical, Journal des scavans. Thirteen weekly issues were published under his editorship in 1665. The Journal responded to several aspects of contemporary life. New facts, theories, and techniques posed issues that changed the basis of the thought of scientists, historians, philosophers, and others. The journal was a record of new books, a readable and critical account of current writings, and a marketable production. In its first three months some eighty publications were discussed. The journal was international from the outset: about half the books reviewed were published in Paris, while the rest came from London, Amsterdam, Rome, and other French and German cities. A quarter of the space was devoted to scientific material. In addition there were reports of current scientific and technological developments: William Petty's double-hulled vessel and Robert Holme's use of Huygens' clocks on the Atlantic voyages. The most important scientific article offered an account of a learned conference on comets held at the college of the Jesuits.

The first three months of the journal's existence were rather stormy. Sallo managed to make enemies in the Faculty of Medicine, in literary circles, and among the Jesuits. The following nine month interruption has been explained by Sallo's critical ultramontanism, his mistake in criticizing people unaccustomed to being criticized, and his failure to submit pages for official approval. The Journal was suppressed in 1665, and when publication resumed in 1666 it was under a different editor.


Ippolito Salviani *** Not in Gale

(1514-1572).  Italian physician, zoologist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Salviani published one medical work, De crisibus ad Galeni censuram (1556). He is better known for his monumental work on ichthyology, Aquatilium animalium historiae, published some time between 1554 and 1558. It describes the fish of the Mediterranean.  He was personal physician to Pope Julius III, Pope Paul IV, and Cardinal Cervini, who was Pope Marcellus II for a month before he died.

From 1551 until at least 1568 he was professor of practical medicine at the Sapienza.  In 1565 he was made principal physician of the medical college of Rome.  In 1564 Salviani was named conservatore (registrar) of Rome, an administrative position concerned with the preservation of antiquities. (in Italian)


Ronald G. Samec, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Physicist.  Chair, Science Education, Physics and Astronomy, Bob Jones University Professor of Physics and Engineering, 1996 - present, Department of Physics and Engineering, Astronomy Program, Bob Jones University, Greenville, SC; Chair, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Associate Professor: '93 - '96, Millikin University, Decatur, IL; Physics and Astronomy, Assistant Professor: '87-'93, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN; Planetarium, Public Observatory Director: '87-'93, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN; A3-P Spitz Planetarium, 0.95-m Cass, J. I. Holcomb Observatory, J.I. Holcomb Observatory, 46208; Graduate Teaching Assistant: '82-'87, Clemson University, Clemson, SC; Taught Astronomy labs (aided in revising manual), College Physics Course, Planetarium instructor, A3-P Spitz Planetarium.

B.A. in Astronomy, University of South Florida; M.S. Science Education, Physics Concentration, The University of South Florida; Ph.D. Physics, Clemson University - 1987

Member: American Physical Society (APS), American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), American Astronomical Society (AAS), Full Member; Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP); Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR); International Astronomical Union (IAU); IAU Commission 27,42 Member International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry (IAPPP); Society of Physics Students (SPS); Sigma Pi Sigma (SPS). (scroll down page).

Ronald G. Samec. "BJU Scientists Speak Out on Creation, Evolution, and the Bible; Proposition 6."

A student in the Sc 179 course asked this question: "Are the scored moons of the Jovian planets and the tilted axis of Uranus evidences of catastrophic changes within our solar system following the creation?"


Francisco Sanchez / Francisco Sanches *** Not in Gale

(c. 1551-1623).  Portuguese natural philosopher, physician, anatomist, mathematician.

The Galileo Project,

Sanchez wrote anatomical works and was a careful clinical observer.  His Quod nihil scitur, 1581, was a rigorous skeptical attack on Aristotelian science. Only particulars can be known, but the senses also are imperfect.  He questioned Clavius on mathematics, in print.  Sanchez was of Jewish descent. He adhered to Catholicism.


Allan Rex Sandage

Astronomer Allan Rex Sandage (born 1926) took it as his life's work to find out how old and how large the universe is. His work led him to conclude the universe is 15 billion to 20 billion years old. Sandage is credited with the discovery of quasars, small blue cosmic objects that may be places where stars are born.  Messianic Jew.

Dr. Allan Sandage.  "A Scientist Reflects on Religious Belief,"

"If there is no God, nothing makes sense. The atheist's case is based on a deception they wish to play upon themselves that follows already from their initial premise. And if there is a God, he must be true both to science and religion. If it seems not so, then one's hermeneutics (either the pastor's or the scientist's) must wrong."


Howard Sanderford

Born on October 18, 1935 in Meridian, Mississippi, Howard Sanderford received his Associate of Science degree from Meridian Junior College in 1955 and his Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from Mississippi State University in 1957.  After college, Sanderford served as a Marine Corps Captain from 1957 to 1961. He then worked for the IBM Corporation. Sanderford is currently President of Computer Leasing Company, Inc. Elected to the Alabama House of Representatives in 1989, he was reelected to a second term in 2002.

Howard Sanderford is a member of the First Baptist Church. He is a past President of the Huntsville Rotary Club, past Chairman of the Madison County Republican Executive Committee, past Co-Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce Free Enterprise Committee, and past Vice President of the Metropolitan YMCA Board. He currently serves as a member of the Alabama Commission on Aerospace Sciences, the Alabama Management Improvement Program, and the Alabama Board of Medical Scholarship Awards.

Official website:


Santorio Santorio / Sanctorius

(1561-1636). Italian physician who was the founder of modern quantitative medical research.  Santorio was the first to employ instruments of precision in the practice of medicine, and whose studies of basal metabolism introduced quantitative experimental procedure. In Balkan region (1587-99); professor at Padua (1611-24). Adapted some inventions of his friend Galileo and developed a pulse clock (1602) and a clinical thermometer (1612); investigated insensible perspiration, published results in De statica medicina (1614).

The Galileo Project, (Finnish)

"Written in the form of aphorisms, Santorio presents his research into metabolism, then known as 'insensible perspiration'. He devised an elaborate weighing chair, and experimented on himself to determine the quantitative changes in the body, only eating and drinking while seated in his chair. Through a long series of experiments and careful record-keeping established that a large part of excretion occurs invisibly through the skin. He employed a pulse-clock, and was the first to use a thermometer in physiological experiments; he was also the 'inventor' of the thermometer insofar as he was the first to attach a fixed scale to Galileo's thermoscope, thus making it a quantitative measuring instrument.
'Through most of the 17th and 18th centuries Santorio's name was linked with that of Harvey as the greatest figure in physiology and experimental medicine because of his introduction of precision instruments for quantitative studies. He was also the founder of modern metabolic research' (Garrison and Morton n. 572.1)."


Jonathan D. Sarfati *** Not in Gale

(Born 1964). Chemist.  Ph.D. in physical chemistry (spectroscopy) from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand;  B.S. (Hons) in chemistry from Victoria University of Wellington.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


James Lewis Sartin, Jr.

(Born February 15, 1952).  Physiologist.

Dr. James Sartin, Professor of Physiology in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Animal Health Research, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. He received his BA in Psychology from Auburn University in 1973, MS in Zoology from Auburn University in 1976 and a Ph.D. in Physiology from Oklahoma State University, Stillwater in 1978. He was a Teaching Associate at Oklahoma State from 1978-1979 before beginning postdoctoral training at Temple University, Philadelphia from 1979-1981. Dr. Sartin spent an additional year on the faculty as a staff biologist at Temple University before joining the faculty at Auburn (Alabama) University in 1982. Assistant Professor physiology Auburn University, 1982-87, Associate Professor, 1987-92, Professor, 1992.

Dr. Sartin's primary research and teaching interests are in the area of endocrinology. The general thrust of research has been in the area of control of appetite in sheep, particularly orexin, neuropeptide Y, melanin concentrating hormone and AGRP.

Member AAAS, International Society Neuroendocrinology, American Physiol. Society, American Society Animal Science, Endocrine Society Democrat. Baptist.

Dr. Sartin is editor of Domestic Animal Endocrinology.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Philip William Sary

(Born 1950).  Science and mathematics educator.  Certified mathematics and science adult education Teacher, life sciences secondary Teacher Youth minister First Baptist Church, Lincoln, California, 1973-78; fisheries biologist, Code Fisheries, Lincoln, 1979; instructo,r Chapman College, Vallejo, California, 1982. B.S. California State University-Hayward, 1973; M.Div., Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, 1982.

Associate pastor Redwood Baptist Church, Napa, California, 1979-86; lead singer Cornerstone, Lincoln, 1973-76; soloist concerts, 1975. Composer of Christian rock songs, 1972; marine animal illustrator, 1971.

Member: Biblical Archeology Society.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Joseph Saurin *** Not in Gale

(1659-1737).  French-born mathematician, mechanic. Calvinist, then Catholic (after 1690)

The Galileo Project,

Firmly committed to the new infinitesimal calculus, Saurin explored the limits and possibilities of its methods and defended it against criticism based on lack of understanding.  He provided neat algebraic demonstrations of Huygens's theorem on centrifugal force, and defended Huygens's theory of the pendulum.

Many of his works appeared in the Mémoires of the Académie from 1707-31.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1707.  By 1702, as a mathematical editor for the Journal des scavans, he was involved in disputes, most notably with Rolle, over infinitesimal calculus. Failing to get a satisfactory response from Rolle, he appealed to the Academy, of which Rolle was a member. The Academy avoided a direct decision in favor of an outsider by naming him an élève géometre in March 1707 and a full pensionnaire géometre in May 1707.

He entered the Calvinist ministry in 1684 as curate of Eure. Outspoken in the pulpit, he soon had to take refuge in Switzerland. No less combative in exile, he refused at first to sign the Consensus of Geneva (1685). The pressure brought on him as a result apparently weakened his Calvinist persuasion. In 1690 he embraced Roman Catholicism.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Joseph Saurin," Saurin made contributions to the calculus, wrote on Jacob Bernoulli's problem of quickest descent and Huygens' theory of the pendulum.


Joseph Sauveur

(1653-1716). French physicist and acoustician. A deaf-mute, learning to speak in his seventh year, he became a remarkable investigator in the realm of acoustics. He was the first to calculate absolute vibration numbers, and to explain scientifically the phenomenon of overtones.Professor, College de France (1686); engaged at siege of Mons to apply his principles of fortification (1691).  In 1696 he became a member of the Académie.

Author: (all published in the Mémoires of the Académie): Principes d'acoustique et de musique (1700-01); Application des sons harmoniques à la composition des jeux d'orgue (1702); Méthode générale pour former des systèmes tempérés... (1707); Table générale des systèmes tempérés (1711); Rapports des sons des cordes d'instruments de musique aux flèches des cordes (1713).

The Galileo Project,


Sir Henry Savile

(1549-1622). English scholar. Tutor in Greek to Queen Elizabeth; warden of Merton College, Oxford (1585-1622); translated four books of the Historiae of Tacitus (1591). One of scholars appointed to prepare Authorized Version of the Bible, assigned parts of Gospels, Acts, and Book of Revelation (1604 ff.). Published editions of St.Chrysostom (1610-13) and Xenophon's Cyropaedia (1613). Founded and endowed Savile professorships of geometry and astronomy, Oxford (1619).

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. "Sir Henry Savile,"

Henry Savile entered Brasenose College Oxford in 1561 and he was elected a Fellow of Merton College Oxford in 1565. He graduated with an B.A. in 1566 and an M.A. in 1570.

On 10 October 1570 he began to lecture at Oxford on Ptolemy's Almagest. Savile introduced his students to the new ideas of Regiomontanus and Copernicus. He mentions both classical authors of mathematics, giving their biographies, and the leading mathematicians of the day whose works he had clearly studied. In the introduction to the lectures Savile gives his views on why students should study mathematics. The study of mathematics, argues Savile, turns a student into an educated, civilised human being.

Savile is most famous for founding two chairs at Oxford in 1619. Savile said that he established the Chairs to remedy the fact that:  "... geometry is almost totally unknown and abandoned in England."

"Savilian Chairs of Geometry and Astronomy,"  Lists mathematicians and astronomers who have held these chairs.


Archibald Henry Sayce

(1845-1933). English philologist. Authority on Near Eastern languages; tutor (1870-90), Professor (1891-1919) at Oxford. Author of Assyrian Grammarfor Comparative Purposes (1872), Introduction to the Science of Language (1879), The Monuments of the Hittites (1881), The Early History of the Hebrews (1897), Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898), The Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions (1907), Reminiscences (1923), etc.



Julius Caesar Scaliger / Bordon / Bordonius

(1484-1558). Italian physician, pharmacologist, botanist, natural philosopher and scholar. He claimed descent from della Scala family and changed name to Scaliger. Practiced medicine in Agen, France (from 1524); naturalized (1528). Established fame with orations against Erasmus's Ciceronianus (1531, 1536). Writings, all in Latin, included verse; a Latin grammar on scientificprinciples De causis linguae latinae (1540); De plantis (1556); and Poetice (1561), a treatise on poetics which helped foster Classicism. Best known for his philosophical and scientific writings, including commentaries on works of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and esp. his Exercitationes exotericae de subtilitate (1557) on Cardano's De subtilitate. His son (1540-1609) was one of the most renowned scholars of his time; became a Protestant (1562); professor, Geneva (1572-74), Leiden (from 1593). Helaid down and applied in his editions of Catalecta, of Festus, Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius, rules of criticism and of textual emendation that laid the foundation for modern textual criticism. His edition of Manilius (1579) and his Opus de emendatione temporum (1583) revolutionized accepted ideas on ancient chronology and laid the foundation of the modern study of the subject; in his Thesaurus temporum (1606) he collected, often restoring defective texts, all available extant chronological writings of classic Greek and Latin; established numismatics as a tool of historical research.

The Galileo Project,

He presented editions of three ancient treatises in which he tried to effect a new and more consistent classification of plants. He felt it was necessary to submit everything to examination and not to embrace ancient authorities with 'servile adulation'.

During his tour in the army he studied medicine and collected medicinal herbs in Northern Italy.

He first established his fame by a savage attack on Erasmus (Paris, 1531). He confirmed his fame with a critique of Cardano expressed in his Exotericarum exercitationem (1557), which won him the admiration of Bacon and Leibniz.


Joseph Justus Scaliger

(1540-1609).  French scholar, founded Julian period of scientific chronology.

JOSEPH JUSTUS SCALIGER (de la Scala) (in German)


Paula Renee Scarbrough

(Born July 13, 1954).  Geneticist.  Intern in pediatrics, University of South Alabama, Mobile, 1978-79, resident in pediatrics, 1979-80; fellow in Medical genetics University of Alabama, Birmingham, 1980-82, clinical instructor, fellow Medical genetics, 1982-83; staff clinical geneticist, Laboratory Medical Genetics, 1983; member staff University of Alabama Hospitals and Clinics, Birmingham; consultant St. Vincent's Hospital, Brookwood Medical Center, Baptist Medical Center-Montclair, all Birmingham.  B.S. in Biology, Spring Hill College, 1974; M.D., University of Alabama, 1978.

Honors:  Recipient Toolen award Spring Hill College, 1974; President's scholar in biology Spring Hill College, 1974.

Member: American Woman's Medical Association. Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.


Henry F. "Fritz" Schaefer, III / Henry Frederick Schaefer, III

(Born 1944).  Chemist, educator.  Dr. "Fritz" Schaefer is the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry at the University of Georgia, Athens (since 1987). He has been nominated for the Nobel Prize and was recently named the third-most cited chemist in the world.  Previous posts: from Assistant Professor to Professor chemistry, University of Californiat at Berkeley, 1969-87. Appointed Professeur d'Echange University Paris, 1977, Gastprofessor Eidgenossische Technische Hochshule, Zurich, 1994, 95, 97, 2000, 02, 04; Wilfred T. Doherty Professor, dir. Inst. Theoretical Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin, 1979-80; Lecturer in field.  Education: BS, MIT, 1966; Ph.D., Stanford University, 1969; Doctorate, University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 1998; Doctorate, University of Sofia, Bulgaria, 1999; Doctorate, Beijing Inst. Tech., 1999; Doctorate, Huntington College, Indiana, 2002.

Member: Fellow AAAS, American Physics Society, American Science Affiliation; International Academy Quantum Molecular Science, American Chemistry Society (Chairman division of  phys. chemistry 1992, award in theoretical chemistry 2003, Ira M. Remsen award 2003), World Association of Theoretically Oriented Chemists (president, 1996). The Christian Faculty Forum (CFF) at the University of Georgia at

Honors: Recipient Pure Chemistry award American Chem. Society, 1979, Leo Hendrik Baekeland award, 1983, Schrödinger Medal, 1990, Centenary medal Royal Society Chemistry, London, 1992, Gold medal Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2000; Sloan fellow, 1972, Guggenheim fellow, 1976-77; named one of 100 Outstanding Young Scientists in American, Science Digest, 1984, named 3rd Most Highly cited chemist in world Science Watch, 1992.

Author: Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? 2003.

