Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (T)


John Tabor *** Not in Gale

(1667-c. 1724).  English physician.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Tabor's major work, Exercitationes medicae (London, 1724), in the school of Freind and Keill, attempted to incorporate medical animism into a mathematical framework. He devoted considerable attention to detailed formulations of the shape and elasticity of muscle fibers and offered a comprehensive account of the heart's structure and function.


Dr. Randall Tackett / Randall L. Tackett

(Born 1954).  Pharmacology and toxicology educator.  Professor and Graduate Coordinator, College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, 1995; Head Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Georgia, Athens, 1989-95; Associate Professor, University of Georgia, Athens, 1986-95; Assistant Professor, University of Georgia, Athens, 1981-85; postdoctoral Fellow, Medicine, U.S.C., Charleston, 1979-81. Research Interests: Racial and Gender differences in cardiovascular disease; vascular biology and production of free radicals; interaction of drugs with the autonomic nervous system; mechanism of action of substances of abuse; adverse drug reactions.

Education: BS, Jacksonville University, 1975; MS, Auburn University, 1977; Ph.D., University of Georgia, 1979.

Member: American Heart Association (peer rev. committee 1992, circulation council 1994, Grantee, 1993-95), International Society Hypertension in Blacks, Federation American Society Experimental Biology, Phi Delta Chi (advisor 1986, Teacher of Year, 1983-84), Phi Kappa Phi.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Randall L. Tackett, Ph.D., The University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Program in Clinical and Experimental Therapeutics,

Judy Bolyard Purdy.  "Radical Differences," From Research magazine, Spring 1998.  "A recent UGA study may help explain why African-American men have a much higher incidence of heart disease than Caucasian men.  Randall Tackett, a professor of clinical and administrative sciences in the UGA College of Pharmacy, has studied the differences between blood vessels of African Americans and Caucasians since 1992.

"His latest study of saphenous vein tissue (a vein in the leg) from male heart bypass patients suggests that blood vessels from African Americans generate almost twice as many free radicals as those from Caucasians. It also may suggest that antioxidants - vitamins C and E and other compounds that scavenge free radicals - have a beneficial role in therapy."


André Tacquet, S.J.  / Andre Tacquet / Andreas Tacquet *** Not in Gale

(1612-1660).  Belgian mathematician.  Catholic, entered Jesuit order in 1629.  Crater Tacquet named in his honor.


Andre Tacquet (1612-1660) was born and died in Antwerp.  He studied mathematics under the famous Jesuit mathematician Gregory St. Vincent and later taught mathematics at Louvain and Antwerp. Tacquet was a brilliant mathematician of international repute. His books were frequently reprinted, and several Italian and English editions appeared and were widely used. His Opera mathematica was described by Henry Oldenburg (editor of the Transaction of the Royal Society) as "one of the best books ever written in mathematics.

The Galileo Project,

Tacquet's books taught elementary mathematics to many generations of readers. Most of his works were written as textbooks for Jesuit colleges and had no pretensions to originality. His Elementa geometriae was his most popular work going through several editions in the 17th and 18th centuries. The main importance of his Cylindricorum et annularium, on cylinders and rings, was its concern for method. His Opera mathematica was published posthumously and contained many previously printed works, some unprinted works, and his Astronomia.  Among the principal mathematicians of his time that he corresponded with were Huygens and Van Schooten.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Andrea Tacquet,"


Peter Guthrie Tait

(1831-1901). Scottish physicist and mathematician. Professor, Edinburgh(from 1860). Instrumental in development of modern mathematical physics; helped develop quaternions. Investigated properties of ozone, the foundations of the kinetic theory of gases, thermoelectricity and thermal conductivity, etc. His publications included Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), Introduction to Quaternions (with Philip Kelland, 1873), Natural Philosophy (vol. 1 with Lord Kelvin, 1867), The Unseen Universe (1875), and Paradoxical Philosophy (both with Balfour Stewart, 1878).

Chris Pritchard. Provisional Bibliography of Peter Guthrie Tait, The British Society for the History of Mathematics,


Jean Tarde *** Not in Gale

(c. 1561-1636).  French cartographer, astronomer, geographer, optician.  Catholic, an ordained priest.

The Galileo Project,

Tarde embraced Copernicanism. He set up an observatory to observe sunspots--which he was convined were bodies orbiting the sun, and which he named the Bourbon stars.  He not only mapped his area, but he studied its geography, including the location of a city of Gaul which Caesar destroyed.  He wrote a theoretical work on the telescope.  Tarde mapped the neighboring diocese for the Bishop of Cahors in 1606. In compliance with the Bishop's request that he explain the small quadrant he was using, he wrote Les usages du quadrant à l'esquille aymantée (1616), which he then dedicated to the Bishop.  Henry IV named Tarde his Almoner (or military chaplain) in 1599. Tarde mistakenly identified sunspots as planets which he named after the French royal family, dedicating the book about them to the Bourbons, in the same manner as the Medician stars.


Niccolò Tartaglia / Niccolò Tartaleo / Niccolò Tartaia / Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia

(c. 1499-1557).  Italian mathematician, mechanic, cartographer. Pioneered work on ballistics and falling bodies, and was the first to apply mathematics to the solution of artillery problems.  Adopted nickname Tartaglia, i.e. Stammerer, as surname; mathematics teacher at Venice (1534-48, 1550-57) and Brescia (1548-49); credited with discovery (1535) ofthe solution of the cubic equation, later published by G. Cardano (q.v.) as his own (1545). Wrote Nova scientia (1537) on gunnery; Quesiti et inventioni diverse (1546) on ballistics and algebraic problems; Trattato di numeri et misure (1556-60) on elementary mathematics; translations of Euclid and Archimedes, etc.

The Galileo Project,

His name is linked with the solution of third-degree equations. His other contributions concern fundamentals of arithmetic, numerical calculations, extraction of roots, rationalization of denominators, combinatorial analysis. One of the first publishers of Archimedes, he produced an edition of William of Moerbeke's 13th-century Latin version of some of Archimedes's work. He also translated Euclid into Italian.

He published Nova Scientia in 1537, announcing a "new" mathematical way of treating motion, especially of projectiles. His Quesiti ed inventioni diverse dealt with algebraic and geometric material and, and such varied subjects as the firing of artillery, cannonballs, the disposition of infantry, topographical surveying, and statics.

Tartaglia was invited to Milan in 1539; the visit led to the quarrel with Ferrari and their public exchange of mathematical challenges and responses. For failing to cite his debt to Jordanus in the Quesiti, Tartaglia was denounced for plagiary in Ferrari.

In his ballistic studies he proposed new ideas, methods, and instruments, important among which are "firing tables".  He had various proposals on fortifications.  He suggested two instruments for determining inaccessible heights and distances, the first telemeters.  He developed a specific form the the compass, or better, the housing in which it was set, that made it more useful in surveying.

