Get a stripped-down copy of this page.
For the convenience of the reader we are putting together this summary item on TULIP which will also serve as a nexus point for further analyses. Note that this summary is NOT a full analysis and if you want to address, inquire of, or refute any of this material, you need to read the full articles linked below.
I plan a book on this subject in a few years, so consider these results under investigation. In the meantime I find it customary to describe myself as a "1.5 Point Calvinist".
- Total Depravity -- on this one we essentially agree with the standard Calvinist position that no person can come to Christ without assistance from God. We did not find that the doctrine was as clearly taught in many of the usual cites in favor, but it is nevertheless there.
- Unconditional Election -- a "neither side is right" finding on this one. In our view "election" takes place in terms of primary causality: God chooses to make this world and thereby also chooses all events that take place within it. Since it is not logically possible to create a world in which all will be saved, the very choice of God to make this world constitutes a sovereign choice for the elect and non-elect.
- Limited Atonement -- a somewhat positive finding for the doctrine of limited atonement. Actually it's more like a "it makes no difference" finding. One way or the other, the elect are ultimately the only ones for whom Christ's death will have been efficacious.
- Irresistible Grace -- a somewhat negative finding for the doctrine of irresistible grace. In light of our finding on unconditional election, and the parallel use of the terms "grace" and "faith" in the New Testament world, we conclude that God's grace may indeed be offered to all; but that can only be said with certainty in terms of the elect.
- Perseverance of the Saints -- a mildly negative finding for the doctrine of eternal security. We conclude that no sin will ever get you kicked out of the kingdom, but that a definitive rejection of the covenant will -- and it is very, very hard to do that.
A thoughtful Calvinist response discussed here.
A response by James White, replied to here.
For a reply to Steve Hays, please see my other website, tektoonics.com.
Here's a look at some of the key verses in this arena not covered in essays above.