Possible Christians (Unconfirmed) or Questionable Status


*  *  *


Possible Christians, unconfirmed


James Noel Baptist

(Born June 6, 1930 in Shelbyville, Illinois, United States).  Biochemist.  Achievements include research in hydrocarbon oxidation by cell free bacterial enzymes, microbial taxonomy by zone electrophoresis of enzymes, bacterial mutations visualized by enzyme zone electrophoresis, protein purification. Biology researcher, El Paso, Texas, 1987; biology researcher, Kerrville, Texas, 1980-87; biologist, M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston, 1968-79; self-employed biochemist, Bradenton, Florida, 1965-68; microbiologist, International Minerals and Chemicals Co., Skokie, Illinois, 1963-65; biochemist, W.R. Grace & Co., Clarksville, Maryland, 1959-63; chemist, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 1952-54.  Education: BS, Case Institute Technology, 1952; Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1957; postgraduate, University of Michigan, 1957-59.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Ian G. Barbour / Ian Graeme Barbour

(Born 1923 in Peking, China).  Theistic evolutionist.  Ian G. Barbour is a physicist, theologian, author, and winner of the 1999 Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion. He is also the Winifred and Atherton Bean Professor Emeritus of Science, Technology and Society at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota, 1981-86.  Previous positions: Professor religion and physics, Carleton College, 1965-81; Chairman dept. religion, Carleton College, 1956-71; Professor Emeritus, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, 1986; member faculty, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, 1955-86; Associate Professor, Chairman dept., Kalamazoo College, 1951-53; Assistant Professor physics, Kalamazoo College, 1949-51.  Worked for three years fighting forest fires in Oregon, c. 1943-45.  Education: BA, Swarthmore College, 1943; MA, Duke University, 1946; Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1950; B.D., Yale University, 1956.

Member: Ford Faculty Fellow, 1953-54; Kent Fellow, 1954-55; recipient Harbison award for disting. teaching Danforth Foundation, 1963; American Council Learned Societys Fellow, 1963-64; Guggenheim and Fulbright Fellow, 1967-78; National Endowment Humanities Fellow, 1976-77; National Humanities Center Fellow, 1980-81.

Awards: American Academy of Religion annual book award, 1993; Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, John Templeton Foundation, 1999.

As a well-known pioneer in the growing field of Science and Religion, Dr. Barbour established his reputation as an interdisciplinary scholar by way of his influential book, Issues In Science And Religion, first published in 1965. Since that time he has authored many additional books and articles. For example, his book Myths, Models And Paradigms, 1974, has served as a useful tool for those persons who wish to study the methodologies and approaches of scientists and scholars of religion. As a follow-up to delivering his Gifford Lectures (1989-91), Dr. Barbour also published Religion In An Age Of Science, 1990, and Ethics In An Age Of Technology, 1992. In recent years, his book entitled Religion And Science: Historical And Contemporary Issues, 1997, has often been used as a course textbook. Dr. Barbour's latest book is When Science Meets Religion: Enemies, Strangers Or Partners?, 2000.  His earlier works include Christianity and the Scientist, 1960, Science and Religion: New Perspectives on the Dialogue, 1968, Science and Secularity: The Ethics of Technology, 1970, Earth Might Be Fair, 1972, Western Man and Environmental Ethics, 1973, Finite Resources and the Human Future, 1976, Technology, Environment and Human Values, 1980, Energy and American Values, 1982; member editorial board, Process Studies, Zygon, Research in Philosophy and Technology; author numerous articles.


Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Ian Graeme Barbour.  May 28, 1999. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/june99/barbour_bio.html:

"Ian Barbour's Issues in Science and Religion, published in 1965, has been credited with literally creating the contemporary field of science and religion. Barbour has also written and spoken extensively about ethical issues arising from the technological applications of science. As a physicist and theologian familiar with both these disciplines, which had long been considered separate domains, his writings have influenced an entire generation of scientists, religious scholars, church leaders and laity."


Lytle Houston Blankenship

(Born March 1, 1927).  Wildlife research scientist, educator. Certified wildlife biologist, Michigan Department of Conservation, Lansing, 1954-56; research biologist, Minnesota Division Game & Fish, St. Paul, 1956-61, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Tucson, 1961-69; research scientist Caesar Kleberg wildlife program Texas A&M University, Nairobi, Kenya, 1969-72; Professor, research scientist Texas Agricultural Expt. Station, Uvalde, 1972; Consultant World Bank in Kenya, Organization of American States in Dominican Republic; Visiting Lecturer University Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1978; workshop consultant for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to India, 1981, 82.  Education:  B.S., Texas A&M University, 1950; M.S., University of Minnesota, 1952; Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1956.

Trustee, Uvalde Community Christian School Wildlife Management Institute grantee, 1950-51; Michigan State University fellow; People-to-People program fellow, 1968. Member The Wildlife Society (International affairs committee 1971-86, council 1979-present, President 1986, Outstanding Service award Texas chapter), Wildlife Disease Association, East African Wildlife Society, Wildlife Society South Wildlife Society South Africa, Audubon Society Democrat. Baptist. Clubs: Uvalde Lions, Lions International (district governor 1981-82), Uvalde County Aggie, Uvalde Band and Choir Booster (President 1974-75).

Contributor of numerous articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Father, Sir William Henry Bragg, was Christian

Sir William Lawrence Bragg

(1890-1971).  Youngest man ever to win Nobel Prize, 1915, for research in X-rays. William Lawrence Bragg is most famous for his law on the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. Bragg's law makes it possible to calculate the positions of the atoms within a crystal from the way in which an X-ray beam is diffracted by the crystal lattice. Bragg established the Medical Research Council's Laboratory of Molecular Biology (which revealed the double helix of DNA) and research into radio astronomy, which resulted in the radio telescopes at the Mullard Observatory and the discovery of quasars and pulsars.