He corresponded with Cardano for a time, and he had the famous mathematical contest with Ferrari. Since it hinged on the discovery of the solution to cubic equations, it may have been the first priority dispute.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Nicolo Tartaglia,"

Biography of Niccolò Tartaglia. (French)


Stephen A. Taylor, BSc, MEng, Ph.D., ACGI, MIEE*** Not in Gale

(Not the civil engineer of Hatch Mott MacDonald, Inc., born 1955, or the biochemist at Manchester University).
Reader in Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool. BSc (Eng) (London),
MEng, Ph.D. (Liverpool), ACGI, MIEE.  Originator of the world's smallest mass spectrometer.

Faculty webpage, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics,

Solid state electronics research group,

World's smallest mass spectrometer.

Dr Steve Taylor, of the University of Liverpool's Solid State Electronics Research Group, The University of Liverpool. "Mass Medium,"  Research Intelligence, n. 11, December 2001. "An electrical engineer at The University of Liverpool has originated the world's smallest mass spectrometer. Based on optical fibre and silicon technology, the resulting instrument requires less power, less expensive electronics and less exacting vacuum technology. Its size also offers the potential for 'backpack' devices capable of providing on-the-spot mass spectrometry out in the field."

The University of Liverpool Staff Christian Fellowship

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Dr. Walter Kingsley Taylor

(Born 1939).  Ornithologist.  Biology educator, consultant.  Associate chair Dept. of Biology, University Central Florida, Orlando, 1997; Professor biology, University Central Florida, Orlando, 1983; Associate Professor biology, University Central Florida, Orlando, 1971-82; Assistant Professor biology, Florida Technol. University, Orlando, 1969-71. Consultant, Modica & Assocs., Clermont, Florida, 1990.

"My current course specialities are Biodiversity, Invertebrate Zoology, Ornithology, Zoogeography, and Florida Wildflowers. For nearly 26 years I held down our General Zoology which was merged with General Botany and renamed Biodiversity." U.S. Army, 1967-69; became captain. Education: B.S. Biology & History, Murray State College, Murray, KY, 1962; M.S. Zoology, Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, Ruston, LA, 1964; Ph.D. Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ , 1967.  Dissertation: Breeding Biology of the Verdin, Auriparus flaviceps (Sundevall) 228 pp.

Member: American Ornithologists Union, Wilson Ornithology Society (life), Nature Conservancy, Sierra Club, Northeast Bird Banding Association, Florida Ornithological Society (charter member; chair of Archive Committee, 1993-present), Florida Native Plant Society, Sigma Xi.  Baptist.

Honors: Recipient God and Service Award Boy Scouts America, 1997, First place literary award, Florida Space Coast Writers Conference, 1987; Green Palmetto Award for Education, Florida Native Plant Society, 2000.

Author: Guide to Florida Wildflowers, 1992, Florida Wildflowers in their Natural Communities, 1998; Senior author: André Michaux in Florida: An 18th Century Botanical Journey, 2001; editor Florida Field Naturalist, 1994-96.



William Nathaniel Taylor, Jr. / William N. Taylor

(Born 1952).  Physician.  Research engineer and scientist.  B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co., Avon Lake, OH, Research scientist, 1976-77; Abtec Chemical Company, Louisville, KY, technical service engineer and research engineer, 1977; Medical Center Hospital, Punta Gorda, FL, director of emergency medicine, 1982-83; Sun Bay Hospital, St. Petersburg, FL, emergency medicine physician, beginning 1983; University of Central Florida, Orlando, Associate Professor of exceptional and physical education, ca.1995-present. Physician crew chief for United States Olympic Committee Drug Education Program, 1984-88; Assistant Professor of sports medicine for United States Sports Academy, 1986; director of Lifefitness Clinic.


Bernardino Telesio

(1509-1588). Italian philosopher. Known particularly for his De rerum natura juxta propria principia (first 2 books, 1565; complete 9 books, 1586); revolted against medieval Aristotelianism; advocated empirical method; called "first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon.

The Galileo Project, (in Italian) (in German)

"Francis Bacon, who was influenced by Telesio, called him 'the first of the moderns' based on the fact that Telesio placed emphasis on actual experience in the study of nature. When this work was written a new spirit of freedom of thought was resulting in the questioning of the rigid doctrines of Aristotelianism, Telesio being amongst the earliest, the most vociferous, and the best educated in the classical languages, to make this challenge. Not long after his death, however, this freedom of thought was considered a challenge to the Church and Telesio's work was put on the Index. 'Telesio also introduced concepts of space and time that anticipated the absolute space and time of Newtonian physics ... [He] also held that time would continue to flow on even though no motion were observed by man or even existed. He thus broke away from Aristotle's conception of place as the surface of the containing body and of time as the measure of motion' (DSB)."


Willem Ten Rhyne / Willem Ten Rhijne *** Not in Gale

(1647-1700).  Dutch physician, botanist, pharmacologist.  Jewish Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

After his M.D. Ten Rhyne published on gout in 1669.  While in Japan he studied the tea plant and other plants. Earlier he had studied the plants at the Cape of Good Hope, where he stopped en route to the East Indies. He published on all of these. Eventually he collaborated with Adriaan van Reede tot Drakestein on a twelve volume Hortus Malabaricus.  Ten Rhijne published a classic work on leprosy in 1687, and a work which was Europe's real introduction to acupuncture. His work on plants seems always to have had their pharmacological uses at least partly in mind.


Carole Thaxton, M.D.

Medical doctor.  Educator.  Co-author of KONOS Curriculum Unit Studies. Because of so many preconceived ideas, she resisted Christianity as the answer until she dared to face God to inquire "What is really true?" As a convinced and committed Christian, she received her B.A. degree in biology and education and later her master's degree in counseling from Syracuse University. Carole's interest in whole person development led her to further academic training in child development and various additional counseling courses. Before meeting Charles at L'Abri in 1971, she worked as a professional counselor at the Devereux Foundation, a treatment center for the emotionally disturbed. She has counseled, taught, and supervised in a variety of educational/developmental settings (residential treatment center, public school, private school, international school, homeschool, and parent cooperatives). In the Atlanta area she teaches writing and biblical psychology courses to teens and leads seminars for homeschooling parents. Carole's forte of education and counseling prepared her not only for homeschooling their own sons but in founding the KONOS ACADEMY OF PRAGUE, an English-speaking Christian worldview school, and for counseling English-speaking families living abroad on parenting and education issues.

Author: Learn to Write the Novel Way.

From CAROLE THAXTON, M.S. biography,


Charles B. Thaxton, Ph.D *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Presently, Dr. Thaxton holds a visiting faculty position at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Charles B. Thaxton received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from Iowa State University. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard University for two years where he studied the history and philosophy of science. He had a Postdoctoral appointment in Molecular Biology at Brandeis University for three years.

After meeting at L'Abri and marrying in 1971, Charles and his wife Carole incorporated KONOS, Inc. as a teaching, training, counseling center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. After moving to Dallas, where Charles worked with Probe Ministries, the Thaxtons resolved to teach their own children according to the KONOS model of incorporating academic subjects with character development and called their homeschool KONOS ACADEMY.  Carole Thaxton and Jessica Hulcy co-authored the popular KONOS CURRICULUM UNIT STUDIES.

