Are Jesus and Krishna Parallels?

If you're looking for answers to a long list of parallels between Krishna and Jesus, it has already been done by two sources: Glenn Miller's material here and Mike Licona's essay here. The latter includes queries to Dr. Edwin Brywant, a leading expert in Hinduism. Our own essay is on certain artifacts used to claim that Krishna was crucified.

Skeptics sometimes cite Kersey Graves in Sixteen Crucified Saviors or Godfrey Higgins' Anacalypsis (which Graves drew from) in asserting that Krishna was a crucified deity. No such event occurred in the Gita or in any recognized Hindu scripture. Given the pronounced syncretic tendency of Hinduism, it is safe to assume that any odd tales of Krishna's being crucified arose only after the existence of Christian proselytism, in imitation of the Christian narrative. It is neither authentic to Hinduism nor is Hinduism the source of that portion of the Christian narrative. The same may be said for most of the purported nativity stories. In my opinion, both Higgins and Graves are highly unreliable sources and should be ignored.

Though the quote above comes from a Skeptic, many of that guild have not heard the news. One who has not says, "There is a tradition, though not to be found in the Hindoo scriptures, that Krishna, like Christ, was crucified...Indeed, there are found in India images of crucified gods, one of whom apparently is Krishna, important information not to be encountered in mainstream resources such as today's encyclopedias." For good reason. There is no evidence that these images were constructed prior to Christian influence in India...if these images exist at all.

As Martin Palmer shows in his book The Jesus Sutras, Christian missions reached India and China early -- around the 5th-7th centuries. Copycat theorists stand against every scrap of relevant scholarship -- not just "encyclopedias" -- when they try to make it so that the influence was the other way around. Let's run down some of the assertions, as this one from the classic critical author Doane.

In the earlier copies of Moor's Hindu Pantheon, is to be seen representations of Crishna (as Wittoba), with marks of holes in both feet, and in others, of holes in the hands. In Figures 4 and 5 of Plate 11 (Moor's work), the figures have nail-holes in both feet. Plate 6 has a round hole in the side; to his collar or shirt hangs the emblem of a heart (which we often see in pictures of Christ Jesus)...

The reference here is to a book written in the 1800s. Many of Moor's pictures were, as can be gathered from the introduction written by Moor to his book and from other parts of his book itself [such as the specific pages cited from the book in this essay], drawn by Mr. Haughton of the Royal Academy [1810 copy of Hindu Pantheon page ix], from original statues, pictures, and engravings on monuments.

The "Plates" are pages of drawings, many of them with more than one drawing on them. Separate drawings on each plate are called figures. Most of the Plates and figures on them discussed in this essay were drawn from statues.

If you want to know why Doane's work is not a standard textbook for courses in religion, this will tell you well enough. The figures 4 and 5 in Plate 11 are identified by Moor as Vishnu and Lacshmi; figures 6 and 7 feature Vishnu, not Krishna, as Wittoba, and there are marks in the right breast and left foot only which are identified as chakra, not nail-holes. Figure 6 (not Plate 6, which is presumably not what Doane meant) does, as noted, have a mark on the right breast (not "a round hole in the side") which looks something like an epaulet, not a round hole.

There is a heart-shape around the neck, but what "pictures of Christ Jesus" have this we'd like to know about (it may be Catholic "sacred heart" pictures, but that is a more modern invention, not an apostolic one). We'd also like to know the dates of these alleged pictures, and of the figures Moor offers, but you won't catch critics digging up any of that voluntarily. As it is, since Moor drew this material only a couple of hundred years ago, this would be a hard case for the copycatters -- even if they did have their interpretation on the ball.

(We do find that that earlier editions of the H.P. have details on some figures which in later editions are barely visible or completely gone, but this is more likely an accident from copying an older book than a conspiracy, since we're finding all of the old editions with no problem!)