Dame Kathleen Lonsdale. "Bragg, Sir Lawrence," http://www.britannica.com/nobel/micro/83_18.html





Vinton G. Cerf / Vinton Gray Cerf / Vinton Cerf

(Born June 23, 1943 in New Haven, Connecticut).  Computer scientist.  Co-founder of the Internet.

From http://www.icann.org/biog/cerf.htm:

"Vinton G. Cerf is senior vice president of Technology Strategy for MCI. In this role, Cerf is responsible for helping to guide corporate strategy development from the technical perspective. In the fast moving world of telecommunications and Internet technology development, technical capabilities can have a critical impact on the success of corporate business strategies including product and service development, infrastructure investment and strategic acquisitions and partnerships. From 1994-2003, Cerf served as senior vice president of architecture and technology, moving to a strategic role in mid-2003.

Widely known as one of the "Fathers of the Internet," Cerf is the co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. In December 1997, President Clinton presented the U.S. National Medal of Technology to Cerf and his partner, Robert E. Kahn, for founding and developing the Internet.

Prior to rejoining MCI in 1994, Cerf was vice president of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI). As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982-1986, he led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial email service to be connected to the Internet.

During his tenure from 1976-1982 with the U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related data packet and security technologies.

Vint Cerf serves as chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Cerf served as founding president of the Internet Society from 1992-1995 and in 1999 served a term as chairman of the Board. In addition, Cerf is honorary chairman of the IPv6 Forum, dedicated to raising awareness and speeding introduction of the new Internet protocol. Cerf served as a member of the U.S. Presidential Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) from 1997 to 2001 and serves on several national, state and industry committees focused on cyber-security. Cerf sits on the Board of Directors for the Endowment for Excellence in Education, Folger Shakespeare Library, Gallaudet University, the MarcoPolo Foundation, Digex, Incorporated, Avanex Corporation, Nuance Corporation, CoSine Corporation and the Hynomics Corporation. Cerf is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, and American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum and the National Academy of Engineering.

Cerf is a recipient of numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet. These include the Marconi Fellowship, Charles Stark Draper award of the National Academy of Engineering, the Prince of Asturias award for science and technology, the Alexander Graham Bell Award presented by the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, the NEC Computer and Communications Prize, the Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Award, the ACM Software and Systems Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the Computer and Communications Industries Association Industry Legend Award, the Yuri Rubinsky Web Award, the Kilby Award , the Yankee Group/Interop/Network World Lifetime Achievement Award, the George R. Stibitz Award, the Werner Wolter Award, the Andrew Saks Engineering Award, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Leadership Award, the J.D. Edwards Leadership Award for Collaboration, World Institute on Disability Annual award and the Library of Congress Bicentennial Living Legend medal.

In December, 1994, People magazine identified Cerf as one of that year's "25 Most Intriguing People."

In addition to his work on behalf of WorldCom and the Internet, Cerf has served as a technical advisor to production for Gene Roddenberry's Earth: Final Conflict. and made a special guest appearance on the program in May 1998. Cerf has appeared on television programs NextWave with Leonard Nimoy and on World Business Review with Alexander Haig and Caspar Weinberger. Cerf also holds an appointment as distinguished visiting scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he is working on the design of an interplanetary Internet.

Cerf holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Stanford University and Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from UCLA. He also holds honorary Doctorate degrees from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich; Lulea University of Technology, Sweden; University of the Balearic Islands, Palma; Capitol College, Maryland; Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania; George Mason University, Virginia; Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; and University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands."

Cerf was raised in a strict, patriotic, Protestant family, but his imagination ran wild between the rocket tests and his love of science fiction, which he still harbors.

 "Cerf's Up," http://global.mci.com/us/enterprise/insight/cerfs_up/index.xml

Professional Biography of Vinton G. Cerf, http://global.mci.com/us/enterprise/insight/cerfs_up/personal_perspective/bio.xml






Statement of Dr. Vinton G. Cerf, Senior Vice President of Internet Architecture & Technology, MCI WorldCom For the Joint Economic Committee, February 23, 2000, http://www.cdt.org/security/dos/000223senate/cerf.html


Vinton G. Cerf Oral History, http://www.cwheroes.org/oral_history_archive/vinton_g_cerf/oralhistory.pdf

"Vinton Cerf (1943-), 2000 Fellow Award Recipient, For his contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering," http://www.computerhistory.org/events/hall_of_fellows/cerf/



James Cronin / James W. Cronin / James Watson Cronin

(Born 1931).

 Physicist, educator. Shared 1980 Nobel Prize in physics with Val Fitch for researching K-mesons, one of several contributions he has made to elementary particle physics. The laws of symmetry, which state that the amount of a substance's charge, energy, or matter aren't altered by internal changes or reactions, were once considered to be a fundamental part of physical law.  James Cronin has devoted significant time and energy to tracking cosmic rays that are somehow traveling through the earth's atmosphere and landing in places where, according to the rules of physics, their existence should be impossible. For his investigation of this mystery, Cronin received the 1999 National Medal of Science.

Professor emeritus physics and astronomy, University Chicago; Professor physics and astronomy, University of Chicago, 1971; Professor physics, Princeton, 1965-1971; Assistant Professor, Princeton, 1958-1965; Assistant physicist, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1955-1958.  Loeb Lecturer physics Harvard University, 1967; participant early development spark chambers; co-discoverer CP-violation, 64; Lecturer Nashima Foundation, 1993.  Education: AB, Southern Methodist University (1951); Ph.D., University of Chicago; D, University Paris, 1995; D, University Leeds, 1996; D, University Pierre & Marie Curie, 1994; DSc, University Leeds, 1996.