Contributor of more than 1000 articles to professional journals including The Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules: A Survey of Rigorous Quantum Mechanical Results, 1972, Modern Theoretical Chemistry, 1977, Quantum Chemistry, 1983, A New Dimension to Quantum Chemistry, 1994; editor Molecular Physics, 1991-94, editor in chief, 1995.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Home page:


His testimony:

His apologetic can be found here:

"Scientists and Their Gods (also known as Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence?)" - which discusses scientists who are Christians-can be found here: and here:

See also and

Faculty webpage, University of Georgia:

"The significance and joy in my science comes in the occasional moments of discovering something new and saying to myself, 'So that's how God did it!' My goal is to understand a little corner of God's plan."
From Sheler, J. L. and J.M. Schrof, "The Creation", U.S. News and World Report, Dec. 23, 1991, pp. 56-64.


Richard H. Schaefer

(Born 1935).  Marine biologist.  1962-72, fishery research biologist (Marine), New York Dept. of Environmental Conservation; 1972-81, Chief, State/Federal Relationships Division, 1981-84, Senior Constituent Affairs Officer, 1984-87, Acting Director, Northeast Region, 1987-96, Director, Office of Fisheries Conservation and Management, and 1996-present, current position, Dept. of Commerce.  Education: B.S., Rutgers University, NJ, 1953-57; M.S.,Forestry and Wildlife, Rutgers University, NJ, 1957-59.  Presbyterian.

"Richard H. Schaefer." Carroll's Federal Directory. Carroll Publishing, 2004.



Arthur L. Schawlow

Arthur L. Schawlow (1921-1999), a co-inventor of the laser, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1981 for work in laser spectroscopy, and recipient of the National Medal of Science in 1991, made fundamental contributions to the fields of laser and maser spectroscopy. In this field of spectroscopy, spectra that have been amplified by either a laser or a maser are examined in order to discover properties of a targeted material. Schawlow is also remembered as an important professor, Lecturer, and highly visible member of the scientific community.


Professor Steven Chu.  "A Tribute to Arthur L. Schawlow,"

Arthur L. Schawlow. Arthur L. Schawlow. Regional Oral History Office, University of California, Berkeley1998.   Available from the Online Archive of California,

Ben Clausen.  Men of Science and of Faith in God,


Jakob Schegk / Jacobus Schegkius / Scheggius / Degen *** Not in Gale

(1511-1587).  German scholastic philosopher, physician.  Catholic, then Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Schegk's first publication was a general compendium of Aristotelian physics. This set the tone of his life's work as a devoted Aristotelian, who became known as the leading Aristotelian in Germany. Strictly speaking, he does not appear to have been a Scholastic, but that seems the only suitable category.  He also published some on medicine.

From 1531-77, he taught philosophy, logic, and medicine at the University of Tübingen, at some point becoming professor of medicine and aristotelian philosophy. He was rector of the university six times. Schegk became blind in 1577, and in that year resigned his position, though he did not cease to publish.

Reared as a Catholic, Schegk accepted without protest the conversion of Tübingen to Lutheranism.


Christoph Scheiner / Christopher Scheiner, S.J.

(1573-1650). German astronomer. Member of Jesuit order; discovered existence of sunspots independently of Galileo (1611); adhered to theory of a stable earth with a moving sun; invented a pantograph.

German astronomer who carried out one of the earliest studies of sunspots and made significant improvements to the helioscope and the telescope. In about 1605 he invented the pantograph, an instrument used for copying plans and drawings to any scale.

"Christopher Scheiner, S.J. (1575-1650) sunspots and his equatorial mount,"

He discovered sunspots independently of Galileo and explained the elliptical form of the sun near the horizon as the effect of refraction. In his Oculus (1619) he showed that the retina is the seat of vision. He discussed the theory behind sundials (gnomonics) and their construction. In his major work, Rosa ursina sive sol (1630), he confirmed his findings and method and gave his measurement of the inclination of the axis of rotation of the sunspots to the plane of the ecliptic which is only off a few minutes from the true value.

The Galileo Project, (in German)

Curriculum vitae. (in German) (in French)


 Sigrid Hartwig-Scherer *** Not in Gale

(Born 1955).  Paleoanthropologist.  Ph.D. in physical anthropology.  Since 1999 independent activity as accredited Christian Beraterin of the Ignis-Akademie für Christliche Psychologie /Ignis academy for Christian psychology.  Hartwig-Scherer earned the Ph.D. in physical anthropology at the University of Zurich, studying under R. D. Martin (1986-1993). Her doctoral work was in the field of skeletal ontogeny and hominoid phylogeny. She was research Fellow at the Institute for Anthropology and Human Genetics at Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich (1993-2001). Her articles have been published in such journals as the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and the Journal of Human Evolution, and she is the author of Ramapithecus-Vorfahr des Menschen? [Ramapithecus-Progenitor of Humans?] (Pascal Verlag). As a member of American and German anthropological and primatological societies she lectures widely. Her current research deals with comparative pre- and postnatal skeletal developments in primates.

Sigrid Hartwig-Scherer.  "Apes or Ancestors? Interpretations of the Hominid Fossil Record within Evolutionary and Basic Type Biology," abstract,

at the Mere Creation conference. Dr Sigrid Hartwig-Scherer regards australopithecines, modern apes and humans as separate basic types.

Contact page:

Translated from "Theologically I am close to the clergyman municipality renewal of the Evangelist church and belong to the Agape community Munich ( .  I know myself connected with Glaeubigen of all Christian denominations by Jesus. Since 1979 I am married with Siegfried Scherer. Our marriage is inadvertently childless. We live in Freising in a Christian partnership."


Siegfried Scherer

(Born 1955).  Microbiologist.  Dr. Siegfried Scherer is Professor of Microbial Ecology and Director of the Unit of Microbiology at the Technische Universität München, located in Freising-Weihenstephan.  The Unit of Microbiology is one of six units forming the Zentalinstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelforschung (ZIEL).  Study of biology, chemistry and physics, Universität of Konstanz, 1974; Staatsexamen in chemistry and physics (similar to B.Sc.), 1977; Diplom in biology (equivalent to M.Sc.), 1979; 1983 Ph.D. in biology, Universität Konstanz, (Professor Dr. P. Böger): "Interaction of photosynthesis and respiration in cyanobacteria", 1983; Post doctorate at Universität Konstanz,
Physiology, bioenergetics and biochemistry of cyanobacteria, transport; processes at the cytoplasmic membrane; ecophysiology of terrestrial cyanobacteria; molecular taxonomy and evolution, 1983-1988; BYK-Research Award, 1984; Visit of the Institute of Microbiology of the Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (Professor Dr. Chen, Ting-Wei): Ecological field studies of terrestrial cyanobacteria, 1986; Department of Biochemistry, VirginiaTech, Blacksburg, USA (Professor Dr. M. Potts): Molecular biology of terrestrial cyanobacteria, 1988-1989; Research Fellow of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft at Universität Konstanz; Research in molecular ecology of cyanobacteria and protein evolution, 1989-1990; Habilitation at the Fakultät für Biologie der Universität Konstanz: "Plant physiology" and "Microbial ecology", February 1991; Professor of Microbial Ecology, Technische Universität München and Director of the Institute of Microbiology at FML, April 1991 to present.

Faculty webpage,

Curriculum vitae,

Helmut Klaes "Creation!  Professor Dr. Siegfried Scherer leads Institut for Microbiology at the Technical University of Munich in Weihenstephan,", translated from German:

Scherer:  "God is not only the creator but also the Erhalter of the universe. The whole universe exists, because it will be carried through God wisdom and strength and finally completed. That applies however not only to the world, but also to me personally. He is my creator, my Erhalter and Vollender, me up-arouses becomes from the dead ones at the end of the time. The person Jesus is for me the key to the life. As humans and God at the same time, I owe eternal life, my release and sin assigning to Him.

"I do not see a contrast between occupation and faith. There is only the one reality created by God. God is with me in my work in the laboratory and exactly the same on Sunday in the church. Between science and faith I do not see a contrast. The Bible says: In Jesus all treasures of the wisdom and the knowledge are hidden. [Colossians 2:2-3]  In addition belongs also the knowledge, which we acquire as scientists. I research as a Christian.

"Do not let from the ' white smocks ' in the media impress itself too much. Behind each laboratory coat humans with its errors, fears and hopes hide themselves. Scientists are also only humans, like that as we all."


Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli

(1835-1910). Italian astronomer. Observer (1860), director (1862-1900), Milan observatory; discovered asteroid Hesperia (1861); showed that meteor swarms travel in cometary orbits (1865); observed numerous double stars; observed markings on Mars which he called canali (1877); believed that Mercury and Venus rotate on their axes in the same time as they revolve around the sun.


Wilhelm Schickard

(1592-1635).  German astronomer, mathematician, cartographer, instrument-maker.  Lutheran.  "Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635) built the first automatic calculator in 1623. This makes him the father of the computing era, and one of the most remarkable figures in recorded history."

The Galileo Project,

Schickard was a skilled mechanic, cartographer, and engraver in wood and copperplate. He is famous as the inventor of the first calculating machine (1623). And he proposed to Kepler the development of a mechanical means of calculating ephemerides.

He is more significant for his work in cartography. He recognized that certain contemporary developments in cartographer made more accurate maps possible, and he advocated their use in Kurze Anweisung, wie künstliche Landtafeln auss rechtem Grund zu machen (1629). He also appears to have undertaken a survey of Württemberg.  He also invented a "hand planetarum" (it is actually more like an orrery).

In 1613-19, he acted as deacon or pastor in several towns around Tübingen (e.g., in 1614 he was deacon at Nürtingen).  In1619, he was Professor of Hebrew, University of Tübingen.  In 1631, he became Professor of astronomy, University of Tübingen.

Connections: He was a student, colleague, and eventual successor of Mästlin. He was a friend and correspondent of Kepler from 1617, and was among the first to mention and advocate Keplerian astronomy. He also corresponded with Boulliau, Gassendi, and Brengger.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Wilhelm Schickard,"

Author: Benjamin Nill Tutors: Bernd Eberhard, Frank Hanisch.  Java 3D-Simulation of the Schickard Calculator from 1623. "The Schickard Calculator is the first known mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide. It was invented by the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in 1623, but remained unknown for 300 years. In 1960 it was reconstructed by Baron Bruno von Freytag-Löringhoff. In this study work a simulation of the reconstructed calculator was done using a Java 3D-applet. This makes it possible to perform calculations like Schickard did, watch the calculator from any view point you like and even gain an insight view of case."

About Schickard and his calculator.

Contemporaries called his machine the Calculating Clock. It precedes the less versatile Pascaline of Blaise Pascal and the calculator of Gottfried Leibniz by several decades. Schickard's letters to Johannes Kepler show how to use the machine for calculating astronomical tables. Schickard's machine, however, was not programmable. The first design of a programmable computer came roughly 200 years later (Charles Babbage). And the first working program-controlled machine was completed more than 300 years later (Konrad Zuse 's Z3, 1941).

Wilhelm Schickard Museum of Computing History at Concordia University Wisconsin.


Robert E. Schlegel *** Not in Gale

Industrial engineer.  Professor of Industrial Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma.  Associate Director for Research, Center for the Study of Wireless Electromagnetic Compatibility, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. (August 1996 - December 1999). At the NASA Ames Research Center, he conducted bedrest study at Human Research Facility to examine effects of 17 days of continuous bedrest on cognitive processing skills. (Summer 1995).  At the NASA Johnson Space Center, he provided support from the JSC Science Monitoring Area for the PAWS experiment on International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2;1994) and Life and Microgravity Space Lab (LMS; 1996) aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Research involved determining the effects of microgravity and fatigue on the cognitive skills of space shuttle astronauts. At General Motors Corporation, Detroit, MI, he was Instructor for Human Information Processing section of intensive ergonomics course. (September 1994). He received his B.S. (Industrial Engineering With Distinction), University of Oklahoma, 1973 and his Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from the University of Oklahoma, Norman in 1980.

Member: U.S. Air Force Summer Faculty Research Fellow, Brooks AFB, Texas. (Summer 1992; Summer 1982); U.S. Air Force Summer Faculty Research Fellow, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. (Summer 1984); Professional Societies Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; Institute of Industrial Engineers (President, Oklahoma City Chapter, 1984); Alpha Pi Mu, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Tau, Phi Eta Sigma.

Awards and Honors: Regents Award for Superior Research and Creative Activity, University of Oklahoma  (2000); AAMI Annual Meeting Management and Technology Outstanding Manuscript Award for paper "Impact of CDMA Wireless Phone Power Output and Puncture Rate on Hearing Aid  Interference Levels", Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation - co-authored with T. Fry and H. Grant  (1999); OSPE Outstanding Engineer of the year (1999); Outstanding Engineer, OSPE Canadian Valley (1998); Professional Engineer Achievement Award (1998), Canadian Valley, Norman Chapter of Profesional Engineers; CoE Distinguished Lecturer Award (1998); Young Engineering Educators, Society of Automotive Engineers (1984, 1991); Ralph R. Teetor Educational Award for Outstanding Young Engineering Educators, Society of Automotive Engineers (1991, 1984);
OTT Foundation Honorable Mention Award for paper "Spectral Analysis in Quality Control: A Control Chart Based on the Periodgram", Technometrics, 30(1), 63-70, 1988. (1989); Regents Award for Superior Teaching, University of Oklahoma (1988); Outstanding Professor of Industrial Engineering (1984, 1986); and others.

Faculty webpage, School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma.

F. Hank Grant and Robert E. Schlegel.  "Planar Separation Effects: Pacemakers and Wireless Phones," This article presents the results of experimental work undertaken to determine the minimum separation distance required to eliminate electromagnetic interference (EMI) between wireless phones and cardiac pacemakers.


Jeffrey P. Schloss, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Ecologist, Evolutionary Biologist.  Professor of Biology, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, CA: Biology Department: Chair (1989-1996); Professor - (1993- ); Associate Professor (1987- 93); Assistant Professor (1981-87). Wheaton College Science Station: Visiting Instructor (Summers 1989-present).

He also serves as Director of Biological Programs for the Christian Environmental Association (1993-present) and science consultant for the Christian College Coalition Faculty Development Program in Faith & Learning.

Jeffrey P. Schloss received his undergraduate training in philosophy at University of the Pacific and in biology at Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois, 1975. He pursued post baccalaureate training in ecology and evolutionary biology at University of Virginia, University of Michigan, and Washington University, Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences at St. Louis, Missouri, where he received a Ph.D. in Ecology & Evolutionary Biology in 1983. He has taught at the University of Michigan, Wheaton College, Jaguar Creek Rainforest Research Station. He has been a Danforth Fellow, a AAAS Fellow in Science Communication and a Fellow of the Discovery Institute. His dual research interests include ecophysiological adaptions of poikilohydric plants to forest microclimate, and sociobiological theories of human altruism and religious faith.

From Jeffrey P. Schloss.  Professor of Biology, Westmont College,

Charter Member, International Society for Science & Religion; Fellow, Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture with the Discovery Institute.

Awards: Templeton Award for Science/Religion College Coursework, 1995; Monroe Award for Outstanding Teaching, Westmont College, 1987, 1993; Elected Member, Society for Values in Higher Education, 1982; Danforth Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1979; Fellow in Science Communication, University of Virginia Mountain Lake Fellow, 1976.

Curriculum vitae:

Jeffrey P. Schloss, Professor of Biology, Westmont College.  "Evolutionary Theories of Human Nature:
Maginot Line or Armistice Site for Theism/Naturalism Conflict?"

Dr. Jeffrey P. Schloss, Professor of Biology, Faculty webpage, Wheaton College,  "My professional involvements were forged as an undergraduate at a Christian liberal arts college and include longstanding, bifurcated interests in field biology (ecophysiology of water balance) and integrative issues (theological and biological perspectives on human nature)."


Gaspar Schott, S.J. *** Not in Gale

(1608-1666).  German physicist, mathematician, natural philosopher, instrument-maker.  Catholic, joined Jesuit order in 1627.


Gaspar (or Kaspar) Schott (1608-1666), Jesuit, mathematician, and physicist, taught at Palermo, Mainz, and Würzburg. His chief work is the Magia universalis. He also was the author of Mechanica hydraulica-pneumatica (1657) among other works, and is credited with reviving the study of physics in Germany.

The Galileo Project,

Schott is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments. A treatise on "chronometric marvels" contains the first description of a universal joint and the classification of gear teeth.

He developed a leveling instrument for use in surveying.  As a result of his compendium, Mechanica hydraulico- pneumatica, he became the center of a network of correspondence from other Jesuits as well as lay experimenters.  He received letters from Guericke and Huygens, and was the first to make Boyle's work on the air pump widely known in Germany.


Johann Jakob Scheuchzer *** Not in Gale

(1672-1733).  Swiss paleontologist, geographer, botanist, natural historian, mathematician, mineralogist.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

While still a student in Zürich, he was active in the circle around Dr. Wagner which was interestedin natural history.  In1694, he was invited to join the "Collegium der Wohlgesinnten," a Zürich science society.  In 1697, he became actuary of the Wohlgesinnten and remained such for 10 years until the decay of the society.