Continuing from a critical view, one even tries to make out that other Hindu gods were crucified, citing Higgins as stating of other Plates in Moor's Hindu Pantheon:

In figures 4 and 5 of plate 11, the figures have nail-holes in both feet. Fig. 3 has a hole in one hand. Fig. 6 has on his side the mark of a foot, and a little lower in the side a round hole; to his collar or shirt hangs the ornament or emblem of a heart, which we generally see in Romish pictures of Christ; on his head he has an Yoni-Linga. In plate 12, and in plate 97, he has a round mark in the palm of the hand...

Figure 3 of Plate 11 has two figures on it, one of Narayan and the other of Lacshmi sitting on his lap. We see a round object or "hole" in the lower right hand of Narayan (who has four arms). This is obviously interpreted by Higgins as being a hole from crucifixion.

However this is not the only place where this type of circle can be found for we see one near the top (breast) of Narayan's chest, another forming his navel, and another near the top of Lacshmi's chest. But does this mean that these are holes from crucifixion? Thankfully Moor himself gives commentary on the images that he has drawn. Concerning this image Moor states: "The eyes of Narayan are rubies; rubies form his navel, and his and Lacshmi's breast ornaments; another is the Chank, and another for the Padma in his inferior right hand."

So according to Moor, the inferior right hand holds a ruby which represents a Padma (lotos flower), while the upper right hand holds the Chank, which is a shell. It seems there are two representations of a lotus flower in some of these drawings. One is on its stalk (which is sometimes weirdly represented) and other times it seems to be represented just as the head of the lotus without the stalk. The lotus represented in Narayan's lower right hand is apparenly of a lotus without its stalk held in the palm of the hand.

Plate 97 represents Ballaji, who is an incarnation of the god Vishnu, according to Moor. Ballaji has four arms. In the palm of one of his right hands, Ballaji has a small circular ring looking object, which is the "round mark" that Higgins spoke of. His three other hands each hold a single object. Moor says he holds a lotos and "the usual attributes of Vishnu" [H.P. page 416].

One object looks like the conchshell (Chank that was held in Narayan's hand in figure 3 of plate 11), another looks something like a club, while the other is a lotos. Vishnu (or Narayana, which is a title of Vishnu [O"Flaherty page 349] as well as the name of one of his incarnations Tagare, volume 11 of the Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology series page 2232) usually holds four objects, one for each of his hands [O'Flaherty page 202].

Krishna, who is also an incarnation of Vishnu, appeared after his birth in a four armed form holding these same objects [Prabhupada page 46]. They are the lotos flower, club, circular discus (Chakra) and conchshell (Chank) [O'Flaherty 202, Krishna Dharma "Mahabharata" page 558]. Given the fact that Ballaji is an incarnation of Vishnu, the small circular ring looking object in one of his right hands probably represents the circular discus weapon, while the other three hold a lotos flower, conchshell, and club.

Higgins gives us another one of his own interpretations of one of Moor's drawings:

Figure 1, plate 91, of Moor's Pantheon, is a Hanuman, but it is remarkable that it has a hole in one foot, a nail through the other, a round nail mark in the palm of one hand and on the knuckle of the other, and is ornamented with doves…

Hanuman was a supernatural monkey (Vanara) who played a prominent role in the great Indian epic Ramayana [Krishna Dharma "Ramayana" pages 452-454 and page 464]. Of this so called "round nail mark in the palm of one hand" that Higgins talks about, Moor states that it is "the lotos flower, pedma" which he says is found "in Hanuman's right hand" [H.P. page 323]. The object that Hanuman's hand is holding in the drawing does look like the flower, with the so called "round nail mark" forming the center of the lotos. The "nail" in one of his feet could represent something else, like a jewel on a toe ring, (although there is no ring attached to it. Maybe the person who drew this figure accidentally left it out?)

The "nail" looks like it may not even be on his foot but attached to the side of his big toe, like something apart of his sandals. Moor does not specify what it is and neither does he specify what the so called "hole in one foot" or the "round nail mark… on the knuckle of the other" hand is that Higgins speaks of. These two marks are on the statue, but it could just represent a sort of Indian decoration or something else other than a nail hole.