While teaching and counseling at the Julian Center in Julian, California, Charles continued to speak to thousands of university students throughout the world. Meanwhile, Carole spoke at hundreds of conferences about how to teach the KONOS way while teaching their own children and leading homeschool coops.  Charles' first book The Mystery of Life's Origin (Thaxton, Bradley, Olsen) was translated into Romanian in 1986, which led to his grand entrance into the university lecture halls of Romania after their revolution. Translation of The Mystery of Life's Origin and later The Soul of Science (co-authored with Nancy Pearcey) into several Eastern European languages, led to extensive travel throughout Eastern Europe. The Thaxton family decided to reside in Prague for six years for more intensive ministry within the most atheistic country in Europe-the Czech Republic.  In January, 1992 he moved with his family to Prague, Czechoslovakia. During 1992 he held appointments at both the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia and the Biomathematical Institute in Craiova, Romania. After Charles' radical cancer and subsequent amputation, the Thaxtons moved to Fayetteville, GA, still traveling to Eastern Europe about one-fourth of the year.

Dr. Thaxton is President of KONOS Connection, is a non-profit educational organization, incorporated as a 501©3 in 1991. Its purpose is to connect people with their Creator, Jesus Christ, and His perspective on life. Our focus has been within the academic community, giving a well-reasoned perspective on the relationship between Christianity and the various academic disciplines.

KONOS Connection, Fayetteville, Georgia,

He holds memberships in the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is a Fellow of both the American Institute of Chemists and the American Scientific Affiliation.

Co-author:  Nancy Randolph Pearcey, Light Through a Prism: A World View Approach to History of Science (Crossway, 1993). He is co-author of The Mystery of Life's Origin and The Soul of Science, and contributor to several books and journals. He was the Academic Editor for a high school biology supplement, Of Pandas and People (Haughton, 1989).


CHARLES THAXTON, Ph.D. biography.

Christian Student Survival Conference, Scientists Find Evidence of God


Theodoric de Lucca / Teodorico Borgognoni *** Not in Gale

Theodoric (1205-1298) was a Dominican friar and University-trained both as a surgeon and a physician, a circumstance that was very unusual at the time (Zimmerman & Veith, 1961). Despite working as a surgeon, he eventually became Bishop of Cervia in 1262. In 1267 he completed his Chirurgia or surgical textbook, which Theodoric stated was based on the teachings of [his father] Hugh. Theodoric's treatise contains a range of information such as different types of surgical procedures, management of fractures and dislocations, the best methods of extracting arrows and Hugh's principles of wound management. Both Hugh and Theodoric condemned the doctrine of 'laudable pus'. Theodoric considered that it hindered nature and prolonged healing (Zimmerman & Veith, 1961). Edwards (1976) described Theodoric as a medieval antiseptic surgeon who was unfairly denigrated by some of his colleagues and his successors.  The School of Surgery at Bologna University was founded around the end of the 12th Century by Theodoric and his father, Hugh of Lucca (1160-1257).

From EWMA Journal, 2003 ,VOL. 3 NO.1,

Theodoric of Cervia (Borgognoni).


Melchisédech Thévenot *** Not in Gale

(c. 1620-1692).  French pharmacologist, instrument-maker, physicist, scientific communicator and organizer.

The Galileo Project,

Thévenot was one of the important correspondents linking Paris to the European scientific world. He organized his own academy in the early 60's, and he influenced the founding of the French Academy of Sciences.

His only notable direct contribution to science was in instrumentation: a bubble level, originally designed in 1661. The level was filled with alcohol and mounted on a stone ruler fitted with a viewing lens. His design did not come into common use until the mid-eighteenth century with the development of improved construction techniques. From 1658-61 he conducted experiments on capillarity and the siphon. He made various astronomical and magnetic studies aided by Petit, Auzout, Frenicle de Bessy, and Huygens. In the 1660's he demonstrated the possibility that atmospheric pulsations had something to do with human and animal respiration.  His most famous work was his collection of translations of voyages of discovery, Relations de divers voyages curieus, (Paris, 1663-72).

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1685-92. At the meetings of the Académie he discussed the use of lemon juice as a medicinal cure and ipecac as useful in treating dysentary. He attended Montmor's meeting at least as early as 1658.  After about 1662 he provided occasions for additional meetings and experimentation in his country house at Issy, several miles south of Paris. There he supported the mathematician Frenicle de Bessy, the Danish anatomist Nils Stensen, and a chemical demonstrator. He held his meetings until 1665 when a lack of funds for apparatus and experimentation hindered his work--or perhaps when the organization of the Académie forcefully disbanded the so called Academy Thévenot.

About 1663 or 1664 a group that included him, Auzout, and Petit proposed a plan for a new academy of scientists. The proposed Compagnie would perform experiments and make observations for the perfection of the sciences and the arts and, in general, to search for all that can bring utility to the human race, and particularly to France. His utilitarian project for a compagnie des sciences et des arts was quite different from the one proposed by Charles Perrault. The Academy of Sciences that emerged in 1666 was more in Perrault's design than in his. He finally became a member of the Academy in 1685.

Throughout the 1660's and 1670's he maintained a wide correspondence with numerous persons. Much of it related his translation and publication of voyages of discovery, Relation de divers voyages. His intimate friends included Huygens, Oldenburg, A. Auzuot, and numerous other mid-seventeenth-century personages.


Isabella Thoburn

(1840-1901) Educator and missionary to India.  In 1869 the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in Boston, Mass., and under its auspices, on Nov. 3, accompanied by Dr. Clara A. Swain [q.v.], she sailed for India, arriving in Bombay on Jan. 7, 1870. The city of Lucknow in Oudh became the center of her activities. Into the education of the girls and young women of India she threw herself with zeal and courage. On Apr. 18, in Aminabad bazaar, she began a school with six girls and herself the only teacher, while a Christian youth guarded the group with a stout bamboo. From a day school it developed into a boarding school, then into a high school, and finally into a college for women-now the Isabella Thoburn College, the women's college of Lucknow University. Buying the beautiful estate of the Ruby Garden (Lal Bagh) with its seven acres from a Mohammedan nobleman of the old kingdom of Oudh, she erected her buildings. The college that came into being was for Indian and Eurasian, Hindu, Mohammedan, and Christian alike; no religious or racial prejudice was to mar its peace and fellowship.-Oscar MacMillan Buck.  "Isabella Thoburn."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.

January 7, 1870 o Isabella Thoburn Taught India's Women.


Irene Manorama Thomas

(Born October 12, 1935 in Mangalore, India).  Anatomist, human geneticist, educator.  Professor, head, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, 1984; from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, 1971-84; tutor, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India, 1966-69; tutor, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 1964-66; demonstrator, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 1963-64. Member advisory Board Indian Council Medical School, 1982, member task force in genetics; member advisory Board Dept. Science & Tech., 1982, Biotechnology & Baba Atomic School Center.  Education: BS, Wilson College, Bombay, India, 1956; MB, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, 1960; MS, Dharbhanga (India) Medical College, 1969.