He was also selected as the "Dog Days Lecturer," which was apparently a municipal institution to provide edification for students during the summer vacation.  In 1697, he became (on the recommendation of Johann Wagenseil) a member of the Academia naturae curiosum (the Leopoldina), under the name Akarnan.

1708, He became a fellow of the Royal Society. He carried on an extensive scientific correspondence--see Steiger. (in German) (in German) (in German)


Agostino Scilla

(1629-1700).  Italian painter, paleontologist, geologist.  Agostino Scilla inaugurated the modern scientific study of fossils.

The Galileo Project,

He is particularly remembered as the author of La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso (1670), one of the classics of geology and paleontology.  Scilla was primarily a painter. After he left Messina, his paintings were largely pastoral, so that he had an obvious interest in natural history. He accompanied Boccone on his botanical expeditions to Sicily and was cited by Boccone quite favorably.  In the field of learning his primary interst was not science but numismatics.

In Messina Scilla was a member of the Accademia della Fucina, an academy of literature and science.

In Rome Scilla became a member of the academy of painting (I think this is the Accademia di S. Luca) and eventually its president. (in Italian)


Dr. Linda S. Schwab *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Professor.  Dr. Schwab has been a member of the faculty of Wells College, Aurora, NY since 1983, following employment as an Associate in the Center for Brain Research at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, and a Teaching Fellow at Northeastern Seminary since 2001. B.A. in Chemistry, Summa cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa, Wells College, 1973; M.S. (1975), Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Rochester, 1978; M. Div., Northeastern Seminary, 2003.

She is a Conference Ministerial Candidate in the Free Methodist Church of North America, and is serving at First Church of Christ in Pittsfield (MA).

Linda S. Schwab, Professor of Chemistry.  "INTEGRATING FAITH AND SCIENCE," Introductory Remarks as Panelists for the Campus Ministry Luncheon Series. Topic: "Faith and Science". Cayuga Community College, Auburn, NY, 19 April 2000.

"Wells Continues Partnership with Walter Reed Research Institute,"  May 1988.  "A visit by two professors to Washington D.C. has helped strengthen a bond between Wells College and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research which is contributing to the study of tropical diseases and science education for women.

For several years, Professor of Biology Margaret G. Flowers and Professor of Chemistry Linda S. Schwab have included research components in their college science classes that allow students to test various medicinal plants for their ability to fight tropical diseases. Their current work involves dogwood and the roadside plant, Joe Pye Weed."

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Theodor Ambrose Hubert Schwann

The German biologist and physiologist Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) is regarded as father of cytology; co-founded cell theory; coined term "metabolism."  He also discovered pepsin, the first digestive enzyme prepared from animal tissue, and experimented to disprove spontaneous generation.

Theodor Schwann.


Anton Maria Schyrle of Rhetia *** Not in Gale


Anton Maria Schyrle (c.1604-1660), originally from Rheita, Bohemia, lived as a priest in Bohemia, Belgium and Italy from 1597 to 1660.  He developed several inverting and erecting eyepieces, and is credited with bringing into use the terms 'ocular' and 'objective'.   Rheita published a very influential book on optics in 1645, his Oculus Enoch.

Biography in German:


Dr. Ida Scudder *** Not in Gale

(1870-1960). Missionary, surgeon and founder of India's first nursing school for women.  In 1899, Ida Scudder was one of the first women graduates of the Cornell Medical College. Shortly thereafter, she returned to India and opened a one-bed clinic in Vellore in 1900. Two years later, in 1902, she built a 40-bed hospital, the forerunner of today's 1700-bed medical center. In 1909, she started the School of Nursing, and in 1918, her fondest dream came true with the opening of a medical school for women. (Men were admitted in 1947).

Glimpses, Issue #113: Ida Scudder: A Woman Who Changed Her Mind,

Dr. Scudder's audio testimony (235 kb):

Christian Medical College, Vellore, website:

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Dr. Marlan O. Scully
(Born 1939)  Physics educator.  Burgess Distinguished Professor, Director of the Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University. Recipient Elliott Cresson medal The Franklin Institute, 1990; John S. Guggenheim Fellow, 1970, Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, 1972.
Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences.


After receiving his MS and Ph.D. in Physics from Yale University, he was a physicist with General Electric Company before beginning his teaching career at Yale. Subsequently, he was an Assistant and Associate Professor of physics at MIT, then a Professor of Physics and Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. In 1980, he joined the faculty of the University of New Mexico, where he was a Distinguished Professor of Physics and Astronomy. Now at Texas A&M University, Scully is considered a leading national authority on laser and quantum mechanics.

"Marlan O. Scully Honored With Reception Celebrating His Election To The National Academy Of Sciences,"

More credentials listed here:

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Gordon Stifler Seagrave

Gordon Stifler Seagrave (1897 - 1965), surgeon, writer, medical missionary, founded hospitals in Burma, practiced there for 40 years.


Angelo Secchi, S.J.  

(1818-1878). Italian astronomer. Joined Jesuit order (1833); Professor and director of observatory, Collegio Romano, Rome (1849 ff.). Made researches in solar and stellar spectroscopy, terrestrial magnetism, and meteorology; made first survey of the spectra of stars and suggested that stars be classified according to their spectral type; proved that prominences seen during solar eclipses are features of the Sun itself.

Angelo Secchi, S.J.


Adam Sedgwick

The English geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) was the founder of the Cambrian system, the first period of the Paleozoic geologic era.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis

(1818-1865).  Hungarian obstetrician. Assistant in obstetric clinic in Vienna (1844-49); professor at Pest (1855-65). Along with American physician Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894), Ignaz Semmelweis was one of the first two doctors worldwide to recognize the contagious nature of puerperal fever (also known as childbed fever) and promote steps to eliminate it, thereby dramatically reducing maternal deaths (1847-49); became pioneer of antisepsis in obstetrics. Published Die Atiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbetfiebers (1861). Associated eponyms:  Semmelweis' method: Disinfection of the hands of the obstetrician or midwife with chloride or lime, as well as clean bedsheaths for the patient, in order to prevent puerperal fever; The Semmelweis' reflex: Mob behavior found among primates and larval hominids on undeveloped planets, in which a discovery of important scientific fact is punished rather than rewarded.

L'Encyclopédie de L'Agora: Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis

John H. Lienhard Engines of our Ingenuity.  No. 622: IGNAZ PHILIPP SEMMELWEIS.  Click here for audio of Episode 622. (in French)


Alexander Semyonov

(Born 1963).  Immunologist, researcher.  Positions Held: Laboratory physician, Moscow Research Institute Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, 1995; Senior research worker, Consultant Laboratory Immunology, Moscow Research Institute Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, 1991; Junior research worker, Moscow Research Institute Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, 1987-91; children's physician, Central District Hospital, Balashikha, USSR, 1986-87.  Baptist.
Contributor articles and abstracts to medical journals, including Immunology Letters, International Journal of Immunorehab., European Journal Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.

"I believe the created world bore witness to me of its Maker.  The beauty of nature, its multiformity and complexity, unceasingly proclaim the wisdom of its Creator."


Daniel Sennert *** Not in Gale

(1572-1637).  German physician, chemist, natural philosopher.

The Galileo Project,

Sennert's first book was Institutiones medicinae, 1611, and later there were other medical works.

Epitome scientiae naturalis, 1618, and Hypomnemata physicae, 1636, both dealt with general issues in natural philosophy. He contributed to the revival of atomism.  Sennert was influenced by Paracelsus without being truly a Paracelsan; he wrote influentially on chemistry.

Sennert's collected works alone went through nine editions within the space of forty years, and individual works were also republished. Claude Bonnet, a professor at Avignon, produced an expurgated edition of his works suitable for use by Roman Catholics in 1655.

From 1602-47, Sennert was Professor of medicine, University of Wittenberg. He was Dean of the medical faculty six times during that period.  It is recorded that Sennert remained at his post in Wittenberg through seven plagues and died in the eighth. (in German) (in German)


Olivier de Serres *** Not in Gale

(1539-1619).  French botanist, entomologist.  Serres introduced sericulture to France. He also proposed a method manufacturing coarse cloth from the bark of the mulberry tree.  Catholic, then Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Serres spent time at the end of the century in Paris presenting plans to Henry IV for expansion of sericulture and the diffusion of the mulberry tree. He is largely responsible for the mulberry craze and inspired the King to make extensive plantings in France. He is sometimes given the title of father of French agriculture.

Serres' Théatre d'agriculture (1600) was a very popular work appearing in several editions throughout the century. The work aimed to present a complete survey of all aspects of agriculture starting with advice on running a household. He discussed domestication and cultivation of all the plants and animals he knew. He was an enthusiastic advocate of the use of irrigation to improve meadows, of careful drainage, and of conservation of water. He was among the first agriculturist north of the Alps to argue for innovation and experimentation. He supported the sowing of artificial grasses. He introduced hops to France and was the first agricultural writer to desrcibe and encourage the cultivation of maize and potatoes. I have categorized this under botany; it is the only similar case I have met.

Serres acquired a national reputation as an authority on the silkworm and sericulture. Two sections of his book were published separately. La cuillette de la soye, which appeared as a preprint in 1599, gave the first detailed accounts of the life cycle of silkworms. La seconde richesse du meurier-blanc promoted a method of manufacturing course cloth from the bark of the mulberry trees.

As a young man he was converted to Protestantism. As early as 1561 he seems to have been regarded as a leader of the local Huguenots. He was a deacon of the church of Berg. He was sent by his congregation to find a minister. During the civil war the parish church vessels were entrusted to Serres for sale. In 1562 he was appointed by the 'Etats particuleurs' of Vivarais to a position under Count Crussol. He commanded forces from 1560-70 in local campaigns. He was driven from his family estate, Pradel, more than once during these years. He also participated in the conferences to arrange local peace. (in French) (in French) (in French)


Benedict Sestini, S.J.


 Italian astronomer, Clergyman Roman Catholic, Mathematician. He received his earlier education at the Scuola Pia, near his native town, and so early evinced a mastery of mathematical computation that at the age of eighteen he was appointed assistant to Fr. Inghirami, then the director of the Osservatorio Ximeniano, at Florence. On Oct. 30, 1836, he entered the Society of Jesus at Rome. Three years later he began his philosophical and theological studies at the Roman College and here was privileged to have as professor Fr. Andrea Caraffa, one of the leading mathematicians of his time, who materially encouraged him in the prosecution of the researches of his choice. On the advice of Caraffa he was assigned as assistant astronomer of the Roman Observatory, then under the directorship of Fr. M. DeVico, whose name is identified with one of the periodic comets. During his incumbency at this observatory, which lasted till 1848, Sestini made a special study of star colors and his results were published under the titles Memoria Sopra i Colori delle Stelle del Catalogo di Baily Osservati (1845) and Memoria Seconda Intorno ai Colori delle Stelle . . . (1847). He was ordained to the priesthood in 1844. 

Following the outbreak of the Revolution in Rome in 1848, he emigrated to the United States and became connected with Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., where, at the observatory of the University, he resumed his researches. During the year 1850 he made studies of the sun's surface. Availing himself of a cloudless sky, persisting from Sept. 20 to Nov. 6 of that year, he was able to follow the sun spots, then very pronounced, noting the rate of travel over the surface and the changes in their appearances and, being a skilled draftsman, to commit them to paper. Engravings of the sketches were published in an appendix to Astronomical Observations Made During the Year 1847 at the National Observatory, Washington, vol. III (1853). These are rated as among the best studies of the sun's maculae antedating the application of photography to investigations of the skies. In addition to his researches in astronomy, Sestini taught mathematics and natural sciences to the Jesuit seminarians then resident at Georgetown College. In 1852 he published A Treatise of Analytical Geometry. This was followed by A Treatise on Algebra (1855, 1857). In 1856 there appeared his Elements of Geometry and Trigonometry and in 1871, Manual of Geometrical and Infinitesimal Analysis. He also wrote Theoretical Mechanics (1873), Principles of Cosmography (1878), and Animal Physics (1874), all of which were privately printed for the use of his scholars. In 1878 he organized an expedition to Denver, Colo., for the observation of the total eclipse of the sun, an account of which was published in the American Catholic Quarterly Review (October 1878).

Excerpted from Francis A. Tondorf.   "Benedict Sestini." Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.


Christian Severin / Christian Soerensen / Longomontanus

(1562-1647). Danish astronomer. Assistant to Tycho Brahe (1588-97); systematized Brahe's program for the restoration of astronomy and published it as Astronomia Danica (1622). Professor (1607-47) at Copenhagen, where he initiated (1632) construction of its observatory.

The Galileo Project,



Marco Aurelio Severino *** Not in Gale

(1580-1656).  Italian surgeon, anatomist, physician, physiologist, natural philosopher, microscopist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Severino became famous throughout Europe as a surgeon; he published extensively on surgery and pathology, making himself famous across Europe.  Zootomia democritaea has been called the first work of comparative anatomy, but it is also the exposition of Severino's view of natural philosophy.

Severino had distinct ideas on the reform of physiology and published (posthumously) two works on it: Antiperipatias and Phoca illustratus. After initial opposition to Harvey he became an enthusiastic supporter.

Antiperipatias shows Severino's critical attitude toward Aristotle and his inclination toward the philosophy of Democritus, mixed eclectically with the influence of Campanella and Telesio. His works frequently broached broad issues of natural philosophy.

He was one of the early life scientists to use the microcope--in the dissection of plants, preparing the way for Malpighi.

Severino was well known north of the alps, apparently better known there than in Italy. He corresponded with Harvey, Thomas Bartholin, Worm, Vesling, Campanella, et al.  A partial inventory of his correspondence is found in V. Ducceschi, "L'epistolario de M.A. Severino," Revista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 14 (1923), 213-23. (in Italian) (in Italian)


Petrus Severinus / Peder Sorensen *** Not in Gale

(1542-1602).  Danish iatrochemist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

He was Denmark's leading adherent to Paracelsianism. Only two of his writings, which he tended not to finish, were published, Idea medicinae philosophicae (1571), the first major synthesis of Paracelsianism, and Epistola scripta Theophrasto Paracelso (1572), which reached a large audience.  He corresponded with a number of leading Paracelsians, such as Zwinger, Gohory, and Moffet.


Jeremy Shakerley *** Not in Gale

(1626-c. 1655).  English-born astronomer.

The Galileo Project,

Author: Anatomy of "Urania Practica", 1649, a criticism of a publication by Wing; Synopsis compendiana, 1651; Tabulae britannicae, 1653.  He was the first mathematician to recognize the significance of the work of Horrocks, which he found in manuscript in the Towneley household.  In India he observed a transit of Mercury, 1651, the second transit of Mercury ever observed, and a comet in 1652. He also studied the astronomical knowledge of the Brahmins.  His correspondence with Lilly indicates that Shakerley, like most astronomers of his age, accepted astrology as well, though he became increasingly skeptical as the correspondence continued.


Robert Sharrock *** Not in Gale

(c. 1630-1684).  English botanist.  Calvinist, Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Author of History of the Propagation and Improvement of Vegetables, 1660. The book indicates an experimental approach to botany and shows extensive knowledge of the cultivation of plants.  Note the word "Improvement" in the title of the book, a word which the extended continuing title emphasized. The final edition of it, after Sharrock's death, bore the title An Improvement to the Art of Gardening. Arber calls it a practical handbook for husbandmen and gardiners.

Sharrock was not primarily a scientist. He wrote as well on religion, law, and political philosophy.

The Puritan authorities made him perpetual fellow of New College. He was an ordained minister in the Anglican Church after the Restoration.


George Cheyne Shattuck

(1783-1854).  Philanthropist, Physician. George Cheyne Shattuck graduated at Dartmouth in 1803 and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1807, and became a successful physician in Boston. He was at one time president of the Massachusetts medical society. Dr. Shattuck, by his will, devised more than $60,000 to charities. He contributed largely to Dartmouth college, and built its observatory, which he furnished with valuable instruments. "Shattuck school," at Faribault, Minnesota, a collegiate boarding-school under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal church, of which Dr. Shattuck was a liberal patron, was named for him. He received the degree of LL.D. from Dartmouth in 1853. Dr. Shattuck published two Boylston prize dissertations, entitled "Structure and Physiology of the Skin" (Boston, 1808) and "Causes of Biliary Secretions" (1808), and "Yellow Fever of Gibraltar in 1828," from the French (1839).


"A Dissertation on the Uncertainty of the Healing Art," published in Medical Dissertations read at the Annual Meetings of the Massachusetts Medical Society (vol. IV, 1829), was a stirring plea for hygienic measures "to prolong and render more comfortable human existence" (see p. 163), and a lengthy correspondence with Nathan Smith. Several honorary degrees were bestowed upon him, including one of M.D. by Dartmouth College in 1812.


Lewis Ross Shelton, III

(Born 1942).  Biology educator, consultant.  Certified wildlife biologist.  Graduate research Assistant department of fishery and wildlife biology Colo. State University, 1969-71; extension wildlife specialist Mississippi State University, State College, 1971-83, now Associate Professor wildlife biology and Director W.E. Walker Wildlife Conservation Foundation; President Wildlife Management and Sporting Properties, Inc.  Education: B.S. in Business, Mississippi State University, 1964, M.B.A., 1966, M.S. in Wildlife Biology, 1969; Ph.D. in Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, 1978.