Member: NAS (council member), American Physics Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society.

Honors: Decorated chevalier Legion of Honor (France); recipient Research Corporation America award, 1967; National Academy of Sciences, 1970; University Professor of Physics, 1971; John Price Wetherill Medal of the Franklin Institute, 1975; John Price Wetherill medal, Franklin Institute, 1976; Ernest O. Lawrence award, ERDA, 1977; Nobel prize for Physics, 1980; Laureate, Lincoln Academy of Illinois (Medal of the Order of Lincoln), 1981; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1982; Ryerson Lecturer, 1990; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship, 1992; Quantrell Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, 1994; Docteur honoris causa, l'Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 1994; Honorary degree, University of Leeds, 1996; National Medal of Science, 1999; Foreign Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003.

Member: Fellow Guggenheim, 1982-83; Sloan Fellow, 1964-66, Guggenheim Fellow, 1970-71.

The Nobel Foundation.  http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1980/cronin-autobio.html




Yoshio Fukui

(Born January 4, 1942 in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan, came to U.S., 1985).  Biology educator.  Associate Professor cell, molecular, structural biology (tenured), Northwestern University, Chicago, 1989; Visiting Associate Professor, Northwestern University, Chicago, 1985-89; Associate Professor, Osaka University, 1978-85; Research Associate, Princeton (N.J.) University, 1977-78; Assistant Professor, Osaka University, 1974-77; Research Associate Professor, Osaka University, 1972-74. Professor cell molecular biology, Yamada exch. scientist Yamada Science Foundation, Osaka, 1978; Yoshida exchange visitor Yoshida Chemical Foundation, Tokyo, 1983.  Education: BA, International Christian University, 1966; MS, Osaka (Japan) University, 1969; Ph.D., Osaka (Japan) University, 1972.

Member: Cooperation of Marine Biological Lab. (Woods Hole, Mass.), American Society for Cell Biology, Society Advancement of Science, N.Y. Academy Sciences (elected), Japan Society for Cell Biologist (Tokyo).

Honors: Recipient Matsunaga Research award Matsunaga Meml. Foundation, Tokyo, 1976; Research grantee NIH, 1988.

Contributor of articles to professional journals. including Nature, Proc. National Academy of Science Journal Cell Biology, International Rev. Cytology, others.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Yoshio Fukui, Ph. D., Cell Motility Research Laboratory, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, http://pubweb.nwu.edu/~yoshifk/fukui.html



Walter Bryan Gallaher

(Born April 26, 1931 in Mahoning County, Ohio, United States).  Biologist, ecologist.  Supervising biologist, Waterway's Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1976-80; supervising biologist, C.E. U.S. Army, Dallas, 1980; biologist, C.E. U.S. Army, Ft. Worth, 1971-76; instructor, Texas A&M University, College Station, 1969-71; Teacher, Warren (Ohio) City Schools, 1963-67; Teacher, Jackson Milton High School, North Jackson, Ohio, 1959-61.  Education: BS, Youngstown (Ohio) State University, 1963; postgraduate, Kent (Ohio) State University, 1964-67; MS, Texas A&M University, 1968; Ph.D., Texas A&M University, 1974.

Member: Ecological Society of America, Elks Club.  President, Openwood Homeowners Association, Vicksburg, 1976-79; Member technical advisory board Texas Water Devel. Board, 1983-87.  NSF fellow, 1967-78, Texas Christian University fellow, 1971-73.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Claude Joseph Geoffroy / referred to as Geoffroy the Younger by the Académie and www.59.1911encyclopedia.org (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) *** Not in Gale

(1685-1752).  Apothecary, chemist, botanist.  Younger brother of Étienne-François Geoffroy.

Claude Joseph Geoffroy, having a considerable knowledge of botany, devoted himself especially to the study of the essential oils in plants. 

Raise of Tournefort, botanist on March 23, 1707, associated botanist on May 14, 1711, associated chemist on December 7, 1715, boarder chemist on May 14, 1723.

Member: Académie Royal des Sciences.


http://www.enc.sorbonne.fr/cataloguevente/voir.php?fiche=09 (in French)


Claude-François Geoffroy / also referred to as Geoffroy the Younger by multiple sources re: Bismuth *** Not in Gale
(1729-1753).  Apothecary, chemist.  Son of Claude Joseph Geoffroy.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences.  Associated supernumerary chemist on August 25, 1752

In 1753, he showed that the metal Bismuth was distinct from lead in the Mémoires de l'académie francaise.

http://www.enc.sorbonne.fr/cataloguevente/voir.php?fiche=09 (in French)


Samuel Guthrie

(1782-1848).  American chemist and physician, Dr. Samuel Guthrie made chloroform in 1830 prior to the independent discoveries by Eugène Soubeiran in France (1831) and Justus von Liebig in Germany (1832).  It was used first in amputations at Sackets Harbor, NY, where he settled after serving as surgeon in the War of 1812.  He invented the percussion compound for firearms, which made the flintlock musket obsolete. 