One conspiratorial critic tells us of mutilations of Moor's text by unnamed evil bishops, and claims about "earlier editions" of Moor which had it "right" are posited (via Higgins and Graves). At such points no response is required or deserved, other than that which might be of interest to the professional psychologist. Here's another example:

Unfortunately, Dr. Inman's Ancient Faiths, from which Doane took his quote, was another of those books apparently targeted for mutilation: The copy we used had the pertinent pages on the virgin birth and the crucifixion torn out of them. Furthermore, J.P. Lundy's Monumental Christianity was evidently stolen from the library we used; hence, another copy of this most enlightening book had to be obtained, from a library 1,000 miles away. Another of these missing books was Dean Henry Milman's History of Christianity, which contains similar information.

A check of OCLC (Online Catalog of the Library of Congress) shows each of these books available at over 120 libraries each across the country, including at conservative seminaries like Moody Bible Institute. That's not bad considering that all of them were published in the 1800s. It's hard to guess why this critic had to resort to a library 1000 miles off.

There is no call for paranoia here -- books, especially old books that might fetch a price on the black market regardless of content, are lost regularly from libraries.

More misuse of Moor as we proceed. First Moor is quoted:

The subject [of plate 98] is evidently the crucifixion; and, by the style of workmanship is clearly of European origin, as is proved also by its being in duplicate. These crucifixes have been introduced into India, I suppose, by Christian missionaries, and are, perhaps, used in Popish churches and societies...

The critic comments:

This quote is taken from the later edition of Moor's book (Simpson's), in which the plate had been removed. Moor thus claimed the image was originally Christian, introduced into India. As noted, Higgins--whom Rev. Taylor calls a "sincere Christian"--does not concur with Moor's conclusions that the crucifix image with the coronet is of "European origin." He argues thus:
This God is represented by Moor with a hole on the top of one foot just above the toes, where the nail of a person crucified might be supposed to be placed. And, in another print, he is represented exactly in the form of a Romish crucifix, but not fixed to a piece of wood, though the legs and feet are put together in the usual way, with a nail-hole in the latter. There appears to be a glory [halo] over it coming from above. Generally the glory shines from the figure. It has a pointed Parthian coronet instead of a crown of thorns. I apprehend this is totally unusual in our crucifixes….

Points in reply:

  • Here is what else Moor says of plate 98:
    A man, who was in the habit of bringing me Hindu deities, pictures, &c. once brought me two images exactly alike: one of them is engraved in plate 98. and the subject of it will be at once seen by the most transient glance. Affecting indifference, I enquired of my Pandit what Deva it was: he examined it attentively, and, after turning it about for some time, returned it to me, professing his ignorance of what Avatara it could immediately relate to; but supposed, by the hole in the foot, that it might be Wittoba, adding, that it was impossible to recollect the almost innumerable Avataras described in the Puranas. The subject of Plate 98. is evidently the crucifixion; and by the style of workmanship is clearly of European origin, as is also proved by its being a duplicate. These crucifixes have been introduced into India, I suppose, by Christian missionaries, and are, perhaps, used in Papish churches and societies: the two in question were obtained in the interior of the peninsula , but I could not learn exactly where: they are well executed, an in respect to anatomical accuracy and expression, superior to any I have seen of Hindu workmanship.- They are about the size of the picture; and although but small, I have chosen to give it in a plate by itself, lest the pious might be hurt at seeing such a subject mixed with the apparent grossness of Hindu idolatry. And, indeed, with this caution, I have some apprehension of giving offence; for showing my plates to a friend somwhat scrupulous on such points, he suggested the omission of Plate 98. But I do not, as I then remarked, see much difference in such a plate among mine, and in the same subject among paintings of heathen dieties seen without offence in the galleries of our collectors-even in the habitations of our most pious and gracious Sovereign.