Honors: Recipient Merit award Mississippi Wildlife Federation, 1981; NDEA fellow, 1966-69.

Member: Delta Wildlife Council, Mississippi Forestry Association, National Wildlife Refuge Association, Mississippi Wildlife Federation (President 1986-87), Wildlife Society (section President 1982-83), AAAS, Outdoor Writers Association American, Society American Foresters, Epsilon Sigma Phi, Sigma Xi. Baptist. Club: OKTOC Community (Starkville, Mississippi).

Contributor of articles to technical publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


William Sherard *** Not in Gale

(1659-1728).  English botanist, natural historian.

The Galileo Project,

Sherard collected plants in the Alps, in Italy, Greece, and Anatolia, and in Cornwall and Jersey; from his expeditions he furnished lists that John Ray utilized in his works.  He published Schola botanica, a list of plants in the Jardin du Roi in Paris, 1689, and Paul Hermann's Paradisus batavus, 1698.  About 1695 he began a revision of Bauhin's Pinax on which he worked for the rest of his life, though he never finished or published it.

Positions: Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1683-1703; Tutor to Sir Arthur Rawdon, 1690-4, in Ireland; Tutor to Charles, Viscount Townsend, 1694; Tutor to the eldest son of Lord Russell, 1697-9; Tutor to Henry, Duke of Beaufort, 1700-02.

Member: Royal Society, 1718. Council, 1719, 1720.  Informal Connections: Close friendship with Jacob Bobart. Friendship with Ray.  He was a pupil of Tournefort, and Hermann.  Quarreled with Sloane for some years.  Assisted Boerhaave in editing the life work of the ailing Sebastien Vailant.  Edited Paul Hermann's manuscript of Paradisus Batavus in 1695 (published in 1698).  Assisted Pier Antonio Micheli and Paolo Boccone with subscriptions for publication.  Bequeathed £3000 to endow the chair for botany at Oxford, nominating Dillenius as the first professor (under the endowment). He had brought Dillenius to England in 1621 to assist him on the Pinax.  Sherard is another demonstration of the existence of a true scientific community (in this case concerned with botany). He was the friend and correspondent of nearly every major botanist of his age. A considerable number of letters to and from him survive among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library, in the Royal Society, and at Oxford.


Clifford J. Sherry

(Born 1943).  University of Illinois Medical School, Urbana-Champaign, IL, pharmacology research Associate, 1969-75; Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, Assistant Professor of biology, 1975-82; Bio Feedback and Stress Management Consultants, Bryan, TX, therapist, 1983-89; Words Plus, Bryan and San Antonio, TX, writer, 1985-present; Systems Research Laboratory, San Antonio, senior scientist, 1989-present.

Clifford J. Sherry.  "Birth Defects: Are We Doing Enough?"


Elfreda Jane Shinehouse

(Born April 13, 1931).  Biologist, educator.  Physical therapist Montgomery County Hospital, Norristown, Pennsylvania, part time 1953, Phoenixville (Pennsylvania) Hospital, part time 1958-60; instructor biology Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, part time 1960-77, Assistant Professor, 1977-83, Associate Professor, 1984-present, Associate premedical adviser, 1981.  Education: B.S., Ursinus College, 1952; postgraduate University Pennsylvania, 1953;

Honors: Recipient Lindback award for disting. teaching Ursinus College, 1981; March of Dimes Foundation grantee, 1952.

Member: Registry American Physical Therapists, Pennsylvania Academy Science, National Association Biology Teachers, Sigma Xi (Associate), Beta Beta Beta, Pi Nu Epsilon.  Sec., Home and School Association, 1961-62; Teacher aide Oaks Elementary School, 1977-78; Sunday School Teacher St. James Episcopal Church, 1978-79, Chairman Christian Women in Society, 1979-80.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Carlos de Sigüenza y Gongora *** Not in Gale

(1645-1700).  Spanish colonial (Mexico) astronomer, cartographer, mathematician, hydraulics specialist, military engineer.  Catholic. Though not a Jesuit, he remained a secular priest his whole life.

The Galileo Project,

Though a professor of astrology, he was strongly opposed to it.

In 1681, wrote on comets to calm fears aroused by the great one of 1680-1. This work led to an exchange with a Jesuit, and ultimately to Sigüenza's Libra astronomica (1690), a book which showed his strong mathematical background.  As royal cosmographer, he drew charts, including the first map of all New Spain, a map of the valley of Mexico, and later one of Pensacola Bay.  His map of the valley of Mexico was drawn in connection with work on the drainage problems of Mexico City.  He also was appointed Examiner of Gunners, and he helped with the fortification of the coast.  As royal cosmographer, he published almanacs which included astronomical observations. He observed the solar eclipse of 1691, and he attempted to determine the longitude of Mexico City.  Sigüenza corresponded fairly widely with European men of science.  He spoke of an "insatiable desire" to communicate with other men learned in the sciences (Leonard, p. 56)


Benjamin Silliman

The most prominent and influential man of science in America during the early 19th century, Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) was a chemist, naturalist, and editor.


Benjaman Silliman (Jr.)

Benjamin Silliman, (1816-1885), chemist, was born and died in New Haven, Conn. His father was Benjamin Silliman [q.v.], for more than fifty years professor of chemistry and geology at Yale; his mother was Harriet (Trumbull), daughter of Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Connecticut, 1798-1809, and grand-daughter of Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Connecticut during the Revolution.

Silliman discovered the chief uses which were to be made of petroleum products for the next fifty years and outlined the principal methods of preparing and purifying those products. Adequate uses for the low-boiling (gasoline) fraction were not discovered by Silliman, or by anyone else, until the development of the internal combustion engine, but the rapid growth of the industry along the lines laid down by Silliman is ample testimony to the usefulness of his discoveries.


Sir James Young Simpson

(1811-1870). Scottish physician, one of the founders of modern gynecology. First to use ether as anesthetic in obstetric practice (1847); discovered anesthetic property of chloroform (1847), published Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent, and was first to use it in obstetric practice; appointed one of queen's physicians for Scotland (1847); introduced iron wire sutures and acupressure; developed the Simpson forceps; wrote on medical history, fetal pathology, hermaphroditism. Sir James Young Simpson was one of the most prominent obstetricians of modern times. He introduced the terms ovariotomy and occydynia.

"Significant Scots: Sir James Young Simpson,"

James Young Simpson Papers,

Biography of Sir James Young Simpson (1811-1870).

Instruments of Simpson.

Links,  Associated eponyms: Barnes-Neville-Simpson forceps (Sir James Young Simpson), An obstetrical forceps; Simpson's forceps (Sir James Young Simpson), An obstetrical forceps; Simpson's syndrome (Sir James Young Simpson), A syndrome of abdominal swelling, pseudocyesis, depression of diaphragm and lordosis of spine; Simpson's uterine sound (Sir James Young Simpson); A slender, flexible metal rod used for diagnosing retro-positions of the uterus.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Brian Sindel *** Not in Gale

Agricultural scientist.  Associate Professor in Weed Science, Agronomy & Soil Science, School of Rural Science and Agriculture, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia. Research topics:  Weed biology, ecology, and spread; weed management planning in National Parks. B.Sc.Agriculture(Hons), Sydney University (1981); DipEd(Dist), Sydney Institute of Education (1982); Ph.D., Sydney University (1989).

Sindel: "Since joining UNE I have originated research programs in weed ecology and weed management in the grains, pastoral and cotton industries, for which UNE is strategically located, and have taken on key research leadership roles, obtaining competitive research grants totalling $1,550,022, of which $633,458 has been obtained since 1998. The University was invited into the Commonwealth-funded Cooperative Research Centre for Weed Management Systems in 1995 based almost entirely on my research and scholarly standing within the Australian Weed Science community, and again in 2001 in the renewed CRC for Australian Weed Management (worth $20.9 million over 7 years). I have recently edited the first book on Australian Weed Management Systems and co-authored another on Pasture Weed Management. International recognition has led to an invitation to contribute to the upcoming Handbook of Sustainable Weed Management (Haworth Press, USA)."


Faculty webpage, University of New England, Australia.

University of New England Staff Details,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Maxine Singer / Maxine Frank Singer

(Born February 15, 1931 in New York City, New York, United States).  Biochemist and geneticist for United States Public Health Service, National Institute for Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases (NIAMD), and the National Institute of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD.  Maxine Singer, a leading scientist in the field of human genetics, is also a staunch advocate of responsible use of biochemical genetics research. During the height of the controversy over the use of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques to alter genetic characteristics, she advocated a cautious approach. She helped develop guidelines to balance calls for unfettered genetics research as a means of making medically valuable discoveries with demands for restrictions on research to protect the public from possible harm. After the DNA controversy waned, Singer continued to contribute to the field of genetics, researching cures for cancer, hemophilia, and other diseases related to genetics.  Previous posts:  Research fellow, 1956-58; research chemist, 1958-72, chief of Nucleic Acid Enzymology Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis, 1974-80, Chief of Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis's Laboratory, 1980-88, scientist emeritus 1988-present; Carnegie Institution, Washington DC, president, 1988-present; Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, Department of Genetics, visiting scientist, c. 1970; University of California, Berkeley, CA, instructor, 1981.

 In addition to her writing and lecturing, Singer has served on numerous advisory boards in the United States and abroad, including science institutes in Naples, Italy, Bangkok, Thailand, and Rehovot, Israel. She also has served on an advisory board to the Pope and as a consultant to the Committee on Human Values of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. She worked on a Yale committee that investigated the university's South African investments, and serves on Johnson and Johnson's Board of Directors. Concerned about the quality of science education in the United States, she started First Light, a science program for inner-city children.  Singer is the recipient of more than forty honors and awards, including some ten honorary doctor of science degrees and numerous commendations from NIH.

Member: National Association of Scientists (1982-91), American Association of Applied Sciences, American Society of Biological Chemists, American Society of Microbiologists, American Chemical Society, American Philosophic Society, Institute of Medicine of the National Association of Science, Pontifical Academy of Science, Human Genome Organization, New York Academy of Science.

Awards: USPHS postdoctoral fellow National Institute of Health, 1956-58. Award for Achievement in Biological Science, Washington Academy of Science, 1969; Research in Biological Sciences Award, Yale Science and Engineering Association, 1974; Superior Service Honor Award, Department of Health Education and Welfare, 1975; Director's Award, National Institute of Health, 1977; Science, Freedom and Responsibility Award, American Association of Applied Sciences, 1982; Distinguished Service Medal, Department of Health and Human Services, 1983; Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award, 1987; United States Distinguished Executive Rank Award, 1987; Mory's Cup, Board of Governors, Mory's Association, 1991; National Medal of Science, National Science Foundation, 1992; Public Service Award, National Institute of Health, Alumni Association, 1995; fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Received Honorary Doctorate of Science (DSc.) from Wesleyan College, 1977; Swarthmore College, 1978; University of Maryland, Baltimore, 1985; Cedar College, 1986; City University of New York, 1988; Brandeis University, 1988; Radcliffe College, 1990; Williams College, 1990; Franklin and Marshall College, 1991; George Washington University, 1991; New York University, 1992; Lehigh University, 1992; Dartmouth College, 1993; Yale University, 1994; and Harvard University, 1994. Received Ph.D. honires causa, Weizman Institute of Science, Israel, 1995.

Author: Genes and Genomes: A Changing Perspective, University Science Books, 1990; Dealing with Genes: The Language of Heredity, University Science Books, 1992. Contributor to numerous scientific journals and periodicals, including Science, Asbury Park Press.

"NIHAA 1995 Public Service Award presented to Dr. Maxine F. Singer," "Maxine Singer received her Ph.D. from Yale in 1957 and received her postdoctoral training with Leon Heppel at the NIH. In 1975 she joined the Laboratory of Biochemistry and was Chief, LB, from 1979 until 1988, when she became Scientist Emerita at the NIH and President of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Her laboratory closed in September 1997."


Dr. Philip S. Skell *** Not in Gale

(Born 1918).  Chemist.  Evan Pugh Emeritus Professor, Penn State University Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences.  Philip S. Skell, sometimes called "the father of carbene chemistry," is widely known for the "Skell Rule," which was first applied to carbenes, the "fleeting species" of carbon. The rule, which predicts the most probable pathway through which certain chemical compounds will be formed, found use throughout the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Philip S. Skell (Ph.D., Emeritus Evan Pugh Professor of Chemistry, Penn State University, and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences). Evan Pugh Professor, 1974: and Each Evan Pugh Professor is chosen for the honor because he or she "has displayed the courage to pioneer in his or her field, the discipline to remain at the forefront of research, and the generosity of spirit to share these accomplishments with students." In addition, the Professor's "research publications must be of the highest quality and must have contributed significantly to the education of students who later achieve recognition for excellence in the candidate's discipline or interdisciplinary area."

See his letter to the editor, About science curriculum from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Alexander Skene / Alexander Johnston Chalmers Skene

(1837-1900).  Scottish pioneer gynecologist, physician, medical researcher, college and hospital administrator whose lifetime of achievement had a broad impact on the medical profession.  He founded the American Gynecological Society (president, 1886-1887) and the International Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics (honorary president, Geneva, 1896), and acted as president of the Medical Society of Kings County, 1874-75, the New York Obstetrical Society, 1877-79, and the Brooklyn Gynecological Society, 1891-92. He also performed the first successful operations of gastroelytrotomy and that of craniotomy.

At nineteen years of age Skene left his Aberdeen, Scotland home and came to America. He studied medicine in Toronto in 1860 and attended the University of Michigan in 1861 and 1862. The following year he received the M.D. degree from the Long Island College Hospital Medical School. His practice, begun in Brooklyn in 1864, was interrupted by active duty in the Federal army as assistant surgeon in the volunteer corps. He taught gynecology at the New York Post-Graduate Hospital from 1883 to 1886, and was consultant to a number of dispensaries and hospitals. He was for many years attached to the Long Island College Hospital, where he served as teacher, operator, dean, and president.

His discovery in 1880 of what are now called Skene's urethral glands gave him an international reputation and an assured place in the history of gynecology. He also is known to have devised thirty-one surgical instruments. He opened a private sanitarium in 1884 in Brooklyn with Dr. W. M. Thalon, and, in 1899, Skene's Hospital for Self-supporting Women.

He was associate editor of the Archives of Medicine, 1883-84, the American Medical Digest, 1884-89, and the New York Gynaecological and Obstetrical Journal, 1891-1900. He has to his credit more than one hundred medical papers (see Browning and Schroeder, post), and he was the author of Diseases of the Bladder and Urethra in Women (1878); Education and Culture as Related to the Health and Diseases of Women (1889); Electro-haemostasis in Operative Surgery (1889); Medical Gynecology (1895); and Treatise on the Diseases of Women (1888). One mediocre novel, True to Themselves, published in 1897, came from his pen.

Gertrude L. Annan.  "Alexander Johnston Chalmers Skene." Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.  Associated eponyms: Skene's ducts, Paraurethral ducts; Skene's glands, Numerous mucous glands in the wall of the female urethra, localised so that their openings are just inside the urinary meatus; Skene's tubules, Embryonic urethral glands; Skeneitis, Inflamed condition of Skene's glands.

New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. "Andrew Skene Statue,"

New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. "RESTORING SHEEN TO A PHYSICIAN NAMED SKENE,"  From The Daily Plant, Volume XVIII, Number 3923, Monday, August 11th, 2003.


Frederick N. Skiff / Frederick Norman Skiff

(Born 1957).  Physicist.  Educator, researcher.  Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (2000 - present). Focus on laser spectroscopy; plasma physics. Associate Professor, University of Iowa, Physics and Astronomy, 1998-2000; Associate Professor, University of Maryland, Physics, 1994-1998; Assist. Professor, University of Maryland, Physics, 1989-1994; Resident Scientist, Swiss Federal Technical Institute, Physics,1985-1989. Princeton University 1979-1985, Physics M.A. 1981, Ph.D. 1985; Cornell University 1975-1979 Engineering Physics B.S. 1979. Dr. Skiff received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1985. His past research has been on plasma waves; interactions between particle orbits and mean-field waves (wave-particle interaction) in ionized gasses as well as nonlinear dynamics and chaos in experimental systems and laser spectroscopy and measurement techniques for ionized gasses. His current research is on studies of wave degrees of freedom of weakly collisional plasmas and measurements of plasma fluctuations and wave-wave interactions resolved in phase-space.

Honors: Obermann Scholar, Summer 2002 Research Seminar; Fellow, International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design 2001; Elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society, 1999; Invited Professor, Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne, Spring 1996. CIES Visiting Scientist Bourse, University of Provence Aix-Marseille, Fall 1996. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow 1990-92. National Science Foundation, Presidential Young Investigator Award 1990-95.

Member: Fellow of the International Society for Complexity Information and Design, Fannie and John Hertz Foundation Fellow 1979-84. Elected to Tau Beta Pi, engineering honor society, 1979. Graduated with distinction (GPA 4.0) Cornell University, 1979.