Lyman C. Newell.  "Samuel Guthrie."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936:

To the country at large he was most acceptably known as the inventor and manufacturer of an effective priming powder, called the "percussion pill," and the punch lock for exploding it, which together replaced the flash-in-the-pan type of powder and made the old-fashioned flint-lock musket obsolete. He had a laboratory near his house where he performed experiments, and a mill about a mile away where he manufactured for many years large quantities of this powder and other explosives (e.g., potassium chlorate and mercury fulminate). In 1830 he devised a process for the rapid conversion of potato starch into molasses, and in July 1831 sent Benjamin Silliman [q.v.] a description of his process together with a sample of the product. To Silliman he also sent samples of crystallized potassium chlorate, of numerous varieties of powder, of oil of turpentine, and of "spirituous solution of chloric ether." His letters describing these chemical substances were published with editorial comment in the American Journal of Science during 1832 and reprinted, probably in the same year, as The Complete Writings of Samuel Guthrie (n.d.). The "chloric ether" made by Guthrie in 1831 by distilling chloride of lime with alcohol in a copper still proved to be chloroform, and the discovery antedated slightly the independent discoveries of the same compound made at practically the same time by Soubeiran in France and Liebig in Germany.

Dr. Samuel Guthrie House, http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/county/jefferson/hounsfield/guthriehome.html



Professor In-Kyu Han / In K. Han *** Not in Gale

(Born 1934) Agriculturalist.  Currently President, Korea Academy of Science & Technology; Professor Emeritus, Seoul National University, Korea.  Check webpage for further references.

Honors: Society Science Award, Korean Society of Animal Science, 1969; Korea Government Science Award (Ministry of Science & Technology), 1971; Achievement Award, Korean Society of Animal Science, 1971; Outstanding Service Award, Korean Society of Poultry Science, 1976; Science Award, Korean Society of Animal Nutrition and Feedstuffs, 1987;1st Purina Korea Nutrition and Feed Award, 1991;1st International Award of Animal Science, AAAP, Thailand, 1992; Sang-Huh Academy Award, Korea, 1995; Nokjo Medal of Civil Merit. 2000

Webpage: http://plaza.snu.ac.kr/~inkhan/11.html

Seoul National University, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Division of Nutricional Sciences: http://plaza.snu.ac.kr/~inkhan/e_main.html


Dr. Ho's father is Christian.

David Da-I Ho

Molecular biologist David Da-I Ho (born 1952) has dedicated his career to identifying a cure for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). His greatest contribution to the worldwide battle against AIDS came in 1996 when he combined state-of-the art AIDS medications in a way that stopped the progression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which leads to the deadly AIDS condition.


Sir William Jenner

(1815-1898). English physician and anatomist. Established separate identities of typhus and typhoid fevers (1847); Professor at University College, London (from 1849); physician-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria (1862).

University College London: Jenner Letters. http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search2?coll_id=4225&inst_id=13


Chuang Fong Kong

(Born April 8, 1962 in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, came to U.S., 1981).  Molecular biologist.  Laboratory Manager, Analytical Reference Laboratories Pty Ltd (ARL), a specialist medical diagnostics company,which is 100% Australian and independently owned.  Previous posts:  Research scientist, Linus Pauling Institute of Sciences & Medicines, Palo Alto, California, 1990; Assistant instructor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 1988-90.  BS, University of Oklahoma, 1983; Ph.D., Texas Christian University, 1988.

Member: AAAS, Phi Lambda Epsilon, Alpha Lambda Delta.

Texas Christian University fellow, 1985-88.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

"Welcome to Dr Chuang Fong Kong," The Path, vol 1, December 2000, Issue 2, http://www.arlaus.com.au/thepath/issue1-2.inc.php

"Recently, ARL announced the appointment of Dr. Chuang Fong Kong as Laboratory Manager. With the expanding role of our scientific team and current market demands, Dr Kong brings a wealth of experience to this role. Before joining ARL Dr Kong was Head of the Microarray Facility at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute (PMCI) - Trescowthick Research Laboratories in Melbourne. The PMCI is Australia's leading specialist oncology centre with major programs in patient care and training of clinical and research staff in addition to globally-competitive research capabilities in the fields of cancer initiation, progression, detection
and treatment. Dr Kong's postdoctoral training included appointments at the University of Texas, the Linus
Pauling Institute and BioCircuit in California."


Paul Lemoine *** Not in Gale

(1878-1940) Geologist, director of the Paris Natural History Museum, president of the Geological Society of France and editor of Encyclopedie Francaise.


Sir William Boog Leishman

(1865-1926).  Scottish physician, bacteriologist who discovered the protozoan parasite that causes the group of diseases now known as leishmaniasis.  Perfected the typhoid vaccine in 1913.

"Behind the Frieze - Sir William Leishman (1865-1926)," http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/library/archives/leishman.html

People look at the name of Sir William Leishman and assume that he was of German origin but he was a Scot, born and bred in Glasgow. He was sent to London for his education at Westminster School before returning to Glasgow for his medical education. He qualified in 1885 at the early age of 20 and the following year obtained a commission in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Unusually for the time he took a microscope with him when he was ordered to India to receive his baptism of fire in a punitive military expedition to Waziristan on the Indian frontier. It was in India that he developed an interest in kala azar with which his name is permanently associated.

On his return to England he went to the Army Medical School at Netley, where he worked with Almroth Wright on typhoid vaccine. In 1900 Leishman was appointed Assistant Professor of Pathology at the Army Medical School and evolved the modification of Romanowsky's stain known as Leishman's stain. He used this to stain the elusive parasites which, at the suggestion of Ronald Ross, became known as Leishmania donovani as Leishman and Charles Donovan discovered them independently and published their findings within a few weeks of each other.

When the Royal Army Medical College moved to Millbank in 1903 Leishman succeeded Wright in the Chair of Pathology and continued his work on anti-typhoid vaccine which resulted in the successful protection of the troops during the First World War. He also traced part of the life cycle of the spirochaete.

During the war he held many advisory posts in England and in France and was awarded international honours.