Member: Fellow National Academy Medical Sciences; American Association Anatomists, Afro-Asia Oceania Association Anatomists (committee 1988), Association for Welfare on Mentally Handicapped Children, Down Syndrome Association UniversityK., American Association Cytogenetic Technologists, Anatomical Sic. India (life member, exec. committee 1978, v.p. 1995), Indian Society Human Genetics (life member, governing council 1985-89), Christian Medical Association India (life member), India Society Prental Diagnosis and Therapy (committee 1990-91), Bangalore Society OB-Gyn. (Associate), Indian Medical Association (Bangalore br.), National Board Exam. (v.p. 1994-95 apptd. by govt. of India).

Honors: Recipient Dr. T.A. Mathias award All India Association for Higher Education, 1990-91, Dr.'s Day award Indian Medical Association, 1993, Dr. B.C. Roy award Medical Council India, 1992, Kshanika Oration award Indian Council Medical School, 1990; National Merit scholar, lady Dufferin merit scholar; Katholischer Auslander Dienst fellow, 1970.

Author: Guide for Ten Ph.D. Students; Contributor of over 30 research projects and numerous articles to professional journals. and procs. and over 200 invited lectures.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Alvaro Thomaz /Alvaro Tomas / Alvarus Thomas *** Not in Gale

(fl. 1500s).  Portuguese scholastic philosopher, mathematician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Published Liber de triplici motu proportionibus, 1509, in the tradition of the calculatores--a work both of mathematics and of scholastic physics.  Thomaz was the calculator par excellence in Paris in the early 16th century, the principal stimulus to the revival of interest in the Mertonian approach to natural philosophy.


Bert Thompson

Microbiologist.  Executive Director of Apologetics Press, Montgomery, Alabama.  Adjunct professor of Bible and science at Southern Christian University, Montgomery, Alabama.  Dr. Thompson is a former professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M, where he also served as Coordinator of the Cooperative Education Program in Biomedical Science. B.S. in biology from Abilene Christian University (1971) ; M.S. (1972) and Ph.D. (1975) in microbiology from Texas A&M University. He conducts approximately 40 Science & Nature: Two Votes for God seminars every year.

Member: American Society of Microbiology.

Author: Creation Compromises, Apologetics Press, 2nd edition, 2000.

T. Wallace.  Book Review: Creation Compromises, by Bert Thompson, Ph.D.  March 10, 2002.

Brad Harrub, Ph.D. and Bert Thompson, Ph.D. "AN EXAMINATION OF THE MEDICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PHYSICAL DEATH OF CHRIST,", or An updated review of the extensive scientific evidence surrounding Christ's physical death (2002).


J. J. Thomson

(1856-1940). A scientist of diverse interests, J. J. Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1906 for his theoretical and experimental research on the behavior of electricity in gases. As one consequence of that research, Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. He also was interested in a number of other topics, including optics, magnetism, radioactivity, photoelectricity, and thermionics (a branch of physics relating to the emission of charged particles from an incandescent source).


Ker C. Thomson *** Not in Gale

Geophysicist.  Former Professor of geophysics at Baylor University. .Former Professor of science at Bryan College.  Former Director of the U.S. Air Force Terrestrial Sciences Laboratory.

B.A. in physics and geology from the University of British Columbia, Canada; D.Sc. in geophysics from the Colorado School of Mines.

Author of numerous technical papers.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Glenn Tinder *** Not in Gale

Political Scientist. Dr. Tinder is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, having taught there 30 years. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkley. His professional memberships include the American Political Science Association, the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, and the Conference for the Study of Political Thought. He serves on the editorial board of The Review of Politics. Dr. Tinder is a prolific writer, having written some seven books and contributed numerous articles to professional journals.
Author: The Political Meaning of Christianity.

Glenn Tinder.  "First Things: What Can We Reasonably Hope For? A Millennium Symposium,"

Copyright © 1998 First Things 99 (Januray 2000): 33-34

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Andreas Tocquet

Andreas Tocquet (1612-1660) taught mathematics in several European universities. He originated many theorems, especially those involving the geometry of cylinders and rings. A master teacher and writer, Tocquet's textbooks were used by generations of mathematics students. He maintained a lifetime devotion to the Catholic faith and was known for a positive Christian testimony before his students.

Don DeYoung.


Robert Bentley Todd *** Not in Gale

(1809-1860). The eminent physiologist, Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), was instrumental in setting up King's College Hospital. Physician, brother of J. H. Todd; Education: TCD, BA 1829; Lecturer in anatomy, London; DM, Oxon., 1836; Professor of Physiology at King's College, London, 1836-53; Gulstonian, 1839; Lumleian lect., 1849; FRS, 1838; examiner for London University, 1839-40; co-fnd. King's College Hospital, 1840; also St. John's House Institute for nurses; FRCS, 1844; large priv. practice; revolutionised fever treatment; numerous writings on medical science; ed., The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology (1835-59).

J.B. Lyons, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. "The achievements of Robert Bentley Todd,"


David Tonge *** Not in Gale

Neuroscientist. David Tonge, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Physiology, Sensory Functions Research Group,
Centre for Neuroscience Research, GKT School of Biomedical Science, King's College London, London,
United Kingdom. Interest: control of nerve growth; regeneration and synapse formation; developmental neurobiology.

David Tonge, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Physiology,  Faculty webpage.

Faculty webpage, King's College, London,

Neuroscience Research Division.

Testimony in Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories, edited by Eric C. Barrett and David Fisher. The Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, IL.  ISBN 0-8024-7634-1.  "As a scientist, I look for scientific 'truth' in my research, knowing that such truth is transitory.  It may be superceded or refuted at any time.  But, since I am a Christian, my life and work are now based on the most comprehensive and unequivocal statement ever made about truth: Jesus Christ once said, "I am the truth" (John 14:6, italics added)."


Larry E. Toothaker*** Not in Gale
Psychologist.  David Ross Boyd Professor of Psychology, University of Oklahoma.   Toothaker earned a Bachelors degree at the University of Nebraska, where he also competed as an athlete. He entered graduate school and earned a Masters degree and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.


"Church work is not just form and ritual. My family life is characterized by growing in love and understanding. Having a personal relationship with Jesus has become the center of my life, and He gives inner peace that I could not get from any other source."


Evangelista Torricelli

(1608-1647). Italian mathematician and physicist. Served at Florence as amanuensis to Galileo (1641-42); succeeded Galileo as mathematician to grand duke of Tuscany and professor at Florentine Academy (1642). Improved telescope; discovered principle of the barometer and devised earliest form of the instrument (1643); worked on the cycloid; published Opera Geometrica (1644). His work in geometry aided in the eventual development of integral calculus.  He refined the method of indivisibles introduced by Bonaventura Cavalieri.

As a scientist, Evangelista Torricelli became well known for his study of the motion of fluids, and was declared the father of hydrodynamics by Ernst Mach. Torricelli also conducted experiments on gases, though the term was not then in use. Most notably, Torricelli settled an argument about the nature of gases and the existence of the vacuum. Aristotle believed that a vacuum could not exist. Though Galileo disagreed, he contended that the action of suction (in a water pump, for example) was produced by a vacuum itself and not by the pressure of the air pushing on the liquid being pumped. Despite his argument, Torricelli noticed that water could be pumped only a finite distance through a vertical tube before it ceased to move any further and set out to examine this paradox, inventing the first barometer in the process.