Contributor articles to science journals.

Faculty webpage,

Home page,

Curriculum vitae:

Recent publications:


Thomas P. Slavens / Thomas Paul Slavens

(Born 1928).  Information scientist.  Author. Ordained minister of Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 1953; pastor of First Christian churches in Sac City, IA, 1953-56, and Sioux Falls, SD, 1956-60; Drake University, Divinity School, Des Moines, IA, librarian, 1960-64; University of Michigan, School of Information and Library Studies, Ann Arbor, teaching fellow, 1964-65, instructor, 1965-66, assistant professor, 1966-69, associate professor, 1969-77, professor, 1977-present, faculty associate of Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. Visiting professor at University of Minnesota, 1967, and International Graduate Summer School, College of Librarianship, University of Wales, summers, 1978, 1980, 1993; visiting scholar, Oxford University, 1980. Member of advisory board and editor, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York City, 1980-present; consultant to Library of Michigan, 1967, Northeast Louisiana State University, 1971, Nutrition Planning Abstracts, United Nations, 1972-75, Wright State University, 1975, and Genesee County Library, Flint, MI, 1979- 83.  Education: Phillips University, B.A., 1951; Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY, M.Div., 1954; University of Minnesota, M.A., 1962; University of Michigan, Ph.D., 1965; additional study at Texas Christian University, Drake University, and Loyola College.

Member: Association for Library and Information Science Education (president, 1972), American Association of University Professors, American Library Association (member of teachers section of Library Education Division, 1965-72; chairperson of media research committee, 1966-72; member of executive board of Reference and Adult Services Division, 1969-72; chairperson of Dartmouth Medal committee, 1976-77), Beta Phi Mu.  Military/Wartime Service: U.S. Army, 1946-48; became staff sergeant.

Honors: H. W. Wilson fellowship, 1960-62; Lilly Endowment fellowship, 1963; first recipient of Warner G. Rice Faculty Award from University of Michigan, 1975, for Sources of Information in the Humanities: A Guide to the Literature.

Author: The Bethany Bible Teacher, Christian Board of Publication (St. Louis), 1965; The Bethany Bible Student, Christian Board of Publication, 1965; (Compiler) Library Case Studies in the Social Sciences, Campus Publishers (Ann Arbor, MI), 1967; (Compiler) General Sources of Information, Campus Publishers, 1967; (Compiler) Information Sources in the Humanities, Campus Publishers, 1968; (Compiler) Information Sources in the Social Sciences, Campus Publishers, 1968; Reference Interviews and Questions, Campus Publishers, 1970; The Development and Testing of Materials for Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Education of Reference Librarians, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1970; (Editor with Carl M. White) Sources of Information in the Humanities: A Guide to the Literature, six volumes, American Library Association (Chicago), 1973; Informational Interviews and Questions, Scarecrow (Metuchen, NJ), 1978; (With Carl F. Orgren) Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Education of Reference Librarians, Science Associates/International (New York City), 1979; (Editor) Library Problems in the Humanities, K. G. Saur (New York City), 1981; The Retrieval of Information in the Humanities and the Social Sciences: Problems As Aids to Learning, Dekker (New York City), 1981; (With John F. Wilson) Research Guide to Religious Studies, American Library Association, 1982; (With W. Eugene Kleinbauer) Research Guide to the History of Western Art, American Library Association, 1982; (With Terrence N. Tice) Research Guide to Philosophy, American Library Association, 1983; Theological Libraries at Oxford, K. G. Saur, 1984; (With James W. Pruett) Research Guide to Musicology, American Library Association, 1985; Doors to God, C.S.S. Pub. Co., 1990; Reference Interviews, Questions, and Materials, Scarecrow, 1985, 3rd edition, 1994; The Literary Adviser: Selected Reference Sources in Literature, Speech, Language, Theater, and Film, Oryx (Phoenix, AZ), 1985; A Great Library through Gifts, K. G. Saur, 1986; Number One in the U.S.A.: Records and Wins in Sports, Entertainment, Business, and Science with Sources Cited, Scarecrow, 1988; Introduction to Systematic Theology, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1992; Sources of Information for Historical Research, Neal-Schumann (New York City), 1994.

Contributor to numerous books, including, Library Space Planning, edited by Karl Nyren, Bowker, 1976;   Dictionary of American Literary Biography, Libraries Unlimited, 1978; The Publishing and Review of Reference Sources, edited by Bill Katz and Robin Kinder, Haworth, 1987; Information Brokers and Reference Services, edited by Katz and Kinder, Haworth, 1988; and In Reference Service Expertise, edited by Katz, Haworth, 1993.

Contributor of articles and reviews to several journals, newspapers and magazines, including Library History Review, Library Quarterly, Journal of Library History, Special Libraries, Bethany Guide, Disciple, Reference Librarian, Special Libraries, Journal of the Association for Library and Information Science Education, RQ, Christian Century, International Journal of Religious Education.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Sir Hans Sloane

(1660-1753). British scientist, physician and naturalist. Physician to Governor of Jamaica (1687-89), collected over 800 new species of plants; succeeded Sir Isaac Newton as president of the Royal Society (1727-41); first physician to George II (1727-41); founded Botanic Garden (1721). Bequeathed to nation library of 50,000 volumes, several thousand manuscripts, pictures, coins, and curiosities, which formed nucleus of The British Museum and later The Natural History Museum.

The Galileo Project,


René-Francois de Sluse *** Not in Gale

(1622-1685).  Belgian mathematician, astronomer, physicist, natural historian.  Catholic.

"Sluse, René-François de (1622--1685),"

Sluse was born in Belgium to a wealthy family.  He obtained a doctorate in law from the University of Rome in 1643.  After his graduation, he studied astronomy and mathematics, especially the new results of Cavalieri involving geometry.  Sluse became the canon of the cathedral of Liège and was so busy with his administrative duties there was little time for scientific work.  Somehow he maintained extensive correspondence about mathematics with Pascal and Huygens.  Sluse developed new results in solving equations and conics and published his results in Mesolabum (1659).  Sluse's development of general methods for finding tangents to curves, perfecting the results of Descartes, marks him as a pioneer in the development of calculusLeibniz learned many results in analytic geometry from reading Sluse.  He also applied his new mathematical methods to astronomy and physics.  Major publication: Mesolabum (1659)

The Galileo Project,

Although Sluse's work was primarily in mathematics, he wrote on astronomy, physics, natural history, history, and of course on theological issues in his adminstrative work.

Education: He attended the University of Louvain from 1638 to 1642. He travelled to Rome in 1642 and the following year he received his doctorate in law from the University of Sapienza. He remained in Rome for several more years becoming proficient in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac, and studying astronomy and mathematics.

His well-to-do family had destined him to an ecclesiastical career. Sluse took the tonsure in 1631. In 1650 he received a canonry in the collegial chapter of Vise. He renounced this benefice which then was given to his brother Pierre. Sluse accepted a prebend in the chapter of St. Lambert in Liège. His understanding in law and his great knowledge brought him many high positions within the Church: 1655-director of the chapter; 1659-member of the privy council of the Bishop of Liege; 1666-abbé of Amay; 1676-vice provost of the Cathedral.

Sluse's administrative success in Liège separated him from the intellectual life he had known in Rome. He had made a thorough study of Cavalieri and Torricelli on the geometry of the indivisible. At Liège his only means of communication was his extensive correspondence. Early in his career he published Mesolabium, a work on geometrical construction in which he discussed the cubature of various solids and the solutions to third and fourth degree equations. He perfected the methods of Descartes and Fermat for drawing tangents and determining the maximum and minimum values. He generalized the method for solutions of equations through the construction of roots by means of curves.

His correspondence introduced him to the problem of the cycloid and the theories of games of chance. With Huygens he published Descartes' last work.

Memberships: Royal Society, 1674-85.  In order to keep his scientific interests alive he conducted extensive correspondence with several members of the scientific community, Pascal, Huygens, Oldenburg, Wallis, Ricci, Dati, Lambecius, and Prince Leopold of Tuscany.


William Smellie

(1697-1753).  Scottish obstetrician, anatomist. Lectured on obstetrics in London (from 1739); first to teach obstetrics and midwifery on scientific basis; discovered and described how the infant's head adapts to pelvic canal changes during birth. Author of Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery (1752-64) and A Sett of Anatomical Tables (1754).  Dr. Smellie also researched the putrefaction of corpses, but he is known to medical history as the inventor of the "long obstetric forceps" used on Queen Charlotte.

William Smellie was the greatest figure in English obstetrics. He was first to teach obstetrics and midwifery on a scientific basis; first to lay down safe rules for the use of forceps, and to separate obstetrics from surgery.

He delivered poor women free of charge if his students were allowed to attend the delivery, thus establishing a trend towards the attendance of medically trained persons at childbirth. Associated eponyms: Mauriceau-Levret manipulation. The classical method of assisted breech delivery. The after-coming head is delivered with the child resting on the physician's forearm.

 "Biography of William Smellie (1697-1763),"

"Instruments of Smellie,"

William Smellie, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery, ed. with notes by Alfred McClintock, 3 vols. (London: New Sydenham Society, 1876)

Buffon's Natural History: General and Particular, Translated by William Smellie (8 volumes, 1781),  This site contains William Smellie's 1781 English translation of Buffon's Histoire naturelle . Click here for table of contents. Click here for list of articles currently up and running.

"Significant Scots: William Smellie,"


Dr. Darwin Smith / Darwin W. Smith *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Emeritus Professor, Chemistry ,University of Georgia. Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1959; Postdoctoral Fellow, Oxford University, UK, 1959-60.  Darwin moved to UGA in 1968, first as a Visiting Associate Professor, then as Associate Professor. He has provided an essential link between the Department and the Science Education effort on campus as well as the Honors Program. Darwin retired as of June 1, 1999.

University of Georgia Faculty webpage,

Chemistry Faculty, Darwin W. Smith, Ph.D.,

Dr. Smith as Operation Physics coordinator for the State of Georgia conducts numerous workshops in physical science for elementary and middle school teachers. He is also in heavy demand to demonstrate physical and chemical phenomena in classrooms around the state.


Dr. Jim Smith / James W. Smith *** Not in Gale

Animal and dairy scientist.  Edgar L. Rhodes Professor, Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia. Research focus: Provide educational programs on utilizing DHIA information. Develop methods of transferring information to producers using internet and computer technology. B.S., Pennsylvania State University; M.S., Pennsylvania State University; Ph.D., University of Maryland.

University of Georgia at Athens, Animal & Dairy Science Faculty,


Lila Smith

American scientist, various fields.  Assistant Professor of physics, Florida A&M University, 1959-62; Assistant Professor of Math, LeMoyne College, 1962-63; scientific analyst, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1963-76; Technical Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Energy, chief conservation & solar branch 1976-83, chief nuclear engineering & physics Branch OSTI/USDOE. Education: Lemoyne College, BS Math (high honor), 1957; Howard University, MS Physics, 1959.

Member: President and charter member, Blacks in Government, Oak Ridge Chapter, 1984; 1st vice President Region IV, Blacks in Government, Inc., 1984-present; Vice-President Xi Iota Omega Chapter, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, 1985; member, American Solar Energy Society, Inc.; member, National Forum of Black Public Administrators; member, Altrusa, Inc. Oak Ridge Chapter; member, NAACP; member, Federation of Employed Women, Inc.; member, Negro Business & Professional Women's Clubs; member, Tennessee Council on Human Relations; Oak Valley Baptist Church; Toastmasters International.

Honors: Sigma Pi Sigma Physics Soc; Equal Empl Opportunity (EEO); advisor Board US Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge 1968-77; Personnel Security Board US Dept of Energy 1974-81; Achievement Award for Outstanding Accomplishments in Science & Civic Affairs Jack & Jill of America 1976; Special Achievement Award for EEO US Energy Rsch & Develop Administration, 1978.

Publications include Geothermal Resources Bibliography 1975, 1976; Solar Energy Update Abstract Journal 1975.

"Lila Smith, Ms." Who's Who Among African Americans, 17th ed. Gale Group, 2004.


Nathan Smith

(1762-1829).  American physician.  Introduced teaching of anatomy, surgery, and medicine at Dartmouth (1797-1813); Professor, Yale (1813-29); a founder of Yale Medical School.  His four sons, including Nathan Ryno Smith (1797-1877), became physicians.

Author: Practical Essay on Typhous Fever (1824).

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Nathan Ryno Smith

(1797-1877).  Surgeon.  Son of Nathan Smith.  Studied medicine under his father at Yale, graduated in 1817, received his M.D. degree in 1820. In 1824 he began the practice of surgery in Burlington, Vermont, and in 1825 he was appointed Professor of Surgery and Anatomy in the University of Vermont.  Became first Professor and Chair of Anatomy at Jefferson Medical School, Philadelphia (1826-27).  In 1827 he was called to the chair of surgery in the medical department of the University of Maryland, but he resigned in 1828 and became Professor of the practice of medicine in Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky. In 1840 he resumed his chair in the University of Maryland, which he held until 1870. Nathan Ryno Smith, whose commanding presence and gentlemanly manner earned him the nickname "The Emperor," guided the medical school's Department of Surgery for the next fifty years. During that time, he devoted thirty years to the development and perfection of what he considered to be his greatest surgical accomplishment, the invention of his anterior splint for treatment of fractures of the thigh. He also invented an instrument for the easy and safe performance of the operation of lithotomy. Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Author: Physiological Essay on Digestion (New York, 1825), "Address to Medical Graduates of the University of Maryland" (Baltimore, 1828), Diseases of the Internal Ear, from the French of Jean Antoine Saissy, with supplement (1829), Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries (1832-35), Treatment of Fractures of the Lower Extremities by the Use of the Anterior Suspensory Apparatus (1867).  Articles published in the American Journal of Medicine.

Two sons, Alan Penniman Smith and Berwick B. Smith, practiced in medicine.


Nathan Smith

Information engineer.  Fallside Laboratory, Information Engineering Division, Engineering Department,
Trumpington Street, Cambridge, England.

Nathan Smith, Ph.D. student, webpage:

"I am a third year student studying in the Speech Vision and Robotics (SVR) Group in the Engineering Department, and am supervised by Dr Mark Gales . In a nutshell, our research topic is the application of Support Vector Machines to speech pattern classification and speech recognition. I'm very grateful for the funding provided by EPSRC under the CASE for New Academics Scheme; co-sponsorship under this scheme is also kindly provided by the Speech Group at IBM U.K. Laboratories."

Received BA (1st Class Hons) in Electrical and Information Sciences from Cambridge University, 1996; Received MEng Distinction in Electrical and Information Sciences from Cambridge University, 1997, concentrating on signal processing and pattern recognition. The project looked at the use of Linear Discriminant Analysis for large vocabulary speech recognition; MPhil in Computer Speech and Language Processing at Cambridge University, 1998, project concerned using Support Vector Machines in Speech Pattern Classification, with particular emphasis on kernels from generative models; Research Assistant, Hong Kong University, 1998-1999; worked under Dr Q.Huo at the Department of Computer Science, The University of Hong Kong. Research concentrated on testing and increasing understanding of a sequential Quasi-Bayesian learning algorithm which is used to train HMMs as an alternative to the standard Baum-Welch algorithm. Experiments were conducted on toy-problems and large vocabulary speech tasks; Summer intern, IBM TJ Watson Research Center, New York, June 2001 to September 2001; worked under Dr Ramesh Gopinath at the Yorktown Heights site of the TJ Watson Research Center. Research investigated using Support Vector Machines in a non-linear front-end transformation scheme for continuous speech recognition. The scheme was implemented and issues investigated.


Nathan Smith.  "Other Interests" webpage,  "I'm a Christian and would be really happy to tell you a bit about this - please feel free to have a look at some simple and quick explanations of the Christian message, and for some links to other pages."

Nathan Smith.  "A Bit About Christianity,"


William Henry Smyth

(1788-1865). English naval officer and hydrographer. Surveyed coasts of Sicily and adjacent shores of Adriatic and Sardinia; published his results (1828); a founder of Royal Geographical Society (1830); admiral (1863). Author of The Mediterranean (1854) and TheSailor's Word-book (1867). His son (1819-1900) was astronomer royal for Scotland (1845-88). Author of Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid (1864) and On the Antiquity of Intellectual Man (1868).


William Henry Smyth was born in Westminster, England. He was … a descendant of Captain John Smith, the principal founder of the Jamestown, Virginia colony. His parents were colonial Americans who lived in East Jersey. They were English loyalists, however, and after the American Revolution they emigrated to England where their son was born. During a hydrographic survey he met astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi in Palermo, Sicily and visited his observatory; this sparked his interest in astronomy and in 1825 he retired from the Navy to establish a private observatory in Bedford, England, equipped with a 5.9-inch refractor telescope. He used this instrument to observe a variety of deep sky objects, including double stars, star clusters and nebulae. He published his observations in 1844 in the Cycle of Celestial Objects, which earned him the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society and also the presidency of the society. The first volume of this work was on general astronomy, but the second volume became known as the Bedford Catalogue and contained Smyth's observations of 1604 double stars and nebulae. It served as a standard reference work for many years afterward; no astronomer had previously made as extensive a catalogue of dim objects such as this.