"WILLIAM BOOG LEISHMAN (1865-1926)," http://www.hhmi.ucla.edu/C168/history/leishman.html. From: A History of Tropical Medicine by H. Scott, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1939)


Leishman discovered the protozoan parasite responsible for dumdum, or kala-azar, fever, now known as Leishmaniasis. He also developed the clinical technique known as the Leishman stain, which is still used today to detect protozoan parasites such as plasmodium (the cause of malaria). Leishman is also noted for his work with Sir Almroth Wright on the vaccine for typhoid, and helped to elucidate the life cycle of the spirochaete Spirochaeta duttoni, which causes African tick fever.





Dr. Carlos U. Leon-Velarde *** Not in Gale

Livestock Systems Specialist, Lima, Peru.  International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  Born in Iquitos, Peru.  Graduated from the National Agrarian University, La Molina, Lima, Peru, in Animal Science.  MSc in Animal Production at Tropical Agronomic Research and Training Centre in Costa Rica, and a Ph.D. in Animal Breeding at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.


Annie Russell Maunder *** Not in Gale

Annie Russell Maunder (1868-1947) specialized in sunspot research with her husband, Edward Walter Maunder, detecting dark spots appearing on the sun's surface. In 1898, she obtained a photograph of a solar prominence (a cloud of gas arising from the atmosphere of the sun) six solar radii in length-the largest captured on film up to that time. Maunder was also active in the British Astronomical Association, serving as vice-president of the association several times up to 1942, and planning the general form of their official journal ( Journal of the British Astronomical Association ) and serving as editor from 1894 to 1896 and from 1917 to 1930. She also held a paid position at the Greenwich Observatory, at the time a distinction most unusual for a woman.


Steve A. Maxwell

(Born September 19, 1956 in Lubbock, Texas, United States).  Molecular biologist, researcher.  Achievements include finding protein serine kinase activity intrinsic to an oncogene protein. This was first example of an encogene encoding a serine kinuse; discovered several novel proteins that bind to the p53 tumor suppressor gene products.  Assistant Professor, University of Texas, 1991; post-doctoral, Baylor College Medicine, Houston, 1988-90; post-doctoral, University of Texas, Houston, 1985-87.  Education: BS, BA, Abilene Christian University, 1980; MS, Ph.D., University of Texas, 1985.

Member: N.Y. Academy Sciences, American Association Cancer Research, American Association Advancement of Science.

Honors: Recipient NIH First Investigator award National Cancer Institute, 1993, Research grant Texas Higher Education Authority, 1991.

Author: (book chapter) SV40 T-antigen as a Dual Oncogene, 1989; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Faculty webpage, http://medicine.tamu.edu/pathology/Maxwell/


Andrew Millar *** Not in Gale

Molecular cell biologist.   University of Warwick, Department of Biological Sciences, 1996-present - Lecturer, Reader, Professor.  University of Virginia, NSF Centre for Biological Timing, 1994-1995 - LSRF post-doc' Fellowship; The Rockefeller University, New York, 1988-1994 - Ph.D.; University of Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College,1985-1988 - BA Honors (I) in Genetics; University prizes for Botany, 1987, for Genetics, 1988; European School of Luxembourg - European Baccalaureate. BBSRC Research Development Fellow (2002-2005).

Andrew Millar co-manages the Interdisciplinary Programme for Cellular Regulation, with Dr. Nigel Burroughs (Maths) and is co-ordinator of the Genomic Arabidopsis Resource Network (GARNet).

Webpage at University of Warwick: http://www.bio.warwick.ac.uk/res/frame.asp?ID=27

The Millar Research Group.  http://template.bio.warwick.ac.uk/staff/amillar/index.htm

Contact information and brief biography: http://template.bio.warwick.ac.uk/staff/amillar/contact.html


Peter R. Mills

(Born 1962).  Archaeologist.  University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, temporary archaeologist, 1984-85; Washington State University, Pullman, WA, coordinator of lithic laboratory and assistant to curator of Museum of Anthropology, 1985-87; Massachusetts Historical Commission, preservation planner and assistant state archaeologist, 1988-90; University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, visiting Assistant Professor of archaeology, 1996-97; University of Hawaii--Hilo, Hilo, HI, Assistant Professor, 1997-2002, Associate Professor of anthropology, 2002-present. Bureau of Land Management, survey archaeologist in Richfield District of Utah, 1984; Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, staff archaeologist, 1986; University of Idaho, field archaeologist, 1986; Bureau of Indian Affairs, survey archaeologist and ethnologist for Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Office, 1987; University of Alaska, field archaeologist and lithic analyst at Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center, 1990; Bernice P. Bishop Museum, project codirector in Applied Research Group, 1990-91; Biosystems Analysis, Inc., field survey director in Hawaii, 1993; Earthwatch, assistant director of survey and excavation at La Perouse Bay, Easter Island, 1995. John Young Homestead, operator of archaeological field school, 1999; Laupahoehoe Train Museum, member of board of directors, 2000; volunteer for local community service projects; conference presenter; public speaker.  Education: University of Vermont, B.A. (with honors), 1984; Washington State University, M.A., 1987; University of California--Berkeley, Ph.D., 1996.

Member: Society for Hawaiian Archaeology (member of board of directors, 2000-02), East Hawai'i Historical Society (first vice president and member of board of directors, 2000).

Author: A Walk through History: Pedestrian Survey of the Old Government Beach Road, Honalo to Honua'ino, North Kona, Hawai'i Island, two volumes, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (Honolulu, HI), 2000; Hawai'i's Russian Adventure: A New Look at Old History, University of Hawaii Press (Honolulu, HI), 2002.

Contributor of articles and reviews to periodicals, including Journal of Pacific History, Asian Perspectives, Hawaiian Journal of History, Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, Preservation Advocate, Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin, and Kiva. Editor, Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Newsletter, 2000-02; member of editorial board, Rapa Nui Journal, 2000-present.

Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2004.

Peter R. Mills.  http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/~anthro/mills.htm


William Thomas Green Morton

(1819-1868). American dentist.  Practiced in Boston (from 1842); associated one year (1842-43) with Horace Wells (q.v.); from Charles T. Jackson, a professor of chemistry, learned of experiments with sulfuric ether as an anesthetizing agent; tested ether on animals and on himself, and finally (Sept. 30, 1846) on a patient; a fortnight later (Oct. 16, 1846) at Mass. General Hospital, Dr. John C. Warren removed tumor from the neck of a patient anesthetized by Morton's process. Morton and Jackson received patent for use of "letheon" (1846); Morton's claims and attempts to profit largely by the discovery brought conflicting claims from Jackson, Horace Wells, and Crawford W. Long; last years embittered by controversy, litigation, and poverty.

"William Thomas Green Morton." World of Health. Gale Group, 2000: "Several people had used ether as an anesthetic before Morton. Another dentist, Dr. Elijah Pope, extracted a patient's tooth using ether in January, 1842. Two months later, Crawford Williamson Long, a physician, used ether to remove cysts from a patient's neck. Neither Pope nor Long publicized their applications of ether, and so Morton was first given credit for using ether as an anesthetic."



Jacek Plazinski

(Born May 31, 1951 in Krakow, Poland, arrived in Australia, 1981).  Molecular biologist, researcher.  Certification: Microbiology and genetics diplomate. Senior Research fellow, Australian National University, Canberra, 1990; Research fellow, Australian National University, Canberra, 1984-89; National Research fellow, Australian National University, Canberra, 1982-84; Senior Adjunct, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, 1979-81. Visiting fellow Biological Research Center., Szeged, Hungary, 1979-80; Visiting Professor University Agr., Vienna, Austria, 1980-81; Consultant International Christian University, Tokyo, 1997, Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, 1985-90, Patent Office, Canberra, 1990-91.  Education: MSc, University Krakow, 1976; Ph.D., Jagiellonian University, Krakow, 1980.

Author book, 1990; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


"Dr. Jacek Plazinski has been scientific adviser in the Office of the Chief Plant Protection Officer in the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia since 1998. Prior to his appointment as adviser on agricultural biotechnology, Dr Plazinski was a research scientist studying molecular biology of crop plants and agricultural microorganisms for over 25 years. 

"Dr. Plazinski has held academic appointments at several universities in the USA, UK, Poland, and Australia. "He has published approximately 100 research papers and books in a field of molecular genetics. 

"He is editor of a number of scientific journals and participates regularly in international symposia.  

"He has served on many scientific committees for the Australian Government and international organisations."


 Elizabeth Wagner Reed

(Born August 27, 1912 in Baguio, The Philippines, came to U.S., 1916).  Retired biologist.  With public school system, St. Paul, Mpls., 1969-73; Assistant Professor, Minnesota Mathematics and Science Teaching, Mpls., 1966-69; researcher, Dight Institute, Mpls., 1948-65; Assistant Professor Research drosophila, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1947-48; Assistant Professor Research drosophila, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, 1945-46; Assistant Professor, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1944-45; researcher, Ohio State Research Foundation, Columbus, 1943-44; biology instructor, Atlantic Christian College, Wilson, N.C., 1938-40; researcher on fungicides, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1936-37. Lecturer biology University Minnesota, Mpls., 1960-69; Assistant Professor Macalester College, St. Paul, 1967-68, Hamline University, St. Paul, 1973.  Education: BA, Ohio State University, 1933; MA, Ohio State University, 1934; Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1936.

Member: Fellow AAAS; Women in Science, Sigma Delta Epsilon, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi.  Active NOW, St. Paul, 1980, National Abortion Rights, St. Paul, 1980, Nature Conservancy, St. Paul, 1980, Minnesota Hort. Society, St. Paul, 1981, Zero Population Growth, St. Paul, 1978.

Author: (with others) Mental Retardation, 1962; Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Peter Christian Semm

(Born May 13, 1948 in Helmstedt, Germany).  Biologist.  Achievements include patent in Melatonin as a Sleep Inductor.  Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Frankfurt, Germany, 1992.  Education: Diplom, University Kôln, Germany, 1975; Ph.D., University of Mainz, Germany, 1977.

Member: European Bioelectromagnetics Association (board Member, Director 1992).

Honor: Recipient Heisenberg award German Research Council, 1986.

European editor, Bioelectromagnetics, 1996.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Hideo Shinagawa

(Born February 2, 1942 in Fujimi, Gumma, Japan).  Molecular biologist, educator.  Professor, Osaka University, Suita, 1993; Associate Professor, Osaka University, Suita, 1987-93; instructor, Osaka University, Suita, 1971-87. Senior Research fellow University Newcastle upon Tyne, Eng., 1975-76.  Education: BA, International Christian University, Tokyo, 1964; MS, Osaka University, 1966; Ph.D., Osaka University, 1971; MA, Princeton University, 1969.

Member: American Society for Microbiology, Genetics Society Japan, Japanese Society for Molecular Biology.