    Graves says of the image that is found on plate 98: "There is a halo of glory over it, emanating from the heavens above, just as we have seen Jesus Christ represented in a work by a Christian writer, entitled "Quarles' Emblems," also in other Christian books." The fact that these two crucified figures are "exactly alike" is very important, because Moor attaches a footnote to this explaining why it is "clearly of European origin". The relevant portion of the footnote reads:

    "The reason why an exact duplicate of an image is a proof of its not being of Hindu workmanship will appear in the description of their mode of casting in metals. First, the artist makes in wax the exact model, in every particular, of his intended subject, be it what it may; whether an image of a deity, or the hinge of a box: over this he plasters a covering of fine clay well moistened and mixed, leaving an aperture at some part: when dry, it is put on a fire, with the hole downwards, and the wax of course melts out. The plaster is now a mould, and receives at the aperture the molten metal, giving it externally, when cool, the exact form of its own concavity; or in other words, of its original waxen model. The plaster, or crust, or mould, is now broken, and the image - say - is produced, sometimes sufficiently correct to require no after-polishing."

    Because the mould cannot be reused, a Hindu statue is obviously going to be different in some details to other statues of the same god. However, the critic notes that Higgins tries to put down Moor's opinion on this image, saying:

    …Mr. Moor endeavours to prove that this crucifix cannot be Hindoo, because there are duplicates of it from the same mould, and he contends that Hindoos can only make one cast from one mould, the mould being made of clay. But he ought to have deposited the two specimens where they could have been examined, to ascertain that they were duplicates. Besides, how does he know that the Hindoos, who are so ingenious, had not the very simple art of making casts from the brass figure, as well as clay moulds from the one of wax? Nothing could be more easy. The crucified body without the cross of wood reminds me that some of the ancient sects of heretics held Jesus to have been crucified in the clouds….

    Moor knows this fact about Hindu brass casting because he was a scholar in Hinduism who had obviously obtained great knowledge in these matters (see Feldman's introduction to the Garland reprint of the H.P.). It is possible that Hindus could have made a permanent cast, although from what can be gathered from Moor's comment, it must have been a rare or significantly less common practice among Hindus, since he doesn't mention it. The critic cites Lundy as stating of plate 98: "The drawing, the attitude, and the nail marks in hand and feet, indicate Christian origin; while the Parthian coronet of seven points, the absence of wood and the usual inscription, and the rays of glory above, would seem to point to some other than a Christian origin."

    The fact that the little INRI plate is missing from the statue and that there is no wooden cross on it does not really indicate that it is of something from a non-Christian source. There were Roman Catholic Christians and Churches in India during the time that the Hindu Pandit brought these two statues to Moor. Some Roman Catholic crucifixes are composed of a wooden cross with a metal statue of Jesus and the INRI plate attached to the wood above the Jesus figure. All that the image of plate 98 looks like is a metal statue of Jesus that has been removed from the wooden cross of a Catholic crucifix. In this case the INRI plate would be missing also.

    The Pandit probably brought two examples of this to Moor, of which Moor produced a drawing of one of them. He may have added for artistic merit "the rays of glory above" the drawing of the statue of the crucified man on plate 98. Someone could argue that the Pandit did not bring to Moor a statue of Jesus that had been removed from a Catholic crucifix, but rather a flat metal plate which depicted a crucified man on it with the rays of light over the figure of the man. However, Moor does not specifically say that this is the case and we cannot know for sure if the Hindu Pandit brought the images to Moor in this form.

  • Whoever Simpson was and whatever he did, the copy of Moor we have has plate 98 in it -- and it is clearly of a crucified Jesus, or European design. It does not take an art major to compare the figure to Moor's other plates showing Krishna and other Hindu gods to see an enormous difference in style.

    (Update: Concerning the identity of Simpson, the introduction to the H.P. by Burton Feldman of the 1984 reprint says: "The Hindu Pantheon was reprinted in 1864 (in Madras), with many notes added by the editor (Rev. W.O. Simpson) referring to new scholarship and also emphasizing a Christian viewpoint; Simpson omitted some of Moor's plates and added new ones.")