"Evangelista Torricelli." World of Earth Science. Gale, 2003.

The Galileo Project,

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Evangelista Torricelli,"

Egidio Festa, editor.  "Institute and Museum of History of Science, Florence, ITALY, Evangelista Torricelli,"

"The discovery of the weight of air, and the existence of the vacuum.  A tribute to Evangelista Torricelli,"

"Torricelli | Evangelista | 1608-1647 | Italian mathematician," (in German)


Karen Teresa Toscano

(Born August 12, 1965 in Queens, New York, United States).  Pharmaceutical scientist.  Arthritis biologist, Novartis Pharm. Co., Summit, 1993; analytical chemist, Ciba-Geigy Pharms., Summit, N.J., 1989-93; toxicologist, Exxon Biomedical Sciences, East Millstone, N.J., 1987-89.  Achievements include participation in ongoing successful maternal-PKU study with Newark Beth Israel Children's Hospital, research work and publication on Animal Identification and Marking System on Mesocricetus auratus.  Education: BS, Delaware Valley College Science and Agriculture, Doylestown, Pennsylvania, 1987.

Member Seal of Excellence committee Ciba-Geigy Pharms., Summit, 1991-93.  Women's Guild (sec.), Quilt Guild, American Chemical Society.  Vol. Christian Confraternity Doctrine (CCD) 2d grade Teacher, Bloomsbury, 1994.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


James Mitchell Tour

(Born 1959).  James M. Tour is the Chao Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Computer Science, and Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science in Rice University's Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. He has about 215 scientific publications as well as numerous patents. His scientific research areas include molecular electronics, molecular computing, nanomotors, methods for retarding chemical terrorist attacks and the NanoKids concept for K-12 education in nanoscale science. He is also a co-founder and board member of Molecular Electronics Corp. Tour is a Messianic Jew (a Jew who believes that Jesus is the Messiah and the Son of God). He and his wife, Shireen, have four wonderful children, two daughters and two sons.

Research Areas:   (200 research publications; 17 issued patents)

General:  organic chemistry, materials science, and polymer chemistry.

Specific:  molecular electronics, molecular computing, self-assembly, self-replication, conjugated oligomers, electroactive polymers, combinatorial routes to precise oligomers, polymeric sensors, flame retarding polymer additives, carbon nanotube modification, DNA-promoted assembly for synthetic molecules, and synthesis of molecular motors and nanotrucks, regulation policies on precursors for chemical weapons of terror.


James M. Tour's statement of faith:

James M. Tour.  "Faith of a Scientist: The Impact of the Bible Upon a Christian Professor,"

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

(1656-1708). French botanist and physician. Professor at Jardin des Plantes, Paris (1688-1708); one of the founders of modern systematic botany; credited with being first to group plants into genera. Author of Elements de botanique (1694).

The Galileo Project,


Richard Towneley *** Not in Gale

(1629-1707).  English natural philosopher, physicist, astronomer, meteorologist, instrument-maker.

The Galileo Project,

In addition to his general interest in Cartesian philosophy, his role in Boyle's law (an investigation carried out with Henry Power), and his astronomical observations, Towneley carried out extended meteorological measurements and improved the micrometer (for use in astronomical observations). He introduced Flamsteed to the micrometer. As an astronomer he perpetuated the tradition of observation established in that region earlier by Horrocks, Crabtree, and Gascoigne. He also investigated capillary phenomena and the use of the barometer to measure altitudes.  Towneley constructed a carriage that passed smoothly over rough roads.

He improved on Gascoigne's crude micrometer.

Informal connections: Influenced and encouraged by his uncle, Christopher Towneley, and like his uncle earlier, he gathered a circle around him which included Henry Power and his brothers. Close friendship with René Francoise Sluse. He corresponded with the Royal Society, and with Boyle and Flamsteed.


Charles H. Townes

(Born 1915). Charles Townes is generally considered the American inventor of the maser (an acronym for microwave amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation), an honor he shares with two Russian scientists, Aleksandr Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov. The microwave theories he introduced and pursued throughout the 1960s paved the way for such advances as the modern laser.


F. Mark Townsend / Francis Mark Townsend *** Not in Gale

Chemical engineer. Boyd Professor Emeritus, Chemical Engineering, University of Oklahoma.  F. Mark Townsend served as a captain in the U.S. Army during World War II, receiving a Purple Heart. During the Allied invasion of Normandy, Capt. Townsend was hit by German mortar fire, which injured three of his limbs. After 17 operations, he returned to the University of Oklahoma in the fall of 1947, after having learned to write with his left hand. He went on to complete the bachelor of science degree that had been interrupted by his induction to the Army. He then earned a master's degree and was one of the first graduates to receive a doctoral degree in chemical engineering from OU.
Before he retired in 1983, Townsend taught for 28 years as a Professor in OU's School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. He made impressive strides in research while at OU. During his graduate studies, he produced the fundamental data that established TEG as the most effective absorbent for dehydrating natural gas mixtures over a full range of field operating pressures. Today it is used to dehydrate the largest part of all natural gas going to market in the world. In 1952, he discovered a chemical reaction which developed into sour-gas treating processes. To date, the Townsend process has been used under license to IFP. In addition, Townsend's research project for the U.S. Air Force on contamination of JP-5 jet fuel put an end to a rash of mid-air explosions. He also developed a unique water exhaustion technique that is now used in the petroleum industry to produce 100 percent glycols for super-dehydration of gas.
F. Mark Townsend was elected to the University of Oklahoma College of Engineering Distinguished Graduates Society in 1999.



Carl Webb Townsend

(Born 1938). Computer consultant, writer.  Engineer., IBM Corp., Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1962-68; research scientist Interscience Research Institute, Champaign, Illinois, 1968-70, United Medical Labs., Portland, Oregon, 1970-78; freelance consultant, Portland, 1978; President Center for Study of Future, Portland, 1973; writer, consultant, Portland, 1984; President Oregon Professional Microsystems, Portland, 1983.  BS, Louisiana Tech. University, 1962; MS, George Washington University, 1968.

Member: Baptist.

Author: How to Make Money With Your Microcomputer, 1981, How to Get Started With CPM, 1981, How to Get Started With MS-DOS, 1983, CPM Database Management, 1983, A Practical Guide to CPM, 1983, Using dBASE II, 1983, Exploring Word Processors: CPM Edition, 1984, Electronic Mail and Beyond, 1984, Conquering Adventure Games, 1984, Mastering dBASE III, 1985, Mastering Excel, 1985, pfs: Software Made Easy, 1985, Better Symphony Spreadsheets, 1986, Designing and Programming Personal Expert Systems, 1986, Mastering dBASE III Plus, 1986, Mastering Expert Systems with Turbo Prolog, 1987, Introduction to Turbo Prolog, 1987, Manager's Guide to the Token Ring Network, 1987.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Bruno Tozzi *** Not in Gale

(1656-1743).  Italian botanist, natural historian.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Tozzi was deeply interested in botany. He collected on his travels for the order, and between 1700 and 1725 he went on many excursions with Micheli, whose teacher and then friend he was. He became good at watercolors in depicting plants. He was especially interested in fungi, lichens, algae, and bryophytes. Tozzi published nothing during his life, but he nevertheless established a reputation among the naturalists (and especially botanists) of all Europe, and he was an important figure in the science of botany. (Saccardo lists a publication of 1703, which others deny to have existed.)  Especially in his old age he also collected information on birds and insects.  His Sylva fungorum, a manuscript, is preserved in the Bibliotheca nazionale in Florence.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was close to other naturalists in his order, and close to Micheli, whom he taught initially and then collaborated with.  He shared his collections and drawings with William Sherard; he carried on active correspondence with Boerhaave, James Petiver, Hans Sloane, and Micheli.