Charles Piazzi Smyth *** Not in Gale

(1819-1900). Astronomer Royal for Scotland, pioneered infra-red astronomy.


Born in Naples, he was the son of astronomer Admiral William Henry Smyth.  He researched wet collodion process photography and infrared astronomy and was notable for advancing the theory (in his book Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid) that the Great Pyramid of Giza was a repository of prophesies which could be revealed by detailed measurements of the structure.


Willebrord Snel / Snel van Royen / Willebrordus Snellius van Royen

1580-1626. Dutch astronomer and mathematician, often credited with founding the modern science of mapmaking. Willebrord Snell is best known for his discovery regarding the refraction of light rays. This discovery, known as Snell's law, demonstrates that when a ray of light passes from a thinner element such as air, into a denser element, such as water or glass, the angle of the ray bends to the vertical. Snell's law--a key revelation in the science of optics--was formulated after much experimentation in 1621. This is expressed as sin i = sin r (i=angle of incidence, r=angle of refraction and = a constant). However, he did not publish his findings, and the law did not appear in print until René Descartes discussed it (without giving Snell credit) in his Dioptrique in 1637. Snell also determined a formula to measure distances using trigonometric triangulation. His method, developed in 1615, used his home and the spires of Leiden churches as reference points. (In 1960, a plaque recognizing his work was placed on his home.) In an age of world exploration, this was very important work, because it contributed to improved accuracy in the art of mapmaking. Using the triangulation method, Snell measured the Earth's meridian for the first time, and also attempted to measure the size of the Earth using this method. He set down the principles of spherical trigonometry that determine the length of a meridian arc when measuring any base line. Snell's writings on his triangulation method for measuring the Earth were presented in Eratosthenes batavus (1617). His observations of comets sighted in 1585 and 1618 are described in his Cyclometricus de circuli dimensione (1621). His last works, Canon triangulorum (1626) and Doctrina triangulorum, published after his death in 1627, also addressed the measuring of distances through plane and spherical trigonometry.

Snel was born in Leiden, Holland.  His father was the professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden, and Snel studied there from his father.  When his father died, Snel succeeded him as professor.  Snel traveled around Europe meeting with scientists like Brahe and Kepler.  Much of his work applied mathematics to the determination of the size and shape of the earth and to mapmaking and surveying.  In 1624 he published Tiphys batavus, a work on navigation.  In applying mathematics to astronomy, Snel published his findings in two books: Cyclometricus de circuli dimensione and Concerning the Comet.  Snel developed an important result involving the measure of light refraction as it travels into different media.  While he never published the result, Descartes did so ten years after Snel's death, and today it is known as Snel's law.  

 Professor at Leiden (from 1613).  Lunar Crater Snellius named in his honor.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Willebrord van Roijen Snell," (in German) (in Dutch)


Andrew Snelling

(Born 1952).  Ph.D., Geology.  Research geologist, Creation Science Foundation Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1983; project geologist, Denison Australia Pty Ltd., Darwin, Australia, 1981-83; field geologist, CRA Exploration Ltd., Darwin, Australia, 1979-81; student geologist, Geopeko Ltd., various locations, Australia, 1971-75. Adjunct Professor Institute Creation Research, San Diego, 1990; Board of directors, Creation Science Foundation Ltd., Brisbane, Creation Science Resources Ltd., Brisbane, 1987-96; Consultant geologist Denison Australia Pty Ltd., Cogema Australia Pty Ltd., Sydney, 1983, Australian Nuclear Science and Tech. Organization, Sydney, 1983.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.  "I am convinced, as are many other scientists, that the evidence overwhelmingly supports these claims that the Bible makes about the origin of life and the history of the earth."


Ronald Eugene Sorrells

(Born 1954).  Computer scientist. Assistant analyst,  Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, 1978-80; analyst Southwire Co., Carrolton, Georgia, 1980-81; scientist U.S. Defense Dept., Warner Robins, Georgia, 1981-82; computer scientist WM Labs, Macon, Georgia, 1982. Education: B.S. with honors, Georgia Institute Tech.

Member: Beta Gamma Sigma, Eta Kappa Nu. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Lazzaro Spallanzani

The Italian naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) was one of the founders of modern experimental biology.


Dr. Richard R. Spencer *** Not in Gale

(Born 1947).  Dr. Richard R. Spencer is currently Child Family Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of California at Davis.  He earned a  Ph.D. at Stanford University, 1987, MSc at Stanford University, 1982 , and BSc at San Jose State University, 1978.


Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Brian M. Spicer / Brian Milton Spicer, BSc, MSc Hon (Melbourne)

(Born 1928).  Nuclear physicist.  Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Spicer was professor at the university from 1965 - 1988, having graduated there BSc in 1950 and MSc 1952 with first class honours, sharing both the Dixson and Professor Kernot Research Scholarships. He was awarded the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy in 1956 and Doctor of Science in 1965. In 1960 Dr Spicer shared the David Syme Research Prize. Except for two years at the University of Illinois (1953-1955), Spicer was on the staff of the Physics School at University of Melbourne. He was a Reader in Physics from May 1961, and Associate Director of Nuclear Research from May 1962. Spicer was responsible for the installation of the Betatron, a machine which enabled study of the breakup of atomic nuclei under bombardment by either X-ray beams or beams of electrons. His principle research work was in the phot-nuclear field.

Member: Fellow Institute Physics (London)(Chairman Victorian division 1962), Australian Institute Physics (Honorary, Chairman Victorian br. 1962-63, Chairman Nuclear and particle physics group 1973-74), American Phys. Society, Australian Institute Nuclear Science and Engineering (Honorary). Brian Spicer was a deacon of the North Balwyn Baptist Church, 1967-90, 95-98.

Author: (with D.E. Caro & J.A. McDonell) Modern Physics, 1961; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Faculty of Science at the University of Melbourne, Biographical entry,

'Spicer, Brian Milton (1928 - ), Biographical Entry', in Bright Sparcs, 2001 edn, 2001,

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Adriaan van den Spiegel / Spieghel / Spigelius / Spiegelius *** Not in Gale

(1578-1625).  Belgian-born botanist, physician, anatomist, embryologist, physiologist.  Calvinist, then Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Spiegel's first book was Isagoge in rem herbariam (1606).  He later published works on the tapeworm and on malaria.  He composed a great work on anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica, published posthumously in 1627.  He left behind a manuscript (also published posthumously) on embryology, De formatu foetu.  His works on anatomy are filled with passages on physiology.  In 1623, Spiegel was elevated to the rank of Knight of San Marco.  Associated eponyms:  Spiegel's hernia, An uncommon abdominal wall hernia through the semilunar line, above the epigastric artery; Spiegel's line, A slight groove which is the line of abdomen lying parallel to the median line and marking the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis muscle; Spiegel's lobe, The caudate lobe of the liver; Spigelia, A plant of the family of Loganiacae.

"Spiegel is eponymously remembered by Spieghel's lobe of the liver, and by Spieghel's line of the muscles of the abdominal wall. His long and detailed text did much to bring order to anatomical nomenclature, and to describe accurately certain muscle groups. In De formatu foetu 'Spigelius made the first observation of the occurence of milk in female breasts at birth, gave the first denial of the presence of a nerve in the umbilical cord, and abolished the notion that the meconium in the foetal intestines argued for eating in utero on the part of the embryo' (Needham, History of embryology, pp. 99-100)."


Jerry Ronald Sprague

(Born January 20, 1948 in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina).  Forest geneticist.  Liaison geneticist, College of Forest Resources North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 1970.  Education: BS, North Carolina State University, 1970; MS, North Carolina State University, 1990.

Member: U.S. Lighthouse Society.  Committee member Parent Tng. in Workplace, Raleigh, 1990-91; ch. counselor Church of Christ, Raleigh, 1975; counselor, social worker Agape North Carolina, Inc., 1992; member Christian Counselor's Fellowship, 1987-93.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Samuel Frederick Stack, Jr.

(Born 1954).  Clinical laboratory scientist. Medical technologist T.R. Wilson Laboratory, Greenville Hospital System, South Carolina, 1978-80, Allen Bennett Hospital, Greer, South Carolina, 1981. B.A., Furman University, 1977; M.Ed., University of South Carolina, 1984, postgraduate, 1985.

Member American Sociol. Association, South Carolina Sociol. Society, American Ednl. Research Association, American Ednl. Studies Association, Southwestern Philosophy Education Society, Association for Process of Philosophy in Education, S. Atlantic Philosophy Education Society, Southern History Education Society, Arabian Horse Registry, U.S. Soccer Federation, SCV, (state officer 1984), Phi Delta Kappa. Baptist.


Georg Ernst Stahl / George Ernst Stahl

(1660-1734).  German physician and chemist.  Founder of the phlogiston theory of combustion, he also developed a theory of medicine based upon vitalistic ideas.  Professor at Halle (1694-1715); physician in Berlin to King Frederick William (1715-34); using Johann Becher's theories of combustion, originated phlogiston theory to explain combustion; enunciated in Theoria medica vera (1707) doctrine of vitalism.

Stahl retired from academic life in 1716 to take up appointment as physician to King Frederick I of Prussia. He held this post until his death on May 14, 1734.

Don B. DeYoung, Ph.D. "Creation and Early Medicine," Creation Matters, May/June 2001:

"George Ernst Stahl greatly influenced eighteenth-century medicine. He correctly taught that many ailments were being attributed to wrong causes. Stahl stated that normal blood circulation was essential to maintaining good health. Today it is difficult to realize how revolutionary this idea was. The son of a minister, Stahl was a devout Pietist who lived in Europe. He taught that no one could fully explain such details as the extent of the heavens, or why so many different animal species exist. In his view these answers existed only in the mind and will of God."

The Galileo Project,

STAHL, GEORG (1659 - 1734). Opusculum Chymico-Physico-Medicum. Nuremberg, 1715.  "From Alchemy to Chemistry:Five Hundred Years of Rare and Interesting Books," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Rare Book Room Exhibit.

"Extract from Zymotechnia fundamentalis ..."


Harold Lenn Stalford *** Not in Gale

(Born 1942).  Mechanical engineer.  Professor/Director, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma.  Stalford joined the Oklahoma faculty in 1989 and previously was a Professor at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg. He currently (April 2002) is on sabbatical leave at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque.  Stafford earned master's (1966) and Ph.D. degrees (1970) in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (1965).

Faculty webpage, University of Oklahoma,

Member: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen *** Not in Gale

(1610-c. 1689).  Dutch mathematician, cartographer, navigation expert.

The Galileo Project,

In 1632, Stampioen published on spherical trigonometry.  In 1639, a work on algebra.  A challenge problem involving cubics that he issued anonymously generated a bitter dispute with Waessenaer, in which Descartes was covertly involved.  Stampioen issued a topographical map in 1650.  In 1698 (the last thing known about him) he served as a technical expert in a test of a method to determine longitude.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen


Timothy G. Standish *** Not in Gale

Biologist.  Dr. Standish works as a research scientist at the Geoscience Research Institute (GRI). His interests include the interface between science, public policy and faith. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which he studied while working on his Ph. D. at George Mason University (University of Virginia), is his primary research organism. M.S. in biology from Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, U.S.A.  B.S. in zoology from Andrews University.  Associate Professor of biology at Andrews University Current research in Dr. Standish's laboratory involves use of the C. elegans genome as a test bed for determining the meaning of data generated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD).


Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Patricia Ann Stanford

(Born 1937).  Medical technologist. Certified medical tech., Mississippi Baptist Hospital School Medical Tech., 1959; Medical technologist Pearl River County Hospital, Poplarville, Mississippi, 1959, chief lab. and x-ray technologist, 1959.  Education: A.A., Pearl River Jr. College, 1957; B.A., University Southern Mississippi, 1959.

Volunteer local school science dept. Active PTA; member Pearl River County Hospital and Extended Care Facility Aux. Member American Society Clinical Pathologists (Associate member, Certified medical technologist), National Certification Agency for Medical Laboratory Personnel (Clinical lab. scientist), Mississippi State Society for Medical Technicians, American Society Medical Technicians, University Southern Mississippi Alumni Association, Beta Beta Beta, Alpha Epsilon Delta. Baptist.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Professor Russell Stannard, OBE

(Born 1931).  Physicist, scholar.  Emeritus Professor of Physics, The Open University.
Positions Held: Professor Emeritus, 1999; pro vice chancellor, Open University, Milton Keynes, England, 1975-77; Professor physics, Open University, Milton Keynes, England, 1971-97; reader, Open University, Milton Keynes, England, 1969-71; physicist, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley, California, 1959-60; honorary research Fellow, University College, London, 1969-82; Lecturer, University College, London, 1960-69; research Assistant, University College, London, 1956-59. Career-Related: Visiting Fellow Center Theological Inquiry, Princeton, N.J., 1987-88; Vice President Institute Physics, England, 1987-91.

Honors: U.K. project award Templeton Trust, 1986, OBE, 1997; University College London Fellow, 2000.
Author: Science and the Renewal of Belief, 1982, Grounds for Reasonable Belief, 1989, The Time and Space of Uncle Albert, 1989, Black Holes and Uncle Albert, 1991, Here I Am!, 1992, World of 1001 Mysteries, 1993, Doing Away with God?, 1993, Uncle Albert and the Quantum Quest, 1994, Science and Wonders, 1996, The God Experiment, 1999, The New World of Mr. Tompkins, 1999; contributor over 60 articles to professional journals.


Russell Stannard.  "God and the Big Bang,"

Nigel Bovey.  "Rocket Science it is,"  Interview with Professor Stannard.

"'Science is not an obstacle to religious belief. Much of science is as irrelevant to religious belief as it is irrelevant to the likes of music or poetry.
'Science cannot, for example, account for the Resurrection. Science supports religion but not in the sense that you look to science for proof of God. There are interpretations of the Bible which are completely consistent with modern science.

'Once you embrace the findings of science - as scientists reveal more about God's world, the same God that you encounter in your prayer life - then you start to see an enormous amount of enrichment coming into your understanding.
'Nobody ever gets argued into a loving relationship with God. Science neither proves nor disproves his existence. The strongest evidence for God comes from your own experience, what you get out of your relationship with him. That is something a person has to try for themselves. Unless you have honestly tried to pray, to enter into that relationship and sense the presence of God then arguing is a waste of time.'

Proof in the pudding bowl as well as the coffee cup, then?
Stannard describes himself as an orthodox scientist (big bang subscriber, quantum disciple). Is he an orthodox Christian?
'I think so. I believe in the resurrection of Christ. I believe in life beyond death. I see great value in the doctrine of the Trinity. I believe Jesus was fully man and fully God. Perhaps as a scientist it's easier to believe how these two states can coexist. After all, Einstein once showed how under certain conditions a particle can be both confined to a point and at the same time be a spread-out wave.'"


James Holt Starling

(1912-1987).  Biologist, educator.  Chairman department of biology, Washington and Lee University, 1976-78; coordinator premedical studies, Washington and Lee University, 1964-83; faculty marshall, Washington and Lee University, 1960-74; Professor emeritus, Washington and Lee University, from 1983; Professor biology, Washington and Lee University, 1951-83; Member faculty, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, 1942-83; Graduate Assistant zoology, Duke University, 1939-42; Science Teacher, Troy High School, 1934-39. Visiting Professor, Consultant NSF Insts., summers 1955-65.  Education: B.A., University of Alabama, 1933; M.A., University of Alabama, 1937; Ph.D., Duke, 1942; student summers, British Museum of Natural History, 1953; student summers, Oak Ridge Institute Nuclear Studies, 1961.

Member: Virginia Academy Science, AAAS, Southeastern Biologists Association, Sigma Xi, Alpha Epsilon Delta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon.  Presbyterian (deacon, elder).  President Rockbridge Tb Association, 1948-50; Board of Directors Virginia Tb Association, 1948-50. Served to capt. AUS, 1943-46.

Contributor of research to professional publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Starling: "One of the greatest blessings of my life has been the privilege of working with fine young men as they prepare themselves for their life professions. What better calling could I have received? The reward was far more beneficial to me than anything money could buy."


Christos Stathopoulos

(Born April 29, 1967 in Olympia, Greece).  Molecular biologist, researcher.  Assistant Professor, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, TX, 2001-present.  Previous posts:  Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Biology, Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University, MO, 1996-2000. Lecturer, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 1997; Research Associate, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 1996-2000; Graduate Research Assistant, University of  Texas, Austin, 1991-95; Visiting scientist, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, 1990-91; Teaching Assistant, University of Athens, Greece, 1989-90. Scientific advisor Megan Health, Inc., St. Louis, 1998-1999. Education: BS, University of Athens, 1990; Ph.D., University of Texas, 1996.

Member: Hellenic Society for Biotechnology, American Society Microbiology, American Association for the Advancement of Science.  Member Christian Orthodox Church.