Member editorial board Journal Bacteriology, 1992-97; editor-in-chief: Genes and Genetic Systems, 1999.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Norma Sierra-Romero

(Born February 24, 1956 in Mexico City, Mexico).  Biologist.  Achievements include Research on the use of soybean milk as a blocking agent for enzyme immunoassays, Research as a practical method to obtain hyperimmune serum from bovines to Leptospira sp. A Successful Method to obtain extracted proteins from outer membranes of Leptospira interrogans hardjo.; first isolation of the PRRS virus in Mexico.  Researcher, Cenid-Microbiologia, Mexico City, 1986; Teacher of biology, Colegio Israelita, Mexico City, 1980-86.  Event coordinator Mexican Swine Veterinarians, Mexico City, 1990-92; diagnostic advisor Mex. Porcine Council, Mexico City, 1992; technical advisor Mexican Swine Practitioners, Mexico City, 1992.  Education: student, Science Faculty, UNAM, Mexico City, 1975-83; MS, Science Faculty, UNAM, Mexico City, 1986.

Member: National Animal Health Council. Vol. Christian University Center., Mexico City, 1972-74.

Honor: Scholarship CONACYT, 1984-86; recipient Academy award Mexican Government, 1988.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


The two sons of Nathan Ryo Smith:


Alan Penniman Smith

(1840-1898).  Physician.  A prominent surgeon of Baltimore and was instrumental in obtaining from Johns Hopkins the gift to found the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He received his instruction in Baltimore under private tuition, and was graduated in 1861 at the school of medicine of the University of Maryland. In 1868 he was elected Adjunct Professor of Surgery in that university, and in 1875 Professor of Surgery. He served nearly all the hospitals of Baltimore as consulting physician or surgeon, and has performed the operation of lithotomy more than 100 times, successfully in every instance. He is one of the original trustees of Johns Hopkins University, and is a member of many foreign and American medical societies.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM http://www.famousamericans.net/nathansmith/


Berwick B. Smith, a demonstrator of anatomy at the University of Maryland from 1852 until his death in 1859.


William Tyler Smith *** Not in Gale

(1815-1873).  English obstetric physician.  Co-Founder and Second President of the Obstetric Society of London.

Links, http://www.people.virginia.edu/~wwc2r/vicstudies/wtsmith.html

Biography of William Tyler Smith (1815-1873)


Tyler Smith raised the position of obstetric medicine not only by his teaching, oral and written, but by the foundation of the Obstetrical Society of London. The subsequent success of the society was largely due to his contributions in memoirs and in debate and to his capacity for business. On the death of Edward Rigby (1804-1860) in December 1860, Smith was elected president.

Smith was associated with Thomas Wakley in the establishment of the New Equitable Life Assurance Society, one aim of which was to secure the just acknowledgement of the professional services of medical men. He was one of the first directors (cf. SPRIGGE, Life and Times of Thomas Wakley, 1897). When the society was united to the Briton Life Office, he became deputy chairman of the united companies. He conceived the idea of raising the ancient Cinque-port town of Seaford to the position of a sanitarium and fashionable watering-place. He purchased a considerable piece of land in and adjoining the town, and leased more from the corporation on the condition that he should secure it against the frequent submersion by the sea and build upon it. He was active in promoting the foundation and success of the convalescent hospital at Seaford, and was bailiff of the town in 1861, 1864, 1867, 1868, and 1870. He was magistrate for the town and port from 1861 to the time of his death at Richmond on Whit-Monday 1873. He was buried at Blatchington, near Seaford.

His chief works include numerous contributions to the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Obstetrical Transactions, and Pathological Transactions, as well as 1. Scrofula: its Nature, Causes, and Treatment, 8vo, 1844. 2. The Periodoscope, with its application to Obstetric Calculations in the Periodicities of the Sex, 8vo, 1848. 3. Treatment of Sterility by Removal of Obstructions of the Fallopian Tubes. 4. Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhoea, 8vo, London, 1855.


Per Johan Ulfendahl

(Born January 20, 1956 in Uppsala, Sweden).  Molecular biologist.  Manager Research & development, Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden, 1993; Manager Research & development dept., Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden, 1991-93; researcher, Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden, 1988-91.  Education: Ph.D., University Uppsala, 1988.

Member: European Federation Biotechnical (working party applied molecular genetics 1992).

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Patricia Susan Vary

(Born November 20, 1941 in Wewoka, Okla).  Biologist, educator, retired geneticist.  Achievements include patents for plasmidless B.megaterium, lac-B.megaterium travel, bicycling. Chair department of Biological science, North Illinois University, DeKalb, 1995-1999; full Professor biology, North Illinois University, DeKalb, 1990; Associate Professor, North Illinois University, DeKalb, 1983-1990; Assistant Professor, North Illinois University, DeKalb, 1977-1983. Consultant Abbott Labs., Chicago, 1988-95.  Education: BS, Texas Christian University, 1963; MS, Texas Christian University, 1965; MS, University Wis., 1967; Ph.D., Stanford University, 1969.

Member: AAAS, J. Indus. Microbiotech (editl. board), Society Industrial Microbiology, Genetic Society America, American Society Microbiology, Sigma Xi (local President 1992-93).  Board Member LWV, Wheaton, Illinois, 1969-85, President, 1976-77; advisory committee Wheaton School Board, 1980; violinst Cmty. Symphony; Member Women's Chorus; Member cunty Board Director Dem. Precinct Committee, DeKalb, 2000-present.

Honors: Fellow Fogarty International fellow, NIH, 1989-90; grantee, NSF, 1979-92, NIH, 1989-present.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Dr. Patricia S. Vary, Northern Illinois University, Department of Biological Sciences, DeKalb, Illinois, http://www.bios.niu.edu/vary/vary.html


 Ashok R. Venkitaraman

(Born October 14, 1960 in India).  Molecular cell biologist.  Professor cancer research, University of Cambridge, England, 1998; Research group leader, Medical Research Council Lab. Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England, 1991-1998; Research fellow, Medical Research Council Lab. Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England, 1988-91. Deputy Director Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, 2001. Education: MD, MBBS, The Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, 1984; MA, University of Cambridge, 1993; Ph.D., University College, London, 1988.