With Micheli he founded the Società Botanica Fiorentina.  He entered the order of the monks of Vallombroso on 14 May 1676. He eventually became abbot of the house at Vallombroso and procurator general of the order in Rome.


John Tradescant (I)

(c. 1570 or 1575-1638). English naturalist, botanist. Naturalist and gardener to Charles I; collected plants and other natural history objects. Anglican.  His son (1608-1662) succeeded to post of royal gardener (1638); added to his father's collection. The collection passed to Elias Ashmole and formed the basis of Oxford's Ashmolean Museum.

The Galileo Project,

The two John Tradescants, father and son, were skilled gardeners with minimal claims to be considered scientists. However, the elder John Tradescant collected everything curious in natural history--minerals, birds, fish, insects, as well as coins, medals, and miscellaneous curiosities. Plantarum in horto Johannum Tradescanti nasentium catalogus, 1634. As gardeners, he and his son introduced a number of new plants into England.

Gardener to the Earl of Salisbury, 1610-14, (mostly at Hatfield, but also at Cranborne in Dorset and at Salisbury House in London).  Salisbury sent him on expeditions to the continent to purchase vines, trees, plants, and flowers for Hatfield House. Salisbury (Robert Cecil) died in 1612; Tradescant continued with the heir until 1614-15.  Gardener to Edward Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, c.1615-23. During this time he joined Sir Dudley Digges' embassy to Russia as a botanist, and brought home some plants. In 1620 he joined an expedition against the Barbary corsairs.  Gardener to the Duke of Buckingham, c.1624-8. He accompanied Buckingham's expedition to La Rochelle in 1628. Buckingham arranged for Tradescant to hold the sinecure of yeoman garnetter at the Whitehalff granary.

Informal Connections: He set up the first botanical garden and museum in England and attracted many naturalists and botanists. Connection with the French gardeners, Jean and Vespasien Robin and René Morin.

English gardener and botanist who travelled widely in Europe and is thought to have introduced the cos lettuce to England from the Greek island of that name. He was appointed gardener to Charles I and was succeeded by his son, John Tradescant the Younger (1608-1662). The younger Tradescant undertook three plant-collecting trips to Virginia in North America.
The Tradescants introduced many new plants to Britain, including the acacia, lilac, and occidental plane. Tradescant senior is generally considered the earliest collector of plants and other natural-history objects.
In 1604 the elder Tradescant became gardener to the earl of Salisbury, who in 1610 for the first time sent him abroad to collect plants. In 1620 he accompanied an official expedition against the North African Barbary pirates and brought back to England gutta-percha and various fruits and seeds. Later, when he became gardener to Charles I, Tradescant set up his own garden and museum in London. In 1624 he published a catalogue of 750 plants grown in his garden.

The Tradescant Collection.

Margaret Hedstrom and John Leslie King.  School of Information, University of Michigan.  "On the LAM:

Library, Archive, and Museum Collections in the Creation and Maintenance of Knowledge Communities,"$FILE/OECD-LAM-Masterwchanges3a.doc


John Tradescant (II)

(1608-1662).  English natural historian, botanist, agriculturalist.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

John Tradescant II and his father introducted a number of new plants into England.  Like his father, Tradescant was a skilled gardener, and his claim to be a scientist is minimal. He did make three expeditions to Virginia, and he collected specimens, especially plants, while he was there.  Musaeum Tradescantianum, 1656. The collection (originally assembled by John Tradescant I, the father) recorded in this publication passed, after Tradescant's death, through the hands of Ashmole to Oxford, where it bears Ashmole's name rather than Tradescant's.

The Tradescants' collection of specimens formed the nucleus of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus named the genus Tradescantia (the spiderworts) after the younger Tradescant.

Member: Company of Master Gardeners of London, 1634.


David G. Truemper / David George Truemper

(Born 1939).  Computer scientist.  Ordained Lutheran minister, 1968; Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, instructor, 1967-72, assistant professor, 1972-77, associate professor of theology, 1977-present. Pastor of St. John Lutheran Church, La Crosse, Indiana, 1979-present. Education: Concordia Senior College, Fort Wayne, Indiana, B.A., 1961; Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Mo., M.Div., 1965, S.T.M., 1969; Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, S.T.D., 1974.

Member: North American Academy of Liturgy (secretary, 1983-present), American Academy of Religion, Societas Liturgica, Institute for Theological Encounter With Science and Technology.

Author: (Contributor) Arthur Carl Piepkorn, ProNewFiles in Belief II, Harper, 1978; (With Frederick A. Niedner, Jr.) Keeping the Faith: A Guide to the Christian Message, Fortress, 1981; (Editor with Daniel C. Brockopp, Brian L. Helge) Christian Initiation, Reborn of Water and the Spirit, Institute of Liturgical Studies (Valparaiso, IN), 1981; (Editor with Daniel C. Brockopp, Brian L. Helge) Church and Ministry: Chosen Race, Royal Priesthood, Holy Nation, God's Own People, Institute of Liturgical Studies (Valparaiso, IN), 1982; (Editor) Sent Forth by God's Blessing: The 1987 Institute of Liturgical Studies, Institute of Liturgical Studies (Valparaiso, IN), 1988.

(Editor with Randall R. Lee) Foundations: Renewing Parish Worship: The 1990 Institute of Liturgical Studies, Institute of Liturgical Studies (Valparaiso, IN), 1991.

Co-editor of "Institute of Liturgical Studies Occasional Papers, " Valparaiso University Press. Contributor of articles and translations to journals, including Cresset, Sixteenth-Century Journal, and Currents in Theology and Mission.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

David Truemper told Contemporary Authors: "Keeping the Faith is an attempt to make contemporary Lutheran theological understandings available to the non-specialist reader. The book is in one sense a kind of narrative catechism, taking the reader through the major elements in the development of Christian doctrine and surveying the essential components of the Christian message. The book reflects my passion that good theological scholarship be made available to the interested amateur reader."

Staff for the Institute of Liturgical Studies, Director: David G. Truemper, Professor and Chair of Theology at Valparaiso University, and Executive Director, Council of Societies for the Study of Religion, Valparaiso, Indiana, Valparaiso University.