Contributor of articles; Ad-hoc reviewer for professional journals: Molecular Microbiology, Protein Science, Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Biochemica et Biophysica Acta.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.
Dr. Stathopoulos's Homepage,



G. Gordon Steel *** Not in Gale

(Born 1935). Radiobiologist, Institute of Cancer Research in Surrey. Working with Len Lamerton, he made his name in the field of cell population kinetics and developed methods for measuring the growth rate of tumours. His book Growth Kinetics of Tumours is considered to be a classic. He held a Personal Chair as Professor of Radiation Biology as Applied to Radiotherapy and has served as Editor In Chief of the International Journal of Radiation Biology, until he retired recently.  Quaker.



Gordon Charles Steele

(1892-1981). Naval officer, educator, and author. Steele received his early nautical training as a cadet on the H.M.S. Worcester, of the Nautical Training College, and after obtaining his master mariner's certificate was assigned a commission in the Royal Naval Reserve. His distinguished service in World War I was highlighted by several acts of skill and bravery. His highest honor was earned during the raid on the Soviet Union's Kronstadt Harbor on August 18, 1919, when he assumed command of a torpedo boat following the fatal wounding of his commander. Not only did Steele save the boat from the immediate danger of losing control, but he was able to torpedo two enemy battleships before guiding his boat through heavy fire to safety. He was later awarded the Victoria Cross for conspicuous gallantry, skill, and devotion to duty. He retired in 1957 as captain-superintendent of the Thames Nautical College, on the H.M.S. Worcester.

Author: Electrical Knowledge for the Merchant Navy Officer, Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1950, 2nd edition published as Electrical Knowledge for Ship's Officers, 1954; The Story of the Worcester, Harrap, 1962;

To Me God Is Real, Stockwell, 1974; About My Father's Business, Stockwell, 1975; In My Father's House, Stockwell, 1976; Where God Steps In, privately printed, 1976; One in All and All in One, Stockwell, 1977.

From Contemporary Authors Online.


Johann Georg Andreas Stein

Johann Georg Andreas Stein (1728-1792), German keyboard instrument maker.  He worked under Johann David Stein in Strasbourg (1748-49), then was associated with F.J. Späth in Regensburg (1749-50). In 1750 he settled in Augsburg, where he built the organ of the Barfüsserkirche; was appointed organist there in 1757. He spent a few months in Paris in 1758 before returning to Augsburg. He experimented with various types of keyboard instruments, and invented a "polytoni-clavichordium" (1769), a "melodika" (1772), a "vis-à-vis Flügel" (1777), and a "Saitenharmonika" (1789).  The action (key mechanism) of his pianos was widely copied in Germany and became the model of the Viennese action; also constructed organs and harpsichords.


Susan Steinmetz *** Not in Gale

Research meteorologist, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, Washington, DC.   Her current research program is aimed at a better understanding of data from vertical profiling instruments on the NOAA series of meteorological satellites.  Education: BS in meteorology, mathematics, and physics from Pennsylvania State University.  Her church is the New Covenant Christian Community in College Park, Maryland.

Emerson Thomas McMullan. "GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER AND OTHER CHRISTIANS WHO WERE SCIENTISTS," Based on A Talk Given at GSU during Religious Diversity Week, April 1999, or Testimony from Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.

"Meteorology is a special thing in my relationship with the Lord, it's a product of my faith - and a means God uses to teach me more about Himself.". . . "I'm especially fascinated by the symbolism of the rainbow. Physically, the rainbow results from the prismatic effect of light from the sun. And, in the days of Noah, God first used it as a spiritual symbol - that He would never again threaten universal judgment by water because of sin. His enlightenment shines through believers: we are all witnesses to His grace and goodness. But it is sobering to remember that, in Noah's time, only a few people were saved. How were they saved? By doing what God said they should!"


Francesco Stelluti *** Not in Gale

(1577-1652).  Italian microscopist, mineralogist, cartographer, scientific organizer.  Procurator of the Accademia dei Lincei.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In 1625 Stelluti published the first microscopical observations to appear in print--made with the microscope that Galileo presented to Cesi.  In 1637 he published Trattato del legno fossile, which argued that fossilized wood is a peculiar form of mineral. Stelluti is repeatedly said to have had mathematical capacity. He did a map of the region of Todi and Aquasparta (published in the Trattato del legno fossile (1637) and one of the region of Rosaro. He also furnished Magini with information of the border of the Marches and Umbria for Magini's map of Italy.

Member: Accademia dei Lincei.  Stelluti was one of the four original Linceans. Cesi named him procurator of the Accademia in 1612.


Nicolaus Steno / Niels Steenson / Niels Stenson

(1638-1686). Danish naturalist, geologist and anatomist. Steno (1638-1686) established the law of superposition and the law of constancy of interfacial angles.  He made discoveries in functions of the heart, brain, procreative and glandular systems; discovered (1660) the parotid salivary duct (also called Stensen's duct). In De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus (1669) he laid foundations of crystallography and proposed revolutionary idea that fossils are remains of ancient living organisms and many rocks are result of sedimentation, thus also laying foundations of geology and paleontology.  Royal anatomist at Copenhagen (1672-74); to Florence (1674); ordained Roman Catholic priest (1675); made apostolic vicar of northern Germany and Scandinavia and bishop of Titiopolis (1677).

Ann Lamont.  "Great Creation Scientists: Nicolas Steno, Founder of modern geology and young-Earth creationist," First published:  Creation 23(4):47-49,September 2001.   It is important to realize that Steno was not forced reluctantly into a 6,000-year timeframe by church dogma, as some evolutionary-minded historians claim. There was no recorded friction between Steno and any church authorities on the issue. Rather than church pressure, it was Steno's belief in a young Earth as described in the Bible that prompted his independent thinking on geology and fossils.

The Galileo Project,  Associated eponyms:  Fallot's tetralogy, A congenital condition characterized by stenosis of the pulmonal artery, defect in the interventricular septum, dextroposition of the aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle; Steno's law, A law in crystallography: The angle between the sides of the crystals in a given mineral is always the same; Stensen's duct; Stensen's experiment, An experiment on an animal in which the blood supply is cut off from the lumbar region of the spine; Stensen's foramina, Incisive foramina of the hard palate, transmitting anterior branches of the descending palatine vessels; 
Stensen's veins, Vortex veins. (in German) (in Italian)  (in German)

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Karl D. Stephan / Karl David Stephan
(Born 1953).  Electrical engineering educator.  Associate Professor, Department of Technology, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas. Achievements include patents for quasi-optical polarization-duplexed balanced mixer, quasi-optical transmission reflection switch and millimeter-wave imaging system using the same.


Professor Stephan received the B. S. in Engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1976. Following a year of graduate study at Cornell, he received the Master of Engineering degree in 1977 and was employed by Motorola, Inc. and Scientific-Atlanta as an RF development engineer. He then entered the University of Texas at Austin's graduate program and received the Ph. D. in electrical engineering in 1983. He taught at the University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1983 to 1999, when he received an NSF Science and Technology Studies Fellowship in the history of technology. He spent the 1999-2000 academic year at the University of Texas at Austin, and in 2000 accepted a position as Associate Professor in the Department of Technology at Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.

Professor Stephan has published 20 articles in refereed journals, over 30 conference papers, and six articles in books and encyclopedias. He has consulted for MIT's Lincoln Laboratories and industries in the microwave and millimeter-wave fields. He is currently collaborating with Professor John R. Pearce of the University of Texas on a research project to investigate the applications of microwave radiometry for temperature sensing in industrial heating.

Besides his technical research, Professor Stephan has published articles on the history of radioastronomy, microwaves, and refrigeration. He is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a member of the Society for the History of Technology.

Faculty webpage, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Karl D. Stephan.  "Is Engineering Ethics Optional?"

Karl D. Stephan.   Tegmark's Parallel Universes: A Challenge to Intelligent Design? /

January-June 2003 / Progress in Complexity, Information, and Design, v.2.1 and 2.2


Joseph Stepling, S.J.  *** Not in Gale

(1716- 1778).  Astronomy, physics and mathematics.  He transposed Aristotelian logic into formulas, thus becoming an early precursor of modern logic, already adopted the atomistic conception of matter he radically refused to accept Aristotelian metaphysics and natural philosophy. In 1748, at the request of the Berlin Academy, he carried out an exact observation of a solar and lunar eclipse in order to determine the precise location of Prague. During Stepling's long tenure at Prague, he set up a laboratory for experimental physics and in 1751 built an observatory, the instruments and fittings of which he brought up to the latest scientific standard.



Simon Stevin / Stevinus

(1548-1620). Dutch mathematician. Commissioner of public works and quartermaster general of the army under Maurice of Nassau; invented system of sluicesas means of defense; in De Beghinselen der Weeghconst (1586) enunciated theorem of the triangle of forces; discovered that downward pressure of a liquid is independent of shape of its container; in La Thiende (1585) introduced decimal fractions into common use; showed that two lead spheres of differing weights fall at same rate of speed (1586); one of first to champion Copernican system, in De Hemellop (1608); also wrote on geography, navigation, engineering, etc.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Simon Stevin,"

An English translation of La Theinde: Simon Stevin (1548-1620), the Flemish mathematician and engineer, was born in Bruges and initiated the science of hydrostatics by demonstrating that the pressure exerted by a liquid upon a given surface depends on the height of the liquid and the area of the surface.

While quartermaster in the army, Stevin invented a way of flooding the lowlands in the path of invading forces by opening selected sluices in dikes. The author of 11 books, he contributed significantly to the sciences of trigonometry, geography, fortification, and navigation and devised and urged the universal use of decimal fractions and decimal systems of coins, weights, and measures.


Balfour Stewart

(1828-1887). Professor of natural philosophy at Owens College, Manchester, England, who received the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society for his discovery of the law of equality between the absorptive and radiative powers of bodies. He occupied the presidential chair of the Society for Psychical Research, London, from 1885 to 1887.


Michael Stifel / Michael Styfel

(c.1487-1567). German mathematician. Augustinian monk converted to Protestantism (1523) through Luther's influence; professor, Jena (from 1559); regarded as first German authority on the theory of numbers. His most famous work, Arithmetica integra, was published in 1544. The book contains all that was known at the time about arithmetic and algebra, supplemented by original contributions. His work contains binomial coefficients and the notation +,-,+yw. He invented logarithms using a different approach than John Napier, known for his inventions of logarithms. In 1545, Stifel published his second work, Deutsche arithmetica as a way to make algebra more accessible to German readers by not using foreign words.  Other works: Die schonen Exempeln der Coss. Durch Michale Stifel gebessert und sehr gemehrt, 1552-1553; Ein Rechen Buchlin vom End Christ, Apocalypsis in Apocalypsin, 1532.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Michael Stifel," (in German) (in German)


Charles Milton Altland Stine

(1882-1954).  Industrial Chemist.  At the University of Delaware he initiated experiments in soil conservation and cattle diseases, operating one of the most scientifically controlled dairy farms in the United States. Stine became one of the best-known industrial research directors. In 1945, after thirty-eight years with du Pont, he retired because of poor health.

"Who is Charles M. A. Stine?"


Sir George Gabriel Stokes

Sir George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) made important advances in the fields of hydrodynamics and optics. He also did significant work in wave theory, as well as the elasticity and light diffraction of solids.With his work on viscous fluids, he helped develop the theoretical foundation for the science of hydrodynamics. These equations, known as the Navier-Stokes equations (he shared credit with Claude Navier) describe the motion of viscous fluids. The word "fluorescence" entered the English language when Stokes first used it to explain his conclusions about the blue light emitting from the surface of colorless, transparent solutions. He then applied the phenomena of fluorescence to study light spectra. An important practical use for fluorescence was in the pharmacy, where British chemists used it-instead of relying on the availability of sunlight-to tell the difference among chemicals. Stokes is also considered a pioneer in scientific geodesy (publishing a major work on the variation of gravity at Earth's surface in 1849), and spectrum analysis. In 1849, he assumed the Lucasian chair at Cambridge University, which he held until his death. Stokes was also very active in various scientific and academic societies. He served as president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society from 1859 to 1861, and was president of the Royal Society of London from 1885 to 1890. In 1887, he became a member of Parliament, representing the University of Cambridge, serving until 1891. The Royal Society awarded Stokes the Rumford Medal in 1852 for his work with fluorescence; he was also awarded the Copley Medal in 1893. His scientific contributions were recognized by a knighthood in 1889.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Claude Germain Stoll

(Born December 22, 1937).  Geneticist, educator.  Intern, University Strasbourg, 1963-68, resident, 1968-75, genetic counsellor, 1970-present, Chairman Regional Center of Human Genetics, 1977-present, Director human biology, 1981-, Professor human genetics, 1976.  Adminstructor, Association des Personnes de Petite Taille, 1976-, Union Nationale des Amis et Parents d'Enfants Inadaptés. Served with Medical Service, 1964. Education: Student College Fabert Metz, France, 1950-56; M.D., Medical School, Strasbourg, France, 1968.

Member: American Society Human Genetics, Society Craniofacial Genetics, Society for Clinical Trials, Societe Francaise de Pediatrie. Roman Catholic.

Honors:  Johns Hopkins University fellow, Balt., 1975; Eli Lilly grantee, 1974-75; Zerig grantee, 1978-80

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


David H. Stone *** Not in Gale

Electrical Engineer.  Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University (1997).

1974-1994 -- Air Force officer (2Lt -- 1Lt-Captain-Major-Lt Colonel); 1974-1977 -- Communications Electronics engineer, Air Force Airborne Command Post fleet; 1980-1983: R&D in high power chemical lasers and charged particle beams, Air Force Weapons Laboratory; 1983-1987: R&D in High Power Microwave technology, part of the Strategic Defense Initiative; 1987-1991: Faculty, Air Force Institute of Technology, Dept. of Engineering Physics, research in laser device modeling; 1991-1994: R&D, Lasers and Imaging, Air Force Phillips Laboratory; 1994-1997: Commercial remote sensing with Lockheed Martin at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, MS.  Education: BS, Physics, Michigan State University, MS, Engineering (EE) Physics, University of Oklahoma, MS, Physics, Michigan State University, Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, MBA, University of Phoenix, 1995

Faculty webpage, Michigan Tech, Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Career Highlights,

The MTU Enterprise: Boldly Going Where No University Has Gone Before

Barbara Mathias-Riegel   "Blazing an Entrepeneurial Trail,"  Prism Magazine, April 2003.

Dr. David Stone.  "Sex Puzzle," Letter, Daily Mining Gazette, February 25, 2002.  "You'd think they'd be embarrassed by now. The Associated Press's recent article 'Inquiring scientists: Why is sex so popular?' admits that from an evolutionary point of view, the existence of sex is a complete mystery. After all, they say, 'sex is a pretty inefficient way to reproduce.' One of the annoying puzzles within this mystery is how a species of rotifer could have persisted through asexual cloning through tens of millions of years - what they call 'a no-sex scandal.' But there is no puzzle if the rotifer were part of the wildlife created 6,000 years ago on a young earth! Considering the supporting wealth of geological evidence for a young earth, the rotifer is not surprised to be alive.
"What the authors avoid admitting is the larger mystery of how sex could evolve from no-sex in the first place. The physical and biochemical complexities of sexual reproduction are enormous. Male and female sex organs, sperm (or pollen), eggs, neurological and behavioral systems, the programming for embryological development - these are interwoven systems requiring the precise programming of millions of 'lines of code' in the DNA. Sex is an irreducibly complex system - it only works if all the machinery is there from the start. Ergo design and a designer - the Lord Jesus Christ."

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God,, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Timothy R. Stout

Design engineer.  Chairman of the board and chief scientist for T & G Technologies, Inc., a company founded to manufacture desalination equipment. Also pastor the Gold Hill Bible Church, a small rural church near Placerville, CA.

"I graduated from UCLA with a B.S. in physics in 1966, where I attended under a California State Scholarship and was on the Dean's List. I also have graduate studies in business administration from the University of Santa Clara and graduate studies in theology from the San Francisco Baptist Theological Seminary. I spent a dozen years in the computer industry as a design engineer and business executive. While in the industry I had two articles published for my advances to the state-of-the-art. Endnote1 Endnote2 . I have received three patents for improvements to the field of desalination. Endnote3 Endnote4 Endnote5 ."

"Tim Stout's Home Page," or

"Tim Stout's Personal and Biographical Data," or

Timothy R. Stout.  "Scientific Proofs of God and Creation Science Material,"

Timothy R. Stout. Chapter 9. Proof of God: Miscellaneous Evidences, or Non-biological evidences of a Creator are presented: the big bang, the simplicity of basic physical laws, and the exactness of various physical constants.


Maya Petrova Stoyneva

(Born May 12, 1962 in Sofia, Bulgaria).  Biologist.  External Teacher, National Science Gymnasium, Sofia, 1988-91; Senior Assistant in biology, Sofia University, 1991; Assistant, Sofia University, 1988-91. Expert Consultant Ministry of Environment, Sofia, 1988, Water Agy. Ltd., Sofia, 1992-93, YEC Office and Sofia Great Municipality, 1993, Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, 1995; science Consultant Higher Pedagogical School Shoumen, Bulgaria, 1991-93.  Education: Magister, Sofia University, 1985; Ph.D., Sofia University, 1991.