  • Robert Taylor calling Godfrey Higgins a "sincere Christian" is like Genghis Khan calling Attila the Hun "a nice guy"!
  • Higgins' description of the plate is accurate as far as it goes, though the "Parthian coronet" looks more like a scribble of a more complex work than in does a coronet. In any event the figure looks just like a crucified Jesus one would find in any Catholic or Orthodox church.

    I also find no justification in Moor's pictures for Higgins' further claim, "All the Avatars or incarnations of Vishnu are painted with Ethiopian or Parthian coronets. Now, in Moor's Pantheon, the Avatar of Wittoba is thus painted..." Maybe the censors wiped it all out. Wild speculations by Lundy about it being, i.e., "Plato's Second God who impressed himself on the universe in the form of the cross," are merely wild speculations given with no documentation whatsoever.

    There is indeed a less important incarantion of Vishnu named Wittoba. Moor has provided us with an image of this incarnation, and Higgins, and Graves and Doane try to make out that he was a crucified god. Doane made this statement about Moor's drawing of Wittoba:

    In the earlier copies of Moor's Hindu Pantheon, is to be seen representations of Crishna (as Wittoba), with marks of holes in both feet, and in others, of holes in the hands. In Figures 4 and 5 of Plate 11 (Moor's work), the figures have nail-holes in both feet. Plate 6 has a round hole in the side; to his collar or shirt hangs the emblem of a heart (which we often see in pictures of Christ Jesus)…

    Figures 4 and 5 of Plate 11 do not represent Wittoba, but Ballaji and Lakshmi, his spouse. Ballaji is another incarnation (Avatara) of Vishnu as I mentioned already. One of the copies of the original 1810 edition of the Hindu Pantheon that I consulted in the University of Pennsylvania Rare Book and Manuscript Library does indeed represent them with circles on their feet, just like the circles on one of Hanuman's feet and on one of his hand knuckles in Plate 91, figure 1. However, if these are holes from nail marks or are just some sort of Indian decoration, I don't know. The Hindu Pandit believed that the image drawn on Plate 98 was of Wittoba because he has a hole in one of his feet, however, as I have shown above, he was probably mistaken.

    The mark of the foot on Wittoba's right breast is explained in a footnote by Moor [H.P. pages 418 and 419]. According to his account, which he obtained from a Brahman, a divine being named Bhrigu went out to test Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma to see which was the greatest of them. After insulting Brahma and Shiva, he went to see Vishnu who was asleep at the time. Bhrigu kicked Vishnu on one of his breasts and Vishnu awoke, showing concern that Bhrigu may have hurt his foot when he kicked him on the breast. Bhrigu now believed that Vishnu was the greatest of the gods.

    Thus Moor states: "Vishnu, in the character of Wittoba, retains indelibly the impression of Bhrigu's foot; but why it is retained particularly by Wittoba I find no mention of. Moor says that he had in posession many images of Wittoba, but it appears that he only provides us with a drawing of one of them and that being figure 6 of plate 11. The critic quotes Higgins as stating:

    Long after the above was written, I accidentally looked into Moor's Pantheon, at the British Museum, where it appears that the copy is an earlier impression than the former which I had consulted: and I discovered something which Mr. Moor has apparently not dared to tell us, viz. that in several of the icons of Wittoba, there are marks of holes in both feet, and in others, of holes in the hands. In the first copy which I consulted, the marks are very faint, so as to be scarcely visible.

    The critic also quotes Rev. Lundy as stating:

    Now this Wittoba or incarnation of Vishnu is Krishna... And so...the hole in the foot must refer to the fatal shot of the hunter's arrow as Krishna was meditating in the forest, and whom he forgave; but the hands also have holes, and these must refer to the crucifixion of Krishna, as spoken of above.