"For most of my years at Valpo I have been associated with the Institute of Liturgical Studies, and I have been its director for the past fifteen years. The Institute annually brings about three hundred pastors, church musicians, and worship leaders together for study about the theology and practice of worship. Click here to visit the Institute's Web Site.
Since 1992 I have been Executive Director of the Council on the Study of Religion, an umbrella organization which supports and coordinates the work of about fifteen professional societies in the field of theology and religious studies. The Council publishes the highly-regarded Religious Studies Review, a quarterly journal which annually reviews over a thousand titles in the field. Click here to visit the Council's Web Site.

I play golf and tennis, and I am an incorrigible tinkerer with computers (in fact, I'm a pretty good amateur programmer/application developer). I've been fortunate to have traveled a good deal, and I try to use that experience both to strive to be a globally-conscious person and to help my students to think about theological issues in a global and ecumenical setting."

Personal home page,


Giovanni Trulli / Trullio / Trullius *** Not in Gale

(1598-1661).  Italian-born physician, surgeon.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Trulli was consulted on the blindness of Galileo, and his written opinion in response to Galileo's (lost) description of his symptoms, is the fullest medical document on the blindness. However, he is not wholly lacking in modest scientific credentials even though he never published anything. In connection with the correspondence about Galileo it appears that Trulli had formulated a theory about cataracts. He developed a very high reputation as a surgeon. He proposed to publish a collection of observations and a treatise on aneurisms, although he did not in fact carry through with the plan. Severino carried on a scientific correspondence with him. He became one of the Italian supporters of the circulation of the blood.


Ehrenfried Walther Tschirnhaus *** Not in Gale

(1651-1708).  German mathematician, physicist, chemist, instrument-maker.  Lutheran.

The Galileo Project,

Tschirnhaus made a number of technological advances. He is most noted for the techniques of making hard-paste porcellain. It was Böttcher who actually rediscovered the technique, but Tschirnhaus supervised him at every step of the way. He also developed the techniques for polishing minerals and producing large blanks of optical glass.  He developed a lens polishing machine.  Tschirnhaus clearly saw science as capable of producing certain valuable techniques whose commercial success he sought to harness to support the academy he sought to found.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1682.  After failing to get a paid position at the Acadèmie, Tschirnhaus tried for the rest of his life to get enough support to found a Saxon academy of sciences. His scientific circle included J. "Becker" Hoffman (d. 1703), Mohrendal (d. 1697), Knorr (d. 1699), Paulli, Avon, Schönberg (a noble), and Ohain (a councillor). Tschirnhaus even paid van Gent a salary to act as a correspondent.  He was a contributor from the beginning to the "Acta eruditorum" and a member of this circle.  Connections: He had strong connections with Spinoza, Oldenburg, Huygens, and Leibnitz. However, he was eventually also on bad terms with Leibnitz, Fatio de Dullier, Huygens, La Hire, and Jacob I and Johann I Bernoulli--mostly for publishing their discoveries as his own. (in German) (in German)

Website: (in German)


Paul G.Y. Tsui

Electrical engineer.  Principal staff engineer-scientist, Motorola, Austin, Texas, 1995; Senior staff engineer-scientist, Motorola, Austin, Texas, 1990-95; with device modeling division, Motorola, Austin, Texas, 1988-90; Associate member Research, Philips Labs., Briarcliff Manor, N.Y., 1984-88. Consultant Assistant, Westinghouse, Maryland, 1984; past owner, Nature's Garden Health Stores, Austin.  Education: B, University Waterloo (Ontario, Canada), 1982; M, University Waterloo (Ontario, Canada), 1984.
Member: IEEE (Executive, chair subcommittee bipolar circuits and tech. meeting 1994-96, custom integrated circuits conference 1996-99).  Baptist.

Author: Hot-Carrier Circuit Reliability Simulation, 1992; Contributor of articles to professional journals; inventor in semiconductor field.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


William Tuke *** Not in Gale

 (1732-1822).  A leading philanthropist, William Tuke pioneered a family dynasty dedicated to the care of the insane. He was born into a leading York Society of Friends (Quaker) family, and entered the family tea and coffee merchant business at an early age. When one of the 'Friends' died in the squalid and inhumane conditions of the York Asylum, Tuke was appalled by what he saw there, and brought his appeal to revolutionise the treatment of the insane before the Society of Friends in the spring of 1792.

As a result of his appeal he was able, in 1796, to open the York Retreat (co-founded with his son Henry Tuke (1755-1814).) for the humane care of the insane. This was the first of its kind in England, and pioneered new methods of treatment of the mentally ill.


History of The Retreat at York.

"The Tukes of York."


Samuel Tuke *** Not in Gale

(1784-1857).  American physician.  Son of Henry Tuke. Quaker.  He wrote an account in 1813 of the York Retreat, Description of the Retreat, containing a report on the principles of 'moral therapy', which were considered to be the basis of the therapeutic environment there. Written at the request of his father, the work focused on the abuses common in the madhouses of the time, and gave direction to the urgent need for reform.  His son, James Hack Tuke, aided in the management of the York Retreat, and later focused on famine relief aid to Ireland.



Daniel Hack Tuke *** Not in Gale

(1827-95).  American physician.  Brother of James Hack Tuke, co-wrote (with John Charles Bucknill) the important treatise, A Manual of Psychological Medicine, in 1858, and became a leading physician, dedicated to the study of insanity.  In the 1890s he became an examiner in mental physiology in the University of London and a Lecturer on insanity at Charing Cross Hospital. He was one of the founders and subsequently chairman of the 'After-Care Association,' set up in 1879 to rehabilitate female patients discharged from asylums.


Nicolaas Tulp *** Not in Gale

(1593-1674).  Dutch physician, anatomist, pharmacologist, zoologist.  Calvinist.

The Galileo Project,

Tulp's Observationum medicarum libri tres, 1641, contains 228 case histories.  He proposed the first pharmacopoeia of the Netherlands and apparently supplied most of its contents.  He first described the chimpanzee scientifically.  The Amsterdam Medical College was organized to enforce the decree that demanded sole use of Tulp's pharmacopoeia.


Cuthbert Tunstall / Cuthbert Tunstal /  Cuthbert Tonstall

(1474-1559).  English mathematician, prelate and scholar. Friend of Erasmus and More; employed by Henry VIII and Wolsey on diplomatic missions to emperor (1515-21); master of rolls (1516-22); bishop of London (1522-30); keeper of privy seal (1523); succeeded Wolsey as bishop of Durham (1530). Adhered to Roman Catholic dogma but acquiesced in royal supremacy; voted against first act of uniformity (1549); accused of inciting to rebellion and deprived (1552); restored under Mary (1553), refrained from persecution of Protestants. On accession of Elizabeth, refused oath of supremacy and declined to consecrate Matthew Parker as archbishop of Canterbury, and was deprived (1559).  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Tunstall was an outstanding classical scholar, the friend of both Thomas More and Erasmus. He assisted Erasmus in the preparation of the second edition as his Greek New Testament. He was primarily an official, however, both in the government of England and in the administration of the church. He composed a number of religious works.  De arte supputandi is the first book on arithmetic published in England, based on Pacioli's Suma.. Compiled from the works of others, the book does not make any claim of originality.