Member: Fellow New Hall University of Cambridge, National fellow Academy Medical Sciences, London, 2001.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Professor Ashok R. Venkitaraman, Department of Oncology and The Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, University of Cambridge, CR UK  http://www.esi-topics.com/fbp/2003/february03-AshokRVenkitaraman.html

Department of Oncology Ashok Venkitaraman, http://www.oncology.cam.ac.uk/Venkitaraman.html

Ashok Venkitaraman, MRC Cancer Cell Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, http://www.facultyof1000.com/about/biography/1439500150459016

"Ashok Venkitaraman learnt and practiced medicine in India, before completing his Ph.D. at University College London in 1988. After post-doctoral work at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge (1988-91), he remained there as a faculty member until 1998. He now holds a joint appointment in the University of Cambridge Department of Oncology and the MRC Cancer Cell Unit. In his current research, Ashok seeks to understand the role of chromosomal instability in cancer predisposition. His lab works on the physiologic mechanisms that maintain the integrity of chromosome structure and number, and on how their disruption can contribute to carcinogenesis."



Uwe Waller

(Born August 11, 1955 in Berlin, Germany).  Marine biologist, researcher, consultant.  Achievements include patents pending for control of aquaculture life support systems. Researcher, head experimental laboratory facilities, Institute fuer Meereskunde Kiel, 1992; researcher, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada, 1991.  Education: diploma, 1983; Dr.rer.nat., Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany, 1986.

Member: Lions Kiel Baltic.

Author: Tank Culture-Including Raceways and Recirculating Systems, 2000.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Contact: http://univis.uni-kiel.de/prg?show=info&key=628/persons/2004w:angegl/leibni/forsch_2/waller


Joumlrg Paul Weimer

(Born October 3, 1964 in Ibbenbüren, Germany).  Biologist.  Achievements include microdissection of fluorescence labeled chromosomes.  Scientist, Gynecology and Obstet. Clinic, Kiel, Germany, 1997; Science Assistant, Department of Human Genetics, Jenna, Germany, 1995-97; computer advisor, RAG Computer, Osnabrück, Germany, 1995; computer advisor, Pool-Data Techs., Mettingen, Germany, 1994.  Education: diploma, Wilhelms-University, Muenster, 1984; Dr.rer.nat., Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany, 2000.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Mildred Sze-ming Yang / (楊斯敏)

(Born January 21, 1950 in Hong Kong).  Biologist, educator.  Associate Professor, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1995; Lecturer, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1987-95; Research Associate, Medical College Virginia, Richmond, 1980-86; scientist, Sandoz Pharmaceutical Co., Basel, Switzerland, 1979-80.  Education: BA, University of California, San Diego, 1971; Ph.D., Washington University, St. Louis, 1979.

Member: AAAS, International Society for Study of Xenobiotics, Hong Kong Biochem. Society, Hong Kong Pharmacology Society.  Board of Directors Hong Kong Exam. Authority, 1990-93.

Contributor of articles to professional publications., including Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurochemistry, Environmental Technology; Contributor of chapter to book.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

DR. YANG, Mildred Sze Ming (楊斯敏), http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/~biol/msyang.htm





Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell

(1865-1940). English physician and missionary. Fitted out first hospital ship to serve fishermen in the North Sea; to Labrador (1892) for missionary work, and built hospitals, schools, industrial centers, cooperatives, etc.; supported mission with books, speaking tours, and (from 1912) through International Grenfell Association.

"Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865 - 1940)," http://grenfell.history.users.btopenworld.com/Biographies/wilfred_thomason_grenfell.htm

St. Anthony's CAP site tribute of Grenfell: http://www.nfcap.nf.ca/west/StAnthony/gren.htm

Glimpses, Issue #118: "Wilfred Grenfell: The Doctor Who Went Out into the Cold,"


The International Grenfell Association.  http://www.iga.nf.net/LakeMelville.html

Biography in Doctors Who Followed Christ: Thirty-Two Biographies of Eminent Physicians and Their Christian Faith,  by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.  ISBN 0-8254-2734-7.

But see http://christianbeliefs.org/biographies/grenfell.html.


Kenneth R. Miller.  Theistic evolutionist, claims to be a Christian (Catholic).

See http://www.icr.org/newsletters/btg/btgoct00.html

Kenneth R. Miller / Kenneth Raymond Miller

(Born 1948).  Biologist and educator. Brown University, Providence, RI, Professor of biology.

Kenneth R. Miller is a biologist who attempts to reconcile evolutionary theory with Christianity in Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground between God and Evolution. Published in 1999, the book draws on biology, astronomy, physics, and geology to oppose the ill-founded scientific arguments and illogic of some creationists "with persuasive reasons based on the known physical properties of the universe and the demonstrable effects of time on the radioactivity of various elements," according to a Publishers Weekly reviewer. Arguing also against an atheistic theory of creation, Miller discusses the reason why the scientific community is dismissive of any discussion involving religious belief as they relate to the creation of the universe.

Webpage: http://bms.brown.edu/faculty/m/kmiller/


Joseph Needham

Also known as: (Noel) Joseph (Terence Montgomery) Needham, Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham
(1900-1995)  After distinguishing himself as a research scientist with his work on the biochemistry of embryonic development, Joseph Needham embraced an entirely different career before his 40th year and devoted himself to a life-long, comprehensive study of the development of science in China. In 1954, he produced the first volume of his monumental Science and Civilisation in China, a seminal work that reached 17 volumes by the time of his death, and which is continued by a team of scholars at the Needham Institute at Cambridge. Needham was undoubtedly the greatest Western sinologist or student of China of the twentieth century.