    The only image that Moor provides us of Wittoba is fig 6 of plate 11, for he mentions no other [H.P. pages 416-421]. In the version of the Hindu Pantheon that I looked at, which was itself copied in or around the year 1810, there are no holes at all in Wittoba's hands, and there is only one foot with a hole on it. Moor states that he left out the account of the hole in Wittoba's foot. Lundy had used Moor's book and he is apparently referring to the image of Wittoba that Moor provides us with. In the Hindu scriptures, such as the famuous and extrememly important Bhagavata Purana [Skandha 11 chapters 30 and 31, Tagare volume 11 pages 2112-2122 of the Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series] and the Mahabharata [Krishna Dharma "Mahabharata" page 899], Krishna is hit in the foot with an arrow by a hunter at a distance who had thought that Krishna was a deer or some animal. Krishna was meditating at the time he was shot.

    Shortly after this Krishna departs from the earth. Edwyn Bryant, an expert of Hinduism at Rutgers University in New Jersey, stated to Mike Licona that: "Vithoba was a form of Krishna worshipped in the state of Maharashtra." (see reference to Licona's article in the works cited and consulted list below). Vithoba, according to Licona's correspondence with Edwyn Bryant, is another name for Wittoba. Lundy appears to be right in his description of the hole in Wittoba's foot.

    The critic quotes another detail about Wittoba from Higgins, who stated:

    Mr. Moor describes an Avatar called Wittoba, who has his foot pierced….This incarnation of Vishnu or CRISTNA is called Wittoba or Ballaji. He has a splendid temple erected to him at Punderpoor. Little respecting this incarnation is known. A story of him is detailed by Mr. Moor, which he observes reminds him of the doctrine of turning the unsmote cheek to an assailant.

    Moor's statements show that Wittoba and Ballaji are two different incarnations of Vishnu, not two different names for one and the same incarnation [H.P. pages 415-416]. Concerning Higgins's statement about Wittoba that "little respecting this incarnation is known", Moor contradicts him by saying of Wittoba "This was one of many subordinate incarnations of Vishnu. It took place at Panderpur, a very respectable town about eighty miles to the south east of Poona.

    The Brahmans speak of it as an event of not very ancient date; but say that it is recorded, perhaps prophetically, in the Maha Bhagavata." [H.P. page 416] The Mahabhagavata is a minor Purana (not to be confused with the important Bhagavata Purana) since it is not listed among the names of the group of extrememly important Puranas (which are eighteen in number) [O'Flaherty pages 16-18, and Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, articles titled "Puranas" and "Bhagavata Purana"]

    So, according to the Brahmans who Moor spoke to on Wittoba, the details about Wittoba are to be found in the Mahabhagavata Purana. The story of Vishnu showing concern for Bhrigu's foot, as related above, in the words of Moor gives "some resemblance to the advice given by superior authority, of turning the unsmote cheek to the assailant." [H.P. page 419 in the footnote]

    Before this essay is concluded, some more drawings from Edward Moor's Hindu Pantheon need to be examined. Figure 1 of Plate 6 is a drawing of a statue of Vishnu. In the palm of one of his four hands there is a four sided diamond shaped marking with a hole in the center. Figure 2 of Plate 6 depicts Varaha (an incarnation of Vishnu) and his wife Varahi (Lacshmi). In one of Varaha's hands there is also a four sided diamond shaped object with a hole in the center. Could these represent the holes from a crucifixion? Only two of Varaha's hands are visible. Moor gives us a description of this figure where he explains of Varaha that "The Chank and Chakra are in two of his four hands."[H.P. 25] I have already explained what these objects are, but I will repeat that the Chakra is the discus weapon that is held by some of the gods in the drawings of Moor's book.

    Moor's description is somewhat confusing here since he object in one of Varaha's hands looks a lot like the Chakra (and not the Chank) in figure three of plate 6, while the other object is the diamond shaped one with the hole in the center. Moor may have made a mistake herebut this is doubtful. Or maybe Moor was just mistaken and wasn't sure what the diamond shaped object really was. The object in his upper right hand is probably the chank, but what the diamond shaped object is in his lower right hand may not be for sure unless the following interpretation is correct. Perhaps he really should have said that Varaha was holding two Chakra's.