Informal Connections: Close friendship with Thomas More, Linacre, and the whole circle of English humanists, and with Erasmus.  Tunstall did not accept the Protestant Reformation. He did temporize with the murderous issue of royal supremacy and held on to his position under both Henry and Edward. He was finally deprived of his position at the end of Edward's reign, was restored under Mary, and then deprived again under Elizabeth less than two months before his death.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Cuthbert Tunstall,"  Tunstall also has the distinction of having the Grynaeus's edition, being the first printed edition, of Euclid's Elements in Greek dedicated to him.


Peter Turner *** Not in Gale

(1586-1652).  English mathematics scholar.  Anglican.  Son of William Turner.

The Galileo Project,

Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1607-48; Professor of geometry at Gresham College, 1620-30; Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, 1630-48.

Turner left no writings. He was known more as a Latinist and linguist. He held two chairs in mathematics, and was said by Wood, for whatever his opinion counts on this subject, to be a learned mathematician.

J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson. "Peter Turner,"


William Turner

(1510-1568). English clergyman, physician, and botanist. Published botanical essay Libellus de re herbaria (1538); became intimate of Konrad Gesner in Zurich, collected plants in Rhine country, and wrote his Newe Herball, first essay on scientific botany in England (pub. 1551). Dean of Wells (1550-53); restored (1560) after living abroad through reign of Mary.

The Galileo Project, (in German)


Theodore Turquet de Mayerne *** Not in Gale

(1573-1655).  Swiss-born physician, iatrochemist, entomologist, pharmacologist, chemist.

The Galileo Project,

Theodore Beza was Turquet's godfather. Turquet resisted efforts to convert him in France. Religion was the ultimate reason for his move to England following the assassination of Henry IV.

Though he was not a prominent scientific figure in his own right, he was influencial in the introduction and support of chemical therapy in medicine. After 1597, Turquet went to Paris and became the protegé of Jean Ribit [Riverius], his teacher at Montpellier and the chief physician to Henry IV. Both Ribit and Turquet endorsed the use of chemical remedies in their practice and fostered the training of apothecaries in the preparation of new medicants. Turquet gave lectures to whatever students would come, which included mostly surgeons and apothecaries.

His advocacy of iatrochemistry embroiled him in a bitter polemic with the Paris Faculty of Medicine. His opposition wrote the Apologia pro medicina Hippocratis & Galeni, contra Mayernium & Quercetanum, in which G. Heron, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, wrote a few paragraphs in support of the diatribe against Turquet and his colleagues. Turquet responded with a written defense of chemical therapy (also titled Apologia). Subsequent attacks from the opposition were instigated by Riolan Sr. and led to the censuring of Turquet. Since by 1603 Turquet had the position of a royal physician, the official censure of the Faculty did not effect his practice at court. However, he ultimately left for England.

He served on the committee that produced the Pharmacopoeia Londonensis in 1618.  He was the first in England to establish definitively the clinical study of medicine and recording observations as in "case studies."

The year after receiving a fourteen year monopoly for the production of distilled spirits and vinegars in London he published The Distiller of London. In 1644 he published Prophylactica, a set of precautions for the plague. Among his other writings are travel logs and a culinary guide to French cooking. In fact, Turquet did not contribute greatly to medicine, but after his death a number of his writings were published posthumously, especially Mayernii opera medica.  He was the editor of Mouffet's posthumous book on insects; the prefatory epistle indicates that he had considerable knowledge of the subject.

Turquet endorsed and helped introduce Paracelsian chemical remedies. He brought calomel into use. He was the first to prepare mercurial lotion (black wash). He had a hand in the Pharmacopaeia Londonensis, 1618. About half of his posthumous Opera medica is devoted to a pharmacopoeia.  He also developed pigments and enamels, especially the purple necessary for carnations tints in enamels. Among his friends were several artists, Rubens, Van Dyke, Peter Lely, and Jean Petitot. He composed a manuscript treatise on pigments for painters.

In 1616 he was elected fellow to the Royal College of Physicians. Upon his death he bequethed his library to this organization.


David J. Tyler, BSc, MSc, Ph.D., CertEd, MinstP, CPhys, ACFI*** Not in Gale
Physicist, management science.  Senior Lecturer, Centre manager, Manchester Metropolitan University. Faculty webpage, Department of Clothing Design and Technology, faculty of Food, Clothing & Hospitality Management, Manchester Metropolitan University,

David Tyler has a background in the physical sciences with a BSc in Physics from Southampton University (1968) and an MSc in physics, by research, from Loughborough University (1972). He gained a Ph.D. in the area of management science from the University of Manchester (1990). His involvement with the Apparel industry began when he sought to analyse industrial problems from the physicist's perspective (1968-1976, Hatra, Nottingham). This led to employment within the industry, initially as a technologist and then as a manager (1976-1979, Courtaulds Ltd., Coventry). After joining the Department of Clothing Design and Technology at Manchester Metropolitan University, he has pursued a number of research interests related to responsive manufacturing and systems modelling. Earlier work was concerned with flow line systems and management strategies to optimise performance. Research interests over the past decade relate to teamworking in new product development and its relation to operational practices, and the optimisation of performance of textile/apparel supply chains. Since March 2000, he has managed the North West Advanced Apparel Systems Centre, a European-funded initiative to support clothing and textile companies in NW England.

1990-present Senior Lecturer, Manchester Metropolitan University;1988-present Member of the Institute of Physics;1979-present Member of The Textile Institute.

Holden Medal Recipient 1995.


Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Edward Tyson

1650-1708.  English physician, anatomist, natural historian. Practiced in London (from 1677). Pioneered in comparative anatomy; compared human and simian similarities and differences in Orang-Outang (1699).  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

In Oxford Tyson became interested in natural history. His manuscripts contain considerable material on this study, including detailed descriptions of a number of plants and of such species as the sea-anenome.  Tyson published more than two dozen articles in the Philosophical Transactions on anatomy, natural history, morbid anatomy and pathology. He was a pioneer in correlating post mortem dissections with specific diseases. He discovered the "Tyson glands" in the penis.

He was a leader in comparative anatomy: Phocaena, or the Anatomy of a Porpess, 1680, which contains an extensive discussion of his idea of a natural history of animals based on comparative anatomy. Later he added an anatomy of a rattlesnake and of some other animals. He contributed two descriptions of fish to Willoughby's History of Fishes, 1686. In 1698 an anatomy of a female opossum and in 1704 of a male. 1699: Orang-Outang (a chimpanzee)--this was his most important work. His manuscripts contain many more descriptions and dissections than he found time from his medical practice to publish. Incidentally, he used the microscope in many of his dissections.  He also published on medicine in Bartholin's Acta medica.

Informal Connections: Strongly influenced by Plot when he was young; he maintained a correspondence on natural history with Plot until Plot's death. Close relationship with Hooke after 1678. Collaboration with Samuel Collins on his System of Anatomy, and later with William Cowper who collaborated with Tyson in some of Tyson's work. Friendship with the Danish physician Holger Jacobeus.  He was part of the Oxford Group and later was elected to the Oxford Philosophical Society in 1686.  Member, Royal Society, 1679; Council in 1681 and many later years.  Member, Royal College of Physicians, 1683; Censor, 1694.

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]