This section is about charges that the Biblical stories were "borrowed" from other sources and are therefore fictional.
Analysis of general principles used by the "borrowing" thesis.
Some notes on alleged parallels between Christianity and pagan religions -- an introductory commentary by a classical scholar writing for us as "Justin Martyr"
On Napoleon as Myth translated by "Justin Martyr"
The More Things Change -- a humourous look at how we're just having to reiterate things over the centuries
Glenn Miller's general essay refuting the pagan-copycat thesis
Creation Ministries International on Indian creation myths
Old Testament "Borrowing"
Figures claimed to be sources for the Old Testament. Named entities in alphabetical order.
Akhenaten -- Did the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten influence Jewish monotheism?
Sargon -- Did the story of this Assyrian king influence the story of Moses?
Sinuhe -- Did the story of this Egyptian hero influence the Exodus account?
Is the Biblical Flood story borrowed from pagan accounts? -- from Glenn Miller's Christian Thinktank.
Did NT Biblical writers "rip off" stories from the Old Testament? -- from Glenn Miller's Christian Thinktank. Also see our article on Randel Helms (right column).
Copycat Savior Figures
Figures claimed to be sources for the life of Jesus. Named entities in alphabetical order.
Adonis -- The Greek deity: A source for the life of Jesus?
Alexander of Abonuteichos -- A charismatic figure who started a quasi-religious movement; this is more of a claim of a social parallel.
Apollonius of Tyana -- Pagan performer of miracles and traveller.
Attis -- Phrygian and later Greco-Roman demigod. Also discusses the ritual of the "tauribolium".
Baal -- Ancient Near Eastern deity.
Balder -- Norse deity. Also discusses Frey.
Beddru of Japan -- As it happens -- a non-existent entity.
Chu Chulainn -- Celtic hero.
Crite -- As far as I can find, another non-existent figure.
Dazhdbog -- Russian heroic figure.
Deva Tat -- Heroic figure from Siam.
Dionysus -- Greek god of wine.
Hesus -- Deity associated with druids.
Horus -- Egyptian deity. Also covers Osiris.
Mithra -- Persian deity.
Osiris -- Egyptian deity.
Prometheus -- Greek demigod.
Quetzalcoatl -- Mesoamerican deity.
Salivahana -- Indian teacher.
Serapis -- Mediterranean deity.
Tammuz -- Sumerian shepherd-god.
Zamloxis -- Thracian hero.
Zoar -- Unknown figure.
Zoroaster -- Religious founder.
Essays and book reviews on persons who promote "copycat" theories.
Acharya S -- Preserves the work of 19th century freethinkers.
Atwill, Joseph -- author of Caesar's Messiah.
ben-Jochanon, Yosef -- from the school that says it was all borrowed from Africa.
Campbell, Joseph -- General proponent of copying of ideas via Jungian archaetypes.
Freke, Timothy and Peter Gandy -- review of The Jesus Mysteries
Graham, Lloyd M. -- author of Deceptions and Myths of the Bible
Greenberg, Gary -- author of 101 Myths of the Bible
Harpur, Tom -- author of The Pagan Christ
Helms, Randel --Author of Gospel Fictions, which proposes that the NT borrowed content from the OT.
Higgins, Godfrey -- early proponent of the copycat thesis.
Kalopoulus, Michael -- review of Biblical Religion: The Great Lie
MacDonald, Dennis -- Author of The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark
Massey, Gerald -- another early proponent.
Price, Robert -- Review of Deconstructing Jesus.
Lord Raglan by "Justin Martyr" -- Raglan was an early proponent of the "copycat" thesis.
Thompson, Thomas -- review of The Messiah Myth
Recommended Books -- a bibliography of books on the historical Jesus
Deeper Waters interview with Joe Mulvilhill