    There is another image in Moor's book, but this time of the Buddha, figure 5 of Plate 70, where he holds a four sided diamond shaped (or square) object in the palm of his hand with a hole in the center. Moor explains that this represents a wheel, but typically represents the Chakra. Another plate included in this description is plate 69 which depicts Surya Buddha with a four sided diamond shaped object with two lines through it shaped like an X but with no hole in the center. There must exist different representations of the Chakra - one in which it is in a circular discus shape, while the other is a four sided diamond shape. From this we can conclude that the objects held in the hands of Vishnu and Varaha represent the Chakra in a four sided diamond shaped form, somewhat different from its usual circular discus form.

Finally, it should be duly noted that there is absolutely no evidence in this figure in Plate 98, or any figure noted by Moor, for "a crucified Krishna, prior to Christianity" -- the figure is clearly Jesus, and it was found by Moor in the 1800s. How will a critic strain to date this back another 1800 years or more?

-JPH with DB


Works consulted and cited:

  • 1984 Garland Publishing Inc. reprint of the Hindu Pantheon of Edward Moor and with an introduction by Burton Feldman. This is apart of "A Garland Series: Myth & Romanticism: A Collection of the Major Mythographic Sources used by the English Romantic Poets". All quotes from Moor are from this edition.
  • 1810 edition of the Hindu Pantheon by Edward Moor as found in the University of Pennsylvania Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
  • Quotes from Higgins, Doane, and Lundy located on this page are from Acharya S's chapter titled "Krishna Crucified?" which will appear in her next book "Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled" located online here: http://truthbeknown.com/kcrucified.htm That chapter is copyrighted by Acharya S 2001. A little bit of Acharya's own viewpoints have been paraphrased from this chapter in this essay.
  • "A Refutation of Acharya S's book, The Christ Conspiracy." By Mike Licona. This essay is located online on Licona's website here. To get to the essay, click on the Resources link which will provide you with a booklist link and an Article link. Click on the Article link and you will find the essay refuting Acharya's book The Christ Conspiracy.
  • Mabharata: The Greatest Spiritual Epic of All Time" by Krishna Dharma. Torchlight Publishing, Los Angeles and Delhi, 1999.
  • Ramayana: India's Immortal Tale Of Adventure, Love, and Wisdom." By Krishna Dharma. Torchlight Publishing, Inc. Copyright 2000 by Krishna Dharma.
  • "Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook Translated from the Sanskrit" by Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty. Penguin Books, copyright Wendy Doniger O'Flahery 1975.
  • Articles titled "Puranas" and "Bhagavata Purana". Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2001. Copyright 1993-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This refers to the CD ROM version with online updates available.
  • "KRSNA: The Supreme Personality of Godhead" by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (The Founder-Acarya of the international Society for Krishna Consciousness) Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International copyright 1996. This work is in two volumes.
  • The "Bhagavata Purana" Translated into English by Dr. Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare and edited by Prof. J.L. Shastri. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi (copyright) 1976. Private Limited. This edition is a complete translation of this extrememly important and popular Hindu scripture. It is in five volumes and comprises volumes 7-11 of The Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology series. G.V. Tagare in his introduction to the Bhagavata Purana in his first volume of his translation to this Hindu scripture, gives us this quote from Panikkar's book "A Survey of Indian History" on the popularity of the Bhagavata Purana, that this scripture is:
    "not only a magnificent epic singing the great deeds of Krishna, but a scripture of the people to which the entire Hindu people from the Himalayas to the Vindhya and from Punjab to Bengal, turn for spiritual sustenance, a code of ethics constantly on the lips of all, from princes to peasants and a truly fine expression of poetic genius." ( Panikkar "A Survey of Indian History" page 174. taken from volume 7 of the Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, pages xxxvii-xxxviii.)