Member: N.Y. Academy Science, International Phycological Society.  Orthodox Christian. 

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


John Strachey

(1671-1743). English geologist. In Observations on the Different Strata of Earths and Minerals (1727), was first to suggest the theory of stratified rock formations.

The Galileo Project,

John St. Loe Strachey.  The Adventure of Living: A Subjective Autobiography (1860-1922),  

Project Gutenberg Release #6567 (September 2004).


Michael G. Strauss, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

(Born 1958).  Physicist.  Associate Professor of Physics, University of Oklahoma at Norman. Experimental High Energy Physics.  He is listed as a Reasons to believe Science Scholar.

Brief biography of Michael G. Strauss.

"I had an interest in science and theology, so in 1977 I chose to go to Biola University where I could study both subjects in detail. After graduating summa cum laude from Biola, I decided to pursue a graduate degree in physics at UCLA.

"During my first few years of graduate school, my interest in quantum mechanics and subatomic physics increased and so I joined a High Energy Physics experimental group doing research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). I moved to the San Francisco Bay Area to actively participate in research at SLAC and graduated in 1988 with my Ph.D in High Energy Physics (a.k.a. Elementary Particle Physics). If you would like to know more about High Energy Physics, the Particle Data Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has a very nice interactive adventure that teaches you all about the subject. My research advisor was Professor Charles Buchanan and my disertation was titled 'A Study of Lambda Polarization and Phi Spin Alignment in Electron-Positron Annihilation at 29 GeV as a Probe of Color Field Behavior.'

"After graduation, I accepted a post-doctoral research position with the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. I continued to do research at SLAC where I joined the SLD experiment. My research interests centered on the SLD silicon pixel vertex detector. I wrote most of the offline software for this device, and did physics analysis which used the vertex detector, including tagging B quark events for flavor specific QCD analysis. In the seven years I was employed by UMASS, I only spent 3 days on the Amherst campus. The rest of the time was spent in California.

"In August 1995, I accepted a job as an Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. The University of Oklahoma has a vibrant high energy physics research group involved in experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), Cornell, and CERN. I joined the DØ experiment at Fermilab where I continue to do research in elementary particle physics. As a member of the DØ collaboration I have made contributions to the testing of silicon sensors for the upgraded vertex detector, and to a measurement of the photon production cross section which probes the gluon content of protons.

"In summer of 2001 I received tenure and was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor."

Michael Strauss, Associate Professor. Faculty webpage:

"I am currently a member of the DØ collaboration doing research in Experimental Particle Physics using the Tevatron collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The Tevatron, which produces the highest energy particle collisions in the world, is an excellent instrument for testing the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles and fields and to look for experimental deviations from those predictions. My recent research has focused on testing various properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), particularly the properties of the gluons within the proton."

Summary of Research and Selected Publications,

Curriculum vitae:

Dr. Michael G. Strauss. "My Search for Truth," or

"In any search for objective religious truth, it quickly becomes clear that all of the world's religions are mutually exclusive. For instance, some religions teach that after death an individual is reincarnated, while others teach that each individual only lives once. Some religions teach that Jesus was simply a good moral teacher, while Christianity teaches that he was God himself. These teachings contradict each other and can not both be true. This means that either all religions are false, or only one of them is true. My search concluded with the realization that Jesus of Nazareth claimed to be the Creator and God of this universe, and that his claim was substantiated when he arose from the dead."

"Dr. Michael G. Strauss, Physicist and Christian." This site was a research project designed to focus on a physicist who integrates his Christian faith not only in his personal life, but also in all of his work in the scientific world.

"The Faith of Dr. Michael G. Strauss,"

"Strauss' Current Research,"

"Biography of Dr. Strauss,"

"Q&A Session with Dr. Strauss," "Having gone to a Christian university, I understand the pros and cons of both. At the secular university you must be able to articulate why and what you believe. This forces you to evaluate some of the toughest questions. Fortunately, Christianity has answers to those tough questions. If anything, exposure to so many ideas has convinced me even more of the truth of Christianity."


Thomas Streete *** Not in Gale

(1622-1689).  Irish-born astronomer, cartographer, navigation expert.

The Galileo Project,

Streete frequently helped other astronomers in their observations. Astronomia carolina, 1661, was one of the most popular expositions of astronomy in the second half of the century; it was an important vehicle in disseminating Keplerian astronomy in England. The Description and Use of the Planetary System, 1674.

He engaged in the resurvey of London.  Streete worked intensely on the determination of longitude at sea.

Informal Connections: Connections with astronomers in England and abroad. Connection with the professors at Gresham College.


Jozef Struss *** Not in Gale

(1510-c. 1568).  Polish physician.

The Galileo Project,

Struss's main work is Sphygmicae artis, (1555, the work of twenty years) an accurate clinicophysiological study of the pulse and its alterations. It suggested the pulse as a reliable sources of clinical data and of diagnostic and prognostic information.  About 1538 he entered the court of Andrei Gorka, then the governor of Greater Poland as his personal physician.  1539, personal physician to Princess Isabela, daughter of Sigismond I, the King. Isabela was engaged to the King of Hungary, Jan Zapolya.  Struss was appointed administrator of a Hungarian province.  With Gorka Struss was sent to the court of Suleiman I. When he returned to Poznan in 1541 he remained personal physician to Gorka and advisor in his political caareer. Struss amassed large property in the region of Poznan through his association with Gorka.  He established a successful practice and became personal physician to King Sigismund Augustus in 1559.


John Strutt, Lord Rayleigh

(1842-1919).  While the majority of his work dealt with sound and optics, Rayleigh may be most familiar to the layperson as the discover of the rare gas argon. For this accomplishment he was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize in physics. Rayleigh served for a period of five years as director of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University. With that exception, he spent nearly all of his adult life at his home in Terling Place where he constructed a well-equipped scientific laboratory. There he carried out experiments on a remarkable variety of subjects that led to the publication of some 450 papers.


Alexander Stuart *** Not in Gale

(1673-1742).  Scottish physiologist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Author: Disseratio de structura et motu musculari, 1738. Three Lectures on Muscular Motion, 1739. These two related works, elaborating on his doctoral thesis at Leiden, expounded the doctrines of iatromechanism.

New Discoveries and Improvements in Anatomy and Surgery . . . with Cases and Cures, 1738.

Physician to the Queen, 1728.

Member: Royal Society, 1714. First Croonian Lecturer (on muscular physiology), 1738. Copley medal for this work.  College of Physicians of London, 1728. Censor, 1732, 1741.  Académie Royale des Sciences.


William Allen Sturge *** Not in Gale

(1850-1919). English physician. William passed the Primary Examination of the College of Surgeons at Bristol Medical School in 1870. He went to London in 1871 to continue his studies at University College.  he resumed his medical studies and completed his M.D. (London) in 1875.

After holding the post of Physician's Assistant, he became a resident Medical Officer and subsequently Registrar of the National Hospital for Paralysis and Epilepsy. It was there that he laid the foundation of a wide and thoughtful survey of neurological diseases. Dr. Sturge's name is associated with the widely known syndrome - Sturge-Weber syndrome.  He postulated that the patient's neurological deficit was explained by a lesion that existed on the surface of the same side of the brain. It was not until 1901 that S. Kalischer provided a pathological proof of such an association. The radiographic findings of such a condition were first described by F. Parkes Weber of England in 1922 and then by V. Dimitri of Argentina in 1923. It should be noted that Dr. Sturge contributed greatly toward the understanding of muscular diseases in recognition of which he was awarded a silver medal by the Royal Society of Medicine for his dissertation on Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

It was in Paris that he met his wife, Emily Bovell, who was also a physician. They married in September 1877 and returned to London to set up a practice together. He was appointed physician and pathologist to the Royal Free Hospital, and a Lecturer to the Women's Medical School.

It may be of interest to note that Emily Bovell was one of the original half dozen women who gained admission to the Medical School of Edinburgh University, only to be physically ejected by the male students and faculty. All of these women eventually completed their medical training elsewhere and all achieved distinction in their own particular field. Emily was older than William. She developed tuberculosis, a circumstance that prompted the couple to move to Nice in France (French Riviera) in order to live in a milder climate. There they set up practice treating the wealthy and famous English and American visitors. During this time he took medical care of Queen Victoria and her family. In recognition of this service, Queen Victoria awarded him gifts and an MVO, which is an order and decoration reserved for people who have rendered service to the Royal Family of a personal nature. William stayed in Nice for 27 years. Emily Bovell died in her early 40's in 1885.

Sturge-Weber Foundation,

Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder involving the brain, skin and eyes. It is characterized by portwine nevi on upper part of the scalp along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, as well as other vascular abnormalities both intracranially and in other parts of the body. Accumulations of abnormal blood vessels (angiomas) occur in the meninges of the cerebral cortex, usually on one side of the brain. Also choroid, intracranial calcifications, mental retardation, epileptic seizures, and glaucoma. Both sexes affected; present from birth. Inheritance, if any, is uncertain.

Medical biography (scroll down) in French:


Stephen Y. H. Su

(Born July 6, 1938). Computer science and engineering educator, consultant.  Professor computer science SUNY-Binghamton, 1978-present.  Previous posts: Assistant Professor NYU, 1967-69, University of California-Berkeley, 1969-71; Associate Professor Case Western Res. University, Cleve., 1972-73, CUNY, 1973-75; Professor Utah State University, Logan, 1975-78;; logic designer Fabri-Tek Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, 1965; Member Technology staff Bell Telephone Lab., 1969; consultant Sperry UNIVAC, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, 1973-74; engineer IBM, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1974; consultant Standard Electric Lorenz, Stuttgart, Federal Republic Germany, 1985, various others; participant numerous conferences.  Education: BS in Elec. Engineering, Taiwan University, 1960; MS in Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1963, Ph.D. in Computer Engineering, 1967.

Chairman 1984 Family Conf., Mt. Bethel, Pennsylvania; president Binghamton Christian Fellowship, 1983-84, v.p., 1981-82; president Susquehanna Valley Association, Southern Tier, N.Y., 1980.

Honors: Recipient Humboldt award Alexander Humboldt Found., 1984-85, Commerative medal of honor, Distinguished Leadership award for outstanding service in teaching profession; named Engineer of Year, 1981.

Member: IEEE (SeniorAssociate Editor Trans. Computers 1974-77, Vice Chairman test tech committee, 1982-83; advisor, Computer Society Distinguished visitor program 1976-83), Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi. Baptist. Clubs: Tai Chi (president 1973-75) (Bergenfield, N.J.); Kung Fu (president 1971-72) (Cleveland).

Contributor of over 100 articles to professional journals, conference proceedings, chapters to books.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Teruo Sugihara

(Born June 19, 1949).  Biologist.  Research Assistant Rutgers University, 1972-77; Consultant Betz Converse Murdoch, Plymouth, Meeting, Pennsylvania, 1979; project leader Rutgers University, 1977-80; Senior environmentalist specialist N.J. Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, 1981-84, technical coordinator division publicly funded site remediation, 1990; biologist U.S. Army C.E., Philadelphia, 1984-87, ecologist, 1987-90.  AB, in Biology, Lafayette College, 1971; Ph.D. in Ecology, Rutgers University, 1981.

Author: Environmental Impact Statement, 1989; author and editor technical bulletin, 1979. 1st lt. U.S. Army, 1972. Presbyterian.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Dr. John Suppe

(Born 1942).  Department of Geology, received his Ph.D. from Yale University, and has taught at Princeton since 1971. He was elected to the National Academy of Science in 1995. His area of specialty is geological deformations, such as earthquakes.

John Suppe.  "Biblical Exegesis and Science..."

John Suppe.  "Thoughts on the Epistemology of Christianity in Light of Science,"

John Suppe.  "Who knows, but for such a time as this? Why We Became Geologists... ,"

John Suppe.  "Climbing out of a Swamp: Communicating Geology to the Church...,"

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Clara A. Swain

(1834-1910).  Pioneer woman medical missionary in India, was born in Elmira, N. Y.  She is said to have been the first fully accredited woman physician to be sent by any missionary society to the non-Christian world. In 1871 the Nawab of Rampore gave an estate adjoining the mission property as a site for a hospital for women. A dispensary building was completed in May 1873, and in January 1874 the first woman's hospital in India was opened. Miss Swain continued her work at Bareilly until March 1885, when at the request of the Rajah of Khetri, Rajputana, she became physician to the Rani and the ladies of the palace.

"January 20, 1870 o No Rest for a Weary Clara Swain,"

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Jan Swammerdam

(1637-1680). Dutch naturalist, skilled in the art of microdissection and was a founder of comparative anatomy and entomology.  Swammerdam was known for his biological researches with the microscope; first to describe the red blood cells (1658); discovered the valves of the lymph vessels (1664); studied the anatomy of insects, which he classified on the basis of development; devised improved techniques for injecting wax and dyes into cadavers; described ovarian follicles of mammals independently of Reiner de Graaf (1672). Chief works Historia insectorum generalis (1669) and Bybel der Natuure (1737-38).

The Galileo Project,

Jan Swammerdam Instituut.


Richard A. Swenson

(Born 1948).  A physician, educator and a futurist, with a B.S. in physics Phi Beta Kappa from Denison University (1970) and an M.D. from the University of Illinois (1974). Following fifteen years with the University of Wisconsin Medical School, Dr. Swenson currently researches and writes full-time about the intersection of culture, health, faith, and the future. He is a highly requested speaker on the implications of social change to a wide variety of audiences, including career, professional, and management groups; most major church denominations; members of Congress, and the Pentagon.

Member: Christian Medical and Dental Society, American Academy of Family Practice, International Center for Family Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa.

Author: Margin, 1995; A Minute of Margin; More Than Meets the Eye; Hurtling Toward Oblivion; The Overload Syndrome, 1999; Restoring Margin to Overloaded Lives; Margin/The Overload Syndrome; More Than Meets the Eye: Fascinating Glimpses of God's Power and Design, 2000.


Thomas L. Swihart / Thomas Lee Swihart

(1929-1995).  Physicist, astronomer.

 University of Mississippi, Oxford, Assistant Professor of physics and astronomy, 1955-57; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., member of staff, 1957-62; University of Illinois, Urbana, Assistant Professor of astronomy, 1962-63; University of Arizona, Tucson, Associate Professor, 1963-69, professor of astronomy and astronomer at Steward Observatory, 1969-95. Fulbright lecturer at Ege University, 1969-70. Education: Attended Manchester College, Manchester, Indiana, 1947-49; Indiana University, A.B., 1951, A.M., 1952; University of Chicago, Ph.D., 1955.

Member: International Astronomical Union, Sigma Xi.  Church of the Brethren.

Author: Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy, Wiley, 1968; Basic Physics of Stellar Atmospheres, Pachart, 1971; The Physics of Stellar Interiors, Pachart, 1972; (With R.J. Weymann, R.E. Williams, and others) Introductory Theoretical Astrophysics, Pachart, 1976; Journey Through the Universe, Houghton, 1978; Radiation Transfer and Stellar Atmospheres, Pachart, 1981; Quantitative Astronomy, Prentice-Hall, 1992; The Gospel of Jesus Christ; Rational Christianity (work-in-progress unpublished).


Thomas Sydenham

(1624-1689). English physician. A founder of clinical medicine and epidemiology. Served in parliamentary forces in Civil War. Described scarlet fever, St. Vitus' dance (Sydenham's chorea), hysteria, malaria, smallpox, and gout; introduced opium into medical practice; one of first to use iron in treating anemia; studied epidemics in relation to different seasons, years, and ages; insisted on clinical observation instead of theory; Introduced use of quinine; invented liquid laudanum.  Friend of John Locke and Robert Boyle; chief works Observationes medicae (1676) and a treatise on gout (1683).  Because he reintroduced into medicine the Hippocratic method of accurate bedside observation and the use of these observations in the classification and treatment of disease, he became known as the "English Hippocrates."

The Galileo Project,  Associated eponyms: Sydenham's chorea, An infectious disease of the central nervous system, appearing after a streptococcal infection, with subsequent rheumatic fever, characterised by involuntary purposeless contractions of the muscles of the trunk and extremities.

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.


Francis de la Boe Sylvius / Franciscus dele Bo Sylvius

(1614-1672).  Franciscus dele Bo Sylvius, the first physician in the Netherlands to defend that the blood circulated in the vessels.  Franciscus Sylvius also wrote a descriptive treatise on the natural history of pulmonary tuberculosis that became a classic in late Renaissance Europe.

The Galileo Project,

David Swatling.  "The Science of Sylvius,"


William Symington

(1763-1831). Scottish engineer. With his brother George, he built working model of steam road carriage (1786); patented his Improved Atomspheric steam engine (1787), later used to propel a boat on Dalswinton loch (1788); developed (1801) a successful steam-driven paddle wheel, used (1802) to propel the Charlotte Dundas, one of first practical steamboats.

"Significant Scots: William Symington,"

"William Symington,"

J &WT Rankine, 1852.  "BIOGRAPHY of WILLIAM SYMINGTON, Civil Engineer,